The calculations of the C-400 air defense system participate in the second stage of the Keys of the Sky contest held in Kaliningrad, March 2017.
Against the background of the constant danger posed by continuously improving long-range systems, companies specializing in ground-based air defense systems are developing new technologies in order to stay afloat in this rapidly developing segment of the defense industry.
The global industry of ground-based air defense systems seeks to improve weapons systems that are mass-produced or are in the final stages of development, so that they can destroy air targets at long distances. At the same time, its efforts are aimed at countering the growing threat posed by the proliferation of ballistic missiles of various classes.
The US Army has two effective long-range complexes in its arsenal of ground-based anti-aircraft defense: the Patriot anti-aircraft missile system (SAM) and the Mobile High-Altitude Area Defense (THAAD (Terminal High Altitude Area Defense) anti-missile system). The complex MIM-104 Patriot co-production of Raytheon and Lockheed Martin was adopted by the US Army in 1982 year. On the supply of the US Army are 16 anti-aircraft divisions, each from 4 to 6 batteries. Each anti-aircraft battery, in turn, includes 4-8 launchers with four missiles each.
Something old, but something new
In the US Army, along with the less advanced version of the MIM-10D PAC-2, the latest version of the MIM-104F PAC-3 complex is deployed, which uses upgraded missiles with the symbols GEM / C (use on cruise missiles) and GEM / T (on tactical ballistic missiles ). The MIM-104 missile is aimed at a target using radio command and control from the ground using the “tracking through onboard missile equipment” method (TVM). Track-Via-Missile. A flying missile receives the ground radar signal reflected from the target and retransmits it via a one-way communication channel to the command post. Since an in-flight rocket is always closer to the target than the radar accompanying the target, the signal reflected from the target is received by the rocket more efficiently, which provides greater accuracy and more effective counteraction to interference. Thus, the emitter of the radar guidance system operates at two receiving stations: the receiver of the radar itself and the receiver of the rocket. The control computer compares the data received from the ground-based radar and from the rocket itself, and generates corrections to the trajectory, directing the rocket at the target.
The missiles of the new PAC-3 complex also use the Ka-homing head in order to implement the “hit-to-kill” mode, that is, to destroy the ballistic target by directly hitting an anti-aircraft guided missile with a kinetic warhead. Up to 16 complexes, PAC-3 can be charged into the installation. Currently, the systems are being upgraded under the MSE (Missile Segment Enhancement) program by obtaining a new missile with an increased range, designed to combat tactical ballistic missiles at ranges up to 30 km against 20 km from the original version.
MSE upgraded complexes were first tested in 2008 year. As part of this modernization, the existing guidance system of the original PAC-3 complex was combined with a more powerful rocket engine with greater traction force and larger stabilizers for better maneuverability in order to combat faster and more intelligent ballistic and cruise missiles. In April, 2014, the US Department of Defense placed an order worth 611 million dollars for the production of PAC-3 MSE missiles, and the first of them was received in October, 2015. The initial combat readiness of the upgraded complexes was announced in August 2016.
No further upgrades or replacements are planned for the foreseeable future. In 2013, the United States closed the project on the advanced MEADS (Medium Extended Air Defense System) mobile air defense system - the next generation ground-based air defense system developed by the international consortium of Lockheed Martin and MBDA.
The promising mobile anti-aircraft missile system MEADS is designed for the defense of groups of troops and important objects from operational-tactical ballistic missiles with a range of up to 1000 km, cruise missiles, aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles of the enemy
Lockheed Martin's THAAD is another anti-aircraft missile system deployed by the US Army, but adapted for high-altitude over-atmospheric interception of medium-range missiles. The complex, which has been in service since 2008, can destroy ballistic missiles in the final segment of the trajectory at a distance of up to 200 km and an altitude of 150 km due to the use of a rocket with an infrared homing head and a kinetic warhead flying at a speed above 8 Mach numbers.
The US Army plans to deploy from six to eight THAAD batteries, each with six launchers, two mobile operations centers, and AN / TPY-2 radar. An improved version is currently being developed, which is designated THAAD-ER. In addition to increasing the range, the ability of the complex to counteract massed attacks, including the attack of several simultaneously launched missiles, will increase.
The UAE became the first foreign customers for this system, the personnel of this country was trained in 2015-2016 in Fort Bliss. However, neither the number of procured systems, nor the details of the deliveries were announced. Other countries that have shown great interest in acquiring the THAAD complex include Oman and Saudi Arabia. However, no contracts with them have been signed yet.
THAAD has been much discussed in the media, there has been a long debate about battery deployment in South Korea. Initially, Seoul studied the procurement of these complexes, but ultimately rejected this plan in favor of developing an anti-missile system with similar characteristics that its own defense industry will take on. Meanwhile, in July 2016, South Korea and the United States reached an agreement on deploying a THAAD battery on Korean soil to contain and protect against the growing threats of North Korean nuclear forces. At the same time, the South Korean Ministry of Defense stated that the United States should pay for the ultra-precise system of the over-atmospheric interception of THAAD missiles. Components of the complex arrived in the country in March 2017.
Most NATO member countries in Europe have not paid much attention to the development of ground-based air defense since the end of the Cold War. However, the Crimean events of 2014 showed that calm times have passed. The situation escalated due to the rapid increase in Russian military power, including the rise of tactical aviation Russian Air Force and the adoption of the 9K720 Iskander missile systems (NATO designation SS-26 Stone) with new-generation cruise and quasi-ballistic missiles.
Huge efforts have been made by the Israeli military and industry to develop multi-level protection against a wide range of air threats, including tactical ballistic missiles and artillery shells. To this end, several types of anti-aircraft missile systems were deployed.
While most anti-aircraft missile systems are used against aircraft and UAVs, these systems are designed primarily to combat a wide range of unguided and guided missiles, such as ballistic missiles deployed by Iran, Hezbollah’s rocket arsenal and Qassam missiles used by Hamas.
Due to the deployment of modern air defense missile systems, potential adversaries should shoot several missiles at once in the hope that some of the missiles will be able to hit their targets with such a massive strike. Even one primitive missile that broke through anti-missile defense, when equipped with a warhead with a chemical or biological filling, may be enough to cause significant damage.
The Israeli Air Defense Command announced in January 2017 that the anti-ballistic missile Arrow 3 was officially adopted. In collaboration with Boeing, IAI has been developing it since 2008. This rocket is based on the Arrow system deployed in 2000. Its main task is the neutralization of ballistic missiles at altitudes up to 100 km at the expense of a kinetic defeat warhead.
The range is not disclosed, the available information is limited by the fact that the range of the Arrow 3 is significantly longer than its predecessor, the Arrow 2, which has an interception range from 90 to 150 km.
The Arrow 3 missile defense complex is deployed in the Tal Shahar area and consists of four launchers with six missiles each. Information on the missile launch position was made public in 2013, when the US Department of Defense launched an open tender for its construction. Since 2008, Americans have paid for its construction, investing 595 millions of dollars in it.
The next one in the Israeli missile defense system registry is the "David's Slip", designed to combat ballistic missiles, including new-generation missiles, for example, the Russian Iskander missiles. Its development began in 2009 by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems in collaboration with Raytheon.
The “David’s Crash” system is designed to intercept short-range and medium-range unguided rockets launched by the Hamas group from the Gaza Strip and Hezbollah fighters from southern Lebanon. Announced its ability to hit targets at a distance of 300 km through the use of a two-stage rocket under the designation Stunner. The system uses a three-axis radar with an active phased antenna array of the millimeter-wave range, while guidance in the final part of the trajectory is provided by a television / thermal imaging homing head.
The system was supposed to be deployed in the 2015 year, but there was a two-year delay due to budget constraints and technical problems. According to the head of the Israeli Air Forces Air Defense Directorate, Zvik Khaimovich, in April 2017, she was officially put on combat duty at the Air Force base in Hazor.
The Iron Dome tactical missile defense system, jointly developed by Rafael and IAI, is on alert with 2011 of the year. It is used to combat short-range missiles and artillery shells from 4 to 70 km.
The possibilities of Iron Dome have been widely advertised based on the results of operational use. According to the Israeli Ministry of Defense, deployed batteries were able to destroy over 90% of all the missiles fired at Israel from the Gaza Strip. At the same time, Rafael and IAI are working on an improved version with enhanced capabilities to combat aircraft and cruise missiles.
IAI also developed the Barak 8 rocket, capable of fighting air missiles at distances up to 90 km and altitudes up to 16 km. It was originally intended for basing on ships, but in 2012, the ground version was sold to Azerbaijan.
Arrow 2 PRO developed by IAI and Boeing is being replaced by more advanced Arrow 3.
The MEADS complex was seen as a replacement for the Patriot complex. Its development, which began in 2001, was carried out by Lockheed Martin and MBDA with joint funding from the United States, Germany and Italy. In 2004, the project entered a demonstration phase, with the share of US funding increasing.
The MEADS complex, which uses the existing PAC-3 MSE missiles, is more mobile than the original Patriot. The radar complex provides a circular coverage, and the missiles are launched almost from a vertical position. This significantly increases the range, which allows the MEADS battery to have a coverage area 8 times larger than the Patriot complex.
Each battery consists of two combat control points and two multifunctional fire control radars, one airborne surveillance radar, and six launchers (each with 12 missiles). The open architecture allows MEADS to integrate other sensors and missiles to protect its troops and key systems to protect against ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, UAVs and manned aircraft. In accordance with the concept of "connected and fight" means of detection, control and combat support of the system interact with each other as nodes of a single network. Due to the capabilities of the command post, the commander of the complex can quickly connect or disconnect such nodes depending on the combat situation without shutting down the entire system, providing quick maneuver and concentration of combat capabilities in threatened areas.
The first tests of the MEADS complex were conducted at 2011 at the White Sands test site in the USA. According to Lockheed Martin, during the main test in November 2011, the first flight test of the MEADS system as part of the PAC-3 MSE interceptor missile, a lightweight launcher and a command and control center was successfully carried out. During the test, a rocket was launched to intercept a target that attacks in the rear half-space. After completing the task, the interceptor missile self-destructed.
Its development, however, was very complicated by the US withdrawal from the program in 2013, when it became clear that the replacement of the Patriot air defense system by the US Army would not be funded. There was a question about the actual completion of the development of the MEADS complex. In 2015, Germany officially announced that the military would buy MEADS to replace the Patriot. The cost of the future agreement was estimated at about 4 billion euros, which made it one of the most expensive acquisitions of the German military, although a firm contract was never signed.
In March 2017, the German Ministry of Defense announced that the contract would not be signed before the general elections scheduled for this autumn. Italy has a long-standing need for at least one MEADS battery, but has not yet signed a single contract.
Problems with the development and financing of the MEADS complex led to the fact that the SAMP / T (Surface-to-Air Missile Platform / Terrain) remained the only land-based medium-range anti-aircraft missile system deployed in Europe. The complex, developed by the concern Eurosam (a joint venture of MBDA and Thales), is armed with the Aster 30 rocket, originally developed under the shipboard air defense system. The full-scale development of the Aster 30 rocket and the SAMP / T complex began in the 1990 year, qualification tests were completed in the 2006 year, and the first ballistic target was intercepted in October of the 2010 year.
Possessing high mobility, SAMP / T anti-aircraft missile system incorporates Arabel multifunctional three-coordinate radar. It can intercept air targets at a distance of 100 km and altitudes of 20 km. When fighting tactical ballistic missiles, its range is reduced to 35 km. A typical SAMP / T battery includes a combat control vehicle, one Arabel multifunctional radar, and up to six self-propelled vertical-launch launchers with launchers on 8 combat missiles.
The SAMP / T medium range anti-aircraft missile system was developed by Eurosam, a joint venture of MBDA and Thales
The 15 complexes were commissioned by France in the 2015 year, the example of which was also followed by Italy. Singapore is the third customer of the SAMP / T, the sale of the complex to this country was announced in 2013 year, but accurate information on the status of supplies has not been reported.
The most interesting events in the field of ground defense in Europe in recent years have been associated with the Polish Wisla program, which involves the purchase of eight anti-missile / air defense batteries.
In 2014, Poland received four different proposals for the air defense system, including the Patriot, the Israeli Prasha David, SAMP / T complex and an invitation to join the MEADS program. However, the Polish Ministry of Defense made a bet on accelerated deliveries and a proven track record, and therefore the proposals for David's Sling and the European MEADS were rejected. In April, 2015, Poland chose the Patriot air defense system, but, however, the United States imposed a ban on the sale of this complex to Poland (the United States finances the main share of the development of David's Trout and has the right to make such a decision). The proposal for the Patriot PAC-3 was rejected, and in its place Poland requested a new improved version under the designation Patriot POL, equipped with a circular radar and new operational management and communication systems along with other improvements.
This delayed the signing of the contract, but at the end of March 2017, the Polish Minister of Defense, Anthony Matserevich, announced that the contract on the Vistula would be signed before the end of the year, and the first deliveries would be held in 2019. The program worth 7,1 billion dollars provides for the purchase of 8 complexes. The first complex will not include the radar of the circular review of the new generation, but it will be included in its composition at a later stage.
The Polish Patriot complex will be equipped with SkyCeptor rockets, a variant of the Stunner rocket used in the Israeli Prrash David complex. Raytheon has worked with Rafael to develop this rocket; Under the plan 60% Stunner for the "Sling of David" should be made in the United States. And in April, there were reports that Israel had allowed Rafael to negotiate with Poland on the supply of Stunner missiles. Israel hopes that Rafael will account for about one billion dollars of the total Polish order.
The biggest obstacle for Polish ambitions in the implementation of this large program is likely to be the cost of the unified combat control system for air defense and missile defense systems IBCS (Integrated Air Defense and Missile Defense Command Command), which is still being developed in the USA and is not yet ready for production. The IBCS tests took place in April 2016.
US Army Patriot PAC-3 Complexes Undergo Another Modernization Cycle under the Missile Segment Enhancement Program
Unlike Europe, Russia has invested huge amounts of money into an air defense improvement program, starting the mass deployment of new ground and air defense assets in 2010.
Its air defense system consists of several zones, as it is now fashionable to say “access restriction / blocking” with numerous “belts” that will be difficult to overcome by attack aircraft of the United States and its allies. Enhanced "defensive belts" consist of long-range air defense systems and modern early warning radars integrated through operational control systems at the regimental and divisional levels.
Since ground-based air defense systems are usually cheaper than a fighter, they are generally more accessible. There is a whole set of modern long-range air defense systems that can create layered defense in order to make access to restricted areas even more difficult.
Concern VKO "Almaz-Antey" is a monopoly manufacturer of air defense systems and weapons in Russia. Its flagship product is the Triumph C-400 mobile complex (NATO designation SA-21 Growler), developed at the end of 90-X-beginning of 2000-s. It was officially adopted by the Russian Aerospace Forces in April 2007.
The C-400 complex can launch several types of missiles that are loaded into launchers carried on trailers by the BAZ-64022 or MAZ-543M tractors. This allows the unit commander to choose the most appropriate type of missile, depending on the target captured by the regimental command and control unit. Discloses five indices SAMs that can trigger the S-400: SAMs 48N6E, 48N6E2, 48N6E3 existing S-and C-300PMU1 300PMU2 and 9M96E missiles and rocket 9M96E2 and ultra 40N6E range. The 9M96 rocket is equipped with an active radar GPS and comes in two sub-options. The first sub-variant 9M96E has a range of 40 km, while 9M96E2 has a range of 120 km. The height reach is up to 20km for 9M96E and 30 km for 9M96E2. The maneuverability of the M96 series missiles in the final segment of the trajectory is very high, which makes it possible to achieve a direct hit into the warhead compartment of the target, and this is a very significant factor when firing at tactical ballistic missiles.
Long acting, long life
The 40H6E anti-aircraft guided ultra-long-range missile passed acceptance tests in the 2015 year. The range of an ultra-long-range missile is 380 km, it is designed to hit modern manned and unmanned aerial assault vehicles, including WTO and their vehicles, DRLO aircraft, hypersonic missiles, tactical and operational-tactical ballistic missiles of medium range, flying at speeds up to 4800 m / with.
The first full-scale tests of the ultra-long-range 40H6Е were reportedly successfully conducted in June 2014 at the Kapustin Yar military range in the Astrakhan region. The rocket with a maximum range of 380 km has a dual-mode homing head (GOS), operating in active and semi-active radar homing modes.
Model of the 91H6E detection radar complex. С-400 ЗРК
These characteristics make it possible to carry out an independent search for targets after launching from a GOS operating in active radar targeting mode. When capturing targets at extremely long ranges, preliminary commands are received from the regimental control center. Missiles use inertial guidance at the initial and middle sections of the trajectory after capturing the GOS, since the own multi-functional radar 92H6 is not able to track the target and provide reliable command guidance after launch.
40R6 base composition (C-400) system: 30K6E management tools as part of command and control points on the basis of 55K6E car Ural-5323 and radar complex 91N6E (panoramic radar interference protection, mounted on MZKT-7930); up to 6 anti-aircraft missile systems 98ЖX6Е, maximum 10 targets with guided 20 missiles on them; 48NUMXE6E48XXUMM6XXXUMXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX X X X X X X NUMXXX NUMXXXXXXXXXXXXXxxxccccccccccdc
In service with the Russian army on 1 in May 2017, the 19 regiments of the ZRS-400 / 38 divisions / 304 PU / 1216 SAMs are made. In accordance with the armament program for 2020, the purchase of X-NUMX C-56 systems is envisaged, which is enough to equip 400-25 regiments.
China became the first foreign customer of this complex. The contract was officially announced in April 2015 of the year, the value of the contract is more than 3 billion dollars. Deliveries of an estimated three regiments (6 divisions) will begin for objective reasons no earlier than 2019.
India became the second buyer of the Z-400 ZRS in accordance with the intergovernmental agreement signed in October 2016. At the same time, deliveries of C-400 anti-aircraft systems to India can begin no earlier than 2018. According to Indian sources, the country can purchase up to five regiments of the C-400 system (10 anti-aircraft missile battalions) and six thousand missiles.
“Concern VKO" Almaz - Antey "is developing a new generation of anti-aircraft missile systems, which is supposed to apply the principle of the separate solution of the tasks of the destruction of ballistic and aerodynamic targets. The main objective of the Prometheus C-500 complex is to combat the combat equipment of medium-range ballistic missiles: it is possible to intercept medium-range ballistic missiles with a launch range of up to 3500 km and, if necessary, intercontinental ballistic missiles on the final trajectory section and in the middle section.
It is assumed that the C-500 complex will retain the structure that C-400 has. That is, one battalion will include a command and control center, an early warning radar, an all-high-range radar, a control radar, a mobile tower of the antenna post and 8 – 12 launchers. Total from 12 to 17 machines.
Representatives of the Russian Ministry of Defense talked about the timing of the appearance of a prototype of the modern Prometheus C-500 anti-aircraft missile system. According to them, the system of large and medium range will appear by 2020 year.