Military Review

Symbol of Russian drama

50
Symbol of Russian dramaThis event took place at the St. Petersburg shipyard "New Admiralty". The official ceremony was held in the presence of Nicholas. It was the emperor who commanded to name the ship in honor of the goddess of dawn. The name "Aurora" inherited from the sailing frigate of the same name.


"Aurora" was one of three armored ships, built under the guidance of engineer Konstantin Tokarevsky. The two other cruisers of this type were the Diana and the Pallas.

The construction of the ship stretched for more than six years - the cruiser for the first time foamed the water of 24 May (in a new style) 1900 of the year in 11 hours 15 minutes. Moreover, he entered the ranks two years later than his “sisters”. It was necessary to eliminate numerous errors in the design and deficiencies during construction. The Aurora was inferior, both in equipment and speed, to other warships of a similar class.

However, in the early twentieth century, no one yet knew. The new cruiser looked very impressive. Bravo looked and personnel under the command of the captain of the 1 rank - on the sea slang - kapranga Ivan Sukhotin.

The launch ceremony of the Aurora was held under salvos of artillery salutes. The cruiser safely descended into the water, “without excess and leak,” as Tokarevsky subsequently reported. Soon the ship became part of the Russian Imperial fleet.

In early September, 1916, the Aurora went to overhaul in Kronstadt. Artillery was removed from the ship, ammunition was unloaded into the arsenal. Chimneys were dismantled, the covers of boiler rooms were opened. With the help of tugboats, the cruiser hull was transferred to the wall of the Petrograd Admiralty Plant.

It should be noted that the crew of the cruiser, in which the old servicemen prevailed, was distinguished by special unity and loyalty to the military duty. But gradually everything began to change - a deaf murmur began. Partly the reason for this was elementary idleness - there were few cases on the ship, sailors often went ashore, saw and heard what was happening in the capital. And Petrograd was already seething — the February revolution was inexorably approaching.

It occurred to those who put the workers detained in the city for revolutionary agitation in the ship's hold — God knows, but this nonsense happened. Rumors spread that this was only the beginning, and the command was going to use the Aurora as a floating prison.

27 February 1917, feeling the growing tension, the commander of the ship, the captain of the 1 rank, a participant in the Russian-Japanese war, a cavalier of several military orders, Mikhail Nikolsky demanded that the detainees be removed from the cruiser.

When the workers were brought to the deck, the air shuddered with joyful shouts. On the requirement of officers to stop the noise, the sailors responded with rude curses and threats. And then Nikolsky, either intuitively or fearing reprisals, fired a revolver several times at a crowd. He was supported by senior officer Pavel Ogranovich. Three men crashed to the deck: two of the sailors were injured, one was killed.

The sailors, holding back their anger, ebbed away. And here Nikolsky made a fatal mistake. He reported to the command headquarters about what had happened, but, contrary to the advice of other officers, he did not call the Cossack one hundred to pacify the sailors. The commander decided that he would be able to calm the team.

Meanwhile, the cruiser commander had previously absolutely accurately predicted impending events. In a report to the command, Mikhail Ilyich reported: “A team that has not yet succumbed to criminal agitation will succumb to it and, as often happens, will go to the other extreme — due to its solidarity, it will become the most unreliable during the war. The soil for this is the most favorable - a long parking lot in Petrograd near the plant. ”

Nikolsky tried to take the initiative in his own hands - he described the situation in the city to the sailors, explaining it with provocations of German spies. However, I did not meet with understanding. On the contrary, his eyes were burning with hate. He and other officers were threatened again, more fiercely. By the way, at that time the crew of the cruiser consisted of 550-ti sailors and junior commanders, 14-ti officers, a ship's doctor and a priest.

On the night of February 28, the commander did not close his eyes. He was restless in his heart - he heard excited shouts, the tramp of many shoes, the clanging weapons. Nikolsky summoned a senior mechanic to his cabin and handed him his wedding ring and pectoral cross. So that he passed on his wife if something happens to him ...

In grave meditations, Mikhail Ilyich met a gloomy February morning.

Workers with red flags and ribbons began to assemble around the Aurora. They urged the crew of the cruiser to go with them to the city. Nikolsky announced that the sailors are free and everyone except the watch crew can go ashore. However, the sailors did not leave the cruiser, but called the uninvited “guests” to their side.

The weapons, including the officers, were divided among themselves, a part was given to the alien. Those initially minded militarily showed even greater aggressiveness when they learned what had happened on the ship the day before. The workers decided to take Nikolsky and other officers to the Tavrichesky Palace, where they collected "prisoners", I mean those who served the autocratic ranks.

From Nikolsky and Ogranovich, from which ripped off shoulder straps, they demanded to take the red flags in their hands and lead the procession. But the officer's honor did not allow them to break the oath. Yes, and obey the mad mob was below their dignity.

The first fell Ogranovich - one of the sailors intoxicated with "freedom" - it was the cruiser engineer Sergei Babin - he thrust a bayonet into his throat. Seeing the death of his comrade, Nikolsky shuddered, but courageously rejected the repeated demand to carry the red flag. And then from the crowd came a shot. As it turned out later, another engineer, Nikolay Bragin, blurted out his commander.

The February 1917 events in the Baltic Fleet killed 95 sailors, including Helsingfors - 45, Kronstadt - 40, Revel - 5, Petrograd - 4. 11 went missing and the officer 4 committed suicide, more than 20 conductors died.

On the Aurora, a ship committee was elected, chaired by artillery non-commissioned officer Yakov Fedyanin. At first, the Bolsheviks were absent in its composition, but by the summer, after the speeches of the party propagandists, the ship cell of the Aurora already had more than forty members of the RSDLP. On the cruiser began endless rallies and meetings.

Meanwhile, repairs continued on it, and in October the Aurora was supposed to go to sea to test the machines. However, the Centrobalt decided: "Aurora" "... fully obey the orders of the revolutionary committee of the Petrograd Soviet". And the ship remained parked on the Neva embankment.

Many years later, in 1950, Alexander Belyshev, then the chief mechanic of the Lenenergo plant, who was the commissioner of the cruiser Aurora in the seventeenth year, shared his memories with young Nakhimovites. Of course, he told the guys about how he gave the order to the commandant Yevdokim Ognev to produce historical shot at the Winter Palace. Historians are still in doubt, what shells - idle or military - fired from the cruiser?

In 1917, Belyshev himself wrote a historical justification letter published by Pravda: “... The press writes that the Aurora opened fire on the Winter Palace, but did reporters know that our gentlemen would not leave a stone on the stone not only from the Winter Palace, but also from the streets adjacent to it? And is it really?

We appeal to you, the workers and soldiers of Petrograd! Do not believe the provocative rumors. Do not believe them that we are traitors and thugs, and check the rumors themselves. As for the shots from the cruiser, only one idle shot from the 6-inch gun was fired, indicating the signal for all ships stationed on the Neva, and calling them to be vigilant and ready ... "

However, some witnesses to the events claimed that the Aurora fired live shells. Thus, the English journalist John Reed in his book “Ten Days That Shook the World,” wrote: “The pavement under our feet was covered with plaster that collapsed from the palace ledge, where two shells hit Aurora. The bombing did not cause any other damage ... "

A shot - or were there two after all? - from the tank gun "Aurora" thundered 25 of October (old style) 1917 of the year in 21 hour of 40 minutes. Since then, the cruiser is considered legendary, because after its volley the assault on the Winter Palace began. This event marked the accession to power in Russia, which changed its political system.

However, the historian Sergey Melgunov believed that the storming of the Winter One began earlier - with another idle shot - from the Peter and Paul Fortress. According to other historians, the events on Palace Square were played out spontaneously, without any signal.

Aurora became famous not only because of its participation in both 1917 revolutions of the year. The cruiser was also involved in the three wars of the twentieth century.

Baptism "Aurora" received in the Russian-Japanese war. The cruiser, who was a part of the 2 Pacific squadron under the command of Vice Admiral Zinovy ​​Rozhdestvensky, happened to participate in the notorious Tsushima battle. "Aurora" and three more ships - "Oleg", "Dmitry Donskoy" and "Vladimir Monomakh" - covered the "transports". This task was extremely difficult, because the Russian ships attacked more than a dozen enemy warships.

A hail of shells hit the Aurora. Two of them hit the starboard side, disabled the calculations of two guns and caused a fire. He was successfully extinguished, but the Aurora was waited by several more heavy blows. In particular, the cruiser received two holes, and streams of water rushed into the compartment of the torpedo tube.

Nevertheless, the cruiser remained afloat - largely due to the heroism and self-control of the crew. On the mast of the heavily damaged Aurora (18 shells hit her in total), the flag of St. Andrew continued to fly proudly. He was shot down six times (!) By Japanese artillery, but every time the sailors set the cloth in place.

In the Tsushima battle, the Aurora lost 15 crew members. In addition, more than 80 people received injuries of varying severity. The death of the cruiser commander, captain of 1 rank Yevgeny Egoryev became an irreplaceable damage ...

17 July 1914, the commander of the Aurora Rear Admiral Gregory Butakov received a short radio message: “Naval Forces and Port. Smoke, smoke, smoke. This meant that the Baltic Fleet, which included a cruiser, is on full alert. The war began with Germany.

"Aurora" went on patrol in the Gulf of Finland, participated in the preservation of the wrecked cruiser "Magdeburg". In 1916, the Aurora was involved in a landing operation in the Gulf of Riga. There were several cases when the Aurora was attacked by German airplanes, but they failed to inflict serious damage on the cruiser.

In the summer of 1918, the Aurora was towed to Kronstadt, removed its armament and put on conservation. The ship was empty - some sailors went home, others left to fight in the Civil War. In one of the battles, Commander Ognev laid down his head ...

The cruiser was long forgotten and remembered only at the end of the 1922 of the year. The ship was a sad sight — the sides were torn off, the cabins plundered, a thick layer of mud lay on the decks. The Aurora had to be repaired and equipped again.

23 February 1923, the updated ship returned to service. "The orchestra plays the" Internationale ", - the newspaper" Red Baltic Fleet "wrote. - A bright red flag is being deployed on the aurora flagstalk, and a motley flag on the stock rod. "Aurora" raised the flag! "Aurora" again in the ranks of the proletarian fleet. "

Time went by. "Aurora" became a training ship, made several trips abroad. But in the late thirties, the cruiser was about to send for ... scrap metal. Saved the case - it took the non-propelled staff vessel to submariners, and the cruiser had been fulfilling this role for some time.

When the Great Patriotic War struck, the Aurora was included in the Kronstadt air defense system, and more than once was subjected to raids by the Luftwaffe. However, the cruisers anti-aircraft gunners were not asleep. For example, 16 September 1941, they shot down an enemy plane.

Soon the cruiser received several hits, after which it strongly tilted to the starboard. However, the Germans continued to bombard “Aurora, trying to send the relic of October to the bottom. But the impregnable fortress remained afloat ...

During the war, in August 1944, the Aurora was towed to Leningrad, and a year later the heroic ship became the target of filming a film about his legendary relative, the cruiser Varyag, which had fought in the Tsushima battle for exactly forty years backwards

November 17 The 1948 of the year repaired cruiser took the place of the final parking on the Bolshaya Nevka. "Aurora" became the base of the Nakhimov military school, on board opened a museum of military glory ship.

Since then, the ship has been repaired, updated, and re-designed the interior several times. 30 years ago - in 1987, a large cruiser restoration was completed, lasting three years. When the Aurora was returned to its place, rumors spread that the strongly corroded underwater part of the ship was replaced. It was allegedly flooded in the Gulf of Finland near St. Petersburg, and the residents of the nearby village dismantled parts of the interior decoration for souvenirs.

However, it seems that this is not fiction. “All you need is to go to nearby villages and take a closer look at the houses built at the end of 1980,” wrote Rossiyskaya Gazeta, the government body of the Russian Federation in November 2007. - Parts of the ship are visible here and there. The gangways became stairs in the houses, the metal frames went into the construction of greenhouses, here and there the roofs were covered with metal from the cruiser ... "

This was not the last test of the Aurora.

In 2014, the ship began another repair. A year ago, the cruiser was returned to its usual place, and the waves of the Neva again hit its sides. In the evening, its lights are visible far away.

How is it in the old Soviet song? “The old guns look sternly. Baltic sky overhead. / You never dreamed cruiser "Aurora", / What will you become a symbol of human drama ... "
Author:
Originator:
http://www.stoletie.ru/territoriya_istorii/simvol_rossijskoj_dramy_238.htm
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  1. 27091965
    27091965 11 June 2017 06: 24
    +14
    and a year later, the heroic ship was the subject of a film about his legendary "relative" - ​​the cruiser "Varyag", who, together with the Aurora, fought in the battle of Tsushima exactly forty years ago.


    Do not rewrite history. "Varangian" did not participate in the Tsushima battle. Yes, and they can not be called relatives.
  2. bandabas
    bandabas 11 June 2017 07: 21
    +12
    It is worth adding that in June 2009 a party was held at Aurora with the participation of I.I. Klebanova, E.S. Nabiullina, V.I. Matvienko. Why not continue the drama? Or rather mockery of the symbol.
    1. Andy
      Andy 11 June 2017 10: 12
      0
      Putin’s entire environment ... by the way, where are the parties still holding parties if her son was refused to buy an island on the pirita river near Tallinn. for those who don’t know, he looked after a plot of land for a mansion and helipad. just the year 2005-2008 relate. laziness on delphi. its archive to dig, to whom you look
  3. apro
    apro 11 June 2017 07: 34
    +14
    He clearly wrote a supporter of universal values, a branding symbol of the socialist revolution.
    1. Kenxnumx
      Kenxnumx 11 June 2017 16: 50
      +2
      Good character. Stunned by idleness, the seaman before whom the prospect of war loomed again supported the rebellion. And instead of the wall turned out to be heroes. By the way, if you shoot blanks, then there should not be any special damage.
      1. Ded_smerch
        Ded_smerch 13 June 2017 12: 44
        +2
        it's you stunned by the porridge in your head are nonsense. The sailors were very well-read citizens and charged with revolution, thanks for that to the captains like Nikolsky who didn’t want to go down as it was scribbled in the article "the mob was below their dignity" to watered. work with the crew and humanly relates to sailors. As a result of the bestial attitude and neglect of the sailors, many officers paid with their arrogant head. The sailors were one of the most organized groups participating in the revolution, which was shown by the events of 1917-1918.
        1. 13 warrior
          13 warrior 14 June 2017 16: 33
          0
          And by the way, according to the doctor of historical sciences Nazarenko, in 1917 only about 60 people died among officers among the officers, the main reasons were: murder, illness, suicide ...
          1. Ded_smerch
            Ded_smerch 19 June 2017 09: 14
            0
            Comrade, I don’t know about the numbers, you need to read.
            Speaking of the fleet of that time, good lectures

  4. Thompson
    Thompson 11 June 2017 07: 48
    +7
    It’s so interesting! - everything to the names and surnames is so detailed, but you can’t find out what shells you shot!
    Another duck in the New Russian-Ukropian style, a symbol of today's Russian drama. Author Burt
  5. Alf
    Alf 11 June 2017 08: 05
    +8
    The construction of the ship lasted for more than six years - the cruiser first foamed water on May 24 (new style) in 1900 at 11 a.m. The Aurora was inferior, in terms of equipment and speed, to other warships of this class. However, at the beginning of the 15th century this was not yet known

    What didn’t they know about? About the fact that Askold was laid in 1898, and in 1900 he was let down?
    The fact that in 1899 they laid the Varangian, and in 1901 they let him down?
    The fact that in 1899 they laid the Bogatyr, and in 1901 they lowered him?
    When the Aurora was returned to its place, rumors spread that the heavily rusted underwater part of the ship was replaced. It was allegedly flooded in the Gulf of Finland near St. Petersburg, and the inhabitants of the nearby village were dismantled for souvenirs from the interior decoration.

    Isn’t that so? It was enough to go through the premises of the cruiser to see this.
    An author, perhaps, before writing, is it worth studying the materials?
    1. Alf
      Alf 11 June 2017 09: 13
      +3
      The only purpose of Aurora that could really be invented after its adoption in the system is the fight against trade. In the absence of an escort at the caravan. Something like wok action. Or to disperse foreign destroyers, for which its 24 three-inch guns would have gone perfectly, but isn’t it fat to drive a cruise of 6300 tons behind the destroyers? For squadron combat or equal class duels Aurora was unsuitable.
      1. R-2017
        R-2017 11 June 2017 11: 06
        +4
        Quote: Alf
        The only purpose of Aurora that could really be invented after its adoption in the system is the fight against trade.

        For this, the 3 Diane had neither range nor speed.
        The only armored deck cruiser of the 1st rank of the RIF, which was a trade fighter-cruiser, was Varyag. The duties of the PDU of the trade fighter cruiser could somehow be carried out by the Athlete. Although the project was a reconnaissance cruiser. There was also a trade fighter cruiser of the 2nd rank Boyarin. But he was not very successful. Russia just so exotic sponsored the home of the Empress-mother, Denmark.
        Diana, this is a scaled Svetlana. Russia then did not have normal ship vehicles. Therefore, a three-machine and a three-shaft scheme were used in dianes. Unlike optimal in those days, two-shaft. And for this, the body volume was required. Therefore, the project Svetlana simply inflated in size, leaving the main proportions and dimensions unchanged. And changing only the size of the ships, as well as their displacement.
        As a result, Russia received 3 new hospital cruisers (they are also “colonial cruisers”). In addition to it is not clear why bought Svetlana. What for Russia there were 4 NEW colonial cruisers, this is a mystery of history. After all, she did not have overseas colonies. Moreover, the size of the dianas was not at all childish for in-patient cruisers. Like the cost. It seems that the solution to the "riddle" is simple, the money is "mastered."
        In general, cruisers-hospitals in the world then built extremely rarely. Usually their role in the fleets was played by pensioner cruisers of other classes.
        1. Cannonball
          Cannonball 11 June 2017 12: 54
          0
          But what about Askold?
          1. R-2017
            R-2017 11 June 2017 15: 11
            +1
            Quote: Cannonball
            But what about Askold?

            Askold was a reconnaissance cruiser. But not distant, like the Bogatyr, but neighbor. Therefore, its purchase back in those days was recognized as a mistake. Because to some extent he duplicated the armored Bayan. Instead of Askold in the category "armored cruiser reconnaissance" a bit later, Bogatyr was purchased.
            In general, Russia then bought one copy of the PDU of cruisers of each type. For the purpose of further study and possible cloning.
            Cloned, making changes, Bogatyr and Novik.
            Cloned, scaling, Svetlana.
            The Varangian, Askold and Boyarin remained in one copy. If Askold and Boyarin were not to say that they were somehow particularly successful. That with Varyag is another story. After the REV, a similar type of ship, long-range fighter cruisers, was no longer needed. There was nothing to destroy.
            Also, one can not help but recall the armored near cruiser reconnaissance Bayan. He was also cloned as best they could.
            1. Snakebyte
              Snakebyte 11 June 2017 23: 24
              +1
              Judging by the delusional classification, another passerby clone.
              1. R-2017
                R-2017 11 June 2017 23: 46
                +1
                Quote: Snakebyte
                Judging by the delusional classification

                Crazy? Why is she suddenly delusional? "Fools rule the world"?
                Quote: Snakebyte
                another passerby clone

                And who is this? Other topics call me differently.
                And what, I must be someone else's clone? And then you can choose?
              2. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
                Andrei from Chelyabinsk 12 June 2017 12: 58
                +2
                Quote: Snakebyte
                Judging by the delusional classification, another passerby clone.

                What clone? :)))) This is it :)
            2. Cannonball
              Cannonball 12 June 2017 22: 59
              +2
              "Varangian" - the same cruiser reconnaissance.

              The leadership of the Russian Maritime Department in 1897 determined the following necessary composition of the Russian squadron in the Pacific Ocean by 1903: 10 squadron battleships, 4 armored cruisers and 20 reconnaissance cruisers.
              That is, fighter cruisers were not provided.

              The Bogatyr’s 10-nodal cruising range was 4900 miles.
              At Askold, this figure is higher - cruising range of 10 nodal course - 6136 miles. So, rather, the Bogatyr was a close scout.
              The power of cars is also greater at the Askold 23600 hp. against 20368 h.p. at the Bogatyr.

              The Askold’s commandos were among the best in the squadron, so they shot eight times more accurately than the Varyag gunners. On August 19, in the Gulf of Peter the Great, the cruiser carried out training firing at the shield on the move 18 knots with a wind of 3-4 points. Although the visibility was unimportant (at times the shield was hidden in fog), Askold’s gunners showed good results: out of 36 152-mm shells fired, seven hit 36, 75 out of 12 were 40 and five out of 47 were 16. “Varangian” during a similar firing, performed by him on December 1903, 12,5 (the last exercises before his famous battle), although it was moving at a lower speed (36 knots), out of 152 33 mm shells fired, 75 56 mm, 47 20 mm and 37 75 mm only three hit the shield: one 47 mm and two XNUMX mm.

              At the beginning of the Russo-Japanese War, Askold was one of the most active ships of the Port Arthur squadron.

              It is incorrect to compare the Askold with the Boyan, as the Bayan is an armored cruiser, not an armored deck.

              The prototype of Boyar was Novik, which was also the prototype of Pearls and Emerald. So there is no need to talk about the "failure" of the project.
              1. R-2017
                R-2017 12 June 2017 23: 49
                +1
                Quote: Cannonball
                "Varangian" - the same cruiser reconnaissance.

                Young man. I don’t need to write such things about the RIF. If I write to you that the Varangian was a fighter cruiser. That is how it was.
                This is clearly seen in its performance characteristics, arms composition and dimensions of the corps.
                Quote: Cannonball
                20 reconnaissance cruisers

                Do not fantasize. It was about armored cruisers. And there were several types.
                Quote: Cannonball
                That is, fighter cruisers were not provided.

                Those. provided for. In the amount of 2 pcs. Varangian and Boyarin.
                Quote: Cannonball
                At Askold, this figure is higher - cruising range of 10 nodal course - 6136 miles.

                Do not make up. In the design 4300 m.m. did not meet, only 3700 m. Then, in fact, Askold became a close rank 1 cruiser reconnaissance.
                Askold had a serious jamb in terms of efficiency, he had three cars and three shafts. Therefore, he ate coal is not childish.
                Quote: Cannonball
                Askold 23600 hp against 20368 h.p. at the "Bogatyr"

                This is just speed.
                Quote: Cannonball
                At the beginning of the Russo-Japanese War, Askold was one of the most active ships of the Port Arthur squadron.

                What is the result of "action"?
                Quote: Cannonball
                It is incorrect to compare the Askold with the Boyan, as the Bayan is an armored cruiser, not an armored deck.

                So what? These are just design features. At the same time, they were both close rank reconnaissance cruisers. Therefore, comparing them is not what is possible, but even necessary.
                Quote: Cannonball
                The prototype of Boyar was Novik

                There was nothing in common between them. Well, that’s generally different in everything. And the antipodes, Boyar fighter cruiser. Novik, a reconnaissance cruiser. Both are 2 ranks. Both neighbors for their classes. Although if we compare the absolute numbers, then Boyarin went much further, of course.
                Quote: Cannonball
                which was also the prototype of Pearl and Emerald. So there is no need to talk about the "failure" of the project.

                In the "pebbles" from Novik little is left. Yes, and they can hardly be called successful. This is called "finalized the German project." As a result, something average came out of the reconnaissance cruiser. Not a scout cruiser. But not a fighter cruiser either.
        2. 27091965
          27091965 11 June 2017 13: 39
          0
          In addition to it is not clear why bought Svetlana.


          Than the cruiser "Svetlana" did not please you?
          1. R-2017
            R-2017 11 June 2017 15: 13
            +3
            Quote: 27091965i
            Than the cruiser "Svetlana" did not please you?

            Why didn’t you please? The role that Svetlana (and Diana) should have performed in the RIF is incomprehensible. And Svetlana herself, like a colonial cruiser, was completely nothing for her time. Already the overgrowth of Diana cannot be compared with her.
            1. 27091965
              27091965 11 June 2017 15: 53
              +1
              The role that Svetlana (and Diana) should have performed in the RIF is incomprehensible.


              In 1896-1897, with the consent of the Russian Naval Ministry, the British studied his work and the service of the navy. The cruiser "Svetlana" was described, I think, not without the participation of our admirals, as a cruiser designed to serve the Pacific stations. Well, the fact that he didn’t get there is no longer his fault. I agree with you that this is a colonial cruiser, though they used it for other purposes.
              1. R-2017
                R-2017 11 June 2017 16: 25
                +2
                Quote: 27091965i
                The cruiser "Svetlana" was described, I think, not without the participation of our admirals, as a cruiser designed to serve the Pacific stations.

                But where were these stations? If Vladik, then there the service was by land. Yes, and Arthur was so served.
                There were no service stations. However, there were 4 hospital cruisers in the RIF for some reason. Maybe someone planned to grab something?
                Still surprising is the "wisdom" of the admirals. In Chemulpo, the Varyag fighter cruiser was sent to the full-time role of Dian (the role of a hospital cruiser). And Diana and Pallas at that time were hanging out in Arthur.
                Quote: 27091965i
                I agree with you that this is a colonial cruiser, though they used it for other purposes.

                In-war cruisers (colonial cruisers) were used as escort ships. Here is just to counter fighter cruisers of all ranks and stripes. And at the far approaches, fighter cruisers were caught (intercepted) by reconnaissance cruisers.
                So the place of Aurora at Tsushima is the very place for ships of this class. And Oleg’s place (reconnaissance cruiser) under Tsushima was, by and large, also suitable. Moreover, it was built in Russia and approached Tsushima already not having a good move. One cylinder did not work on one of the machines.
                1. 27091965
                  27091965 11 June 2017 17: 04
                  +1
                  Quote: K2017
                  But where were these stations? If Vladik, then there the service was by land. Yes, and Arthur was so served.


                  It all started before Port Arthur, during the Kuldzhin crisis. When, with great difficulty, battle ships were assembled and sent to the Far East with great difficulty. At the transition, it turned out that they did not correspond to cruising parameters. In 1892-1894, it was possible to assemble two squadrons in the Far East and in the Mediterranean Sea. But later it turned out that almost 700 thousand were not enough to maintain these fleets. Later, Koreas received permission to be in the ports of Russian military ships. And so the question arose about an expensive cruiser-hospital.
            2. Cannonball
              Cannonball 12 June 2017 23: 05
              +1
              "Svetlana" was generally used as a yacht of Admiral General Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich. It was not a battle ship, but a ceremonial ship with luxurious apartments.

              Since the main purpose of the ship was to use Admiral General as a yacht, the ship was specially equipped for this. A significant part of the battery deck behind the aft onboard 152-mm guns was occupied by exquisitely finished apartments, which included an entrance hall, a reception room, a study, a sleeping cabin, as well as rooms for servants. In order to prevent the noise of dynamo cars from disturbing passengers, all four dynamo cars were concentrated in one place, away from the apartments - on the bow platform, contrary to the requirements for ensuring the survivability of the ship.

              In order to maximize the cleanliness of the upper deck, which was supposed to be free for yachts, the onboard 152-mm guns were installed on the battery deck located below, which made it difficult to fire during unrest.

              Another feature of the ship was that instead of portholes, rectangular windows were equipped on the sides.
              1. R-2017
                R-2017 12 June 2017 23: 54
                +1
                Quote: Cannonball
                It was not a battle ship, but a parade ship

                Do not fantasize. And do not retell tales for all sorts of "nimble bailers." And other empty chimes.
                However, I agree, Svetlana was built like a flagship. Therefore, the so-called Admiral's salon. This is normal on warships. And this phenomenon did not make the ship NOT combat.
                1. Cannonball
                  Cannonball 13 June 2017 21: 37
                  0
                  I do not dream, I state the facts.
                  Svetlana was never built as a flagship.

                  The cruiser "Svetlana" was originally developed by order of Admiral General Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich, who expressed a desire to build a yacht for him that could "accompany the imperial yacht to sail to Copenhagen." The combat mission of this ship was secondary.

                  The only place where it was flagship - having joined the main squadron after Suez, the cruiser led a reconnaissance detachment, which also included the Almaz rank II cruiser and the auxiliary Ural cruiser.
                  By order of Admiral Rozhestvensky, Svetlana, along with the rest of the ships of the reconnaissance detachment of the cruisers, was engaged in the protection of transports. As a result, on the first day of the battle - May 14, the cruiser was in the rearguard of the main forces, keeping between the enemy and vehicles.
                  Good flagship !!!
                  1. R-2017
                    R-2017 13 June 2017 22: 21
                    +1
                    Quote: Cannonball
                    The cruiser "Svetlana" was originally developed by order of Admiral General Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich, who expressed a desire to build a yacht for him

                    The yacht of Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich could be built. But she could not be part of the RIF.
                    Quote: Cannonball
                    Good flagship !!!

                    What are you talking about?
              2. 27091965
                27091965 13 June 2017 13: 18
                0
                Quote: Cannonball
                A significant part of the battery deck behind the aft onboard 152-mm guns was occupied by exquisitely finished apartments, which included an entrance hall, a reception room, a study, a sleeping cabin, as well as rooms for servants.


                « In Kiel, the cruiser Svetlana was inspected by 15 leading German shipbuilders. They found that their French counterparts managed to maintain the good fighting qualities of the cruiser, despite the comfortable and relatively spacious rooms intended for Admiral General. "

                Another feature of the ship was that instead of portholes, rectangular windows were equipped on the sides.


                In the original, not much is wrong:
                « Square windows instead of round portholes directly indicated the cruiser’s yacht character»

                So Skvortsov A.V. in his article, he re-trained part of the battleships and cruisers of France into yachts.

                It is better to use several sources, and preferably not only published in Russia.
        3. Catherine II
          Catherine II 12 June 2017 00: 25
          0
          Quote: K2017
          The only armored deck cruiser 1 of the RIF rank, which was a trade fighter cruiser, was Varyag. The duties of the PDU of the trade fighter cruiser could somehow fulfill the hero

          and they died in the first days of the war ... and moreover, they were drowned by their crews ... and that's all ... there were no trade fighters ... although it was necessary to fight the island states ... but neither Germany nor RI understood this. (not we take the success of the submarines only surface) all toiled in a squadron battle.
          1. R-2017
            R-2017 12 June 2017 01: 39
            +3
            Quote: Catherine II
            and that’s all ... there are no trade fighters ..

            There was also a close trade fighter of rank 2 Boyarin. But he was not particularly successful, and releasing him on a “hunt” was dangerous. Maybe that's why it was based not in Vladik, where all short-range ships were supposed to be based, but in Arthur.
            There were also armored fighter cruisers (raiders). Three jokes. The first was ancient, the second was old, and the third ...., the third was only called that. And its purpose was difficult to understand. These "Raiders" walked around in a handful (this group of woks was called) in order to protect each other from the Japanese armored cruisers who defended trade. Of which there were 6 pieces. And even 2 budget armadillos (they are battleships for the poor) the Japanese adapted for the same purpose. Those. to protect trade.
            Walking with a handful of woks did not help, the Japanese did cover it, drowning the ancient one (cruiser Rurik). They would have drowned the others, but the GK of their defenders was chosen incorrectly, so even the small armor of the old and incomprehensible was too tough for them.
            Even in the RIF, there was a rather unique ship, the EDB Retvisan (American-built, Kramp project). Its uniqueness lay in the fact that this sufficiently strong ship possessed the qualities of an EBR raider. It happened by chance, Crump submitted for approval his draft EDB. The project was approved, but the "extra" armor was ordered to be removed, it cost a lot of money. And since the project was already calculated, instead of this armor, Kramp added coal to the coal pits. And from this, Retvisan acquired a range of action that is characteristic of raiders. Despite the armor cut off, Retvisan was the strongest EDB RIF from the time of the REV. Although the Japanese new EDB (4 pcs.) He was far away. Retvisan has never been used as an EBR raider.
            Even for cruising, one could try to adapt the nearby reconnaissance cruisers. Armored, Bayan. And armored, Askold. But for this they also had to be based not in Arthur, but in Vladik.
            That, in fact, is the whole selection of candidates for trade fighters. There was nothing else.
            Quote: Catherine II
            all toiled in a squadron battle.

            Yes, it looked especially strange in Russia. Which "in the sleeve" had as many as 4 ships, which according to the technical characteristics at least somehow resembled an EDB. These are Retvizan, Tseserevich, Poltava and Victory. Even if the Japanese lost 2 Shikishima (actually lost only one + old Yashima), it would be useless to engage in a linear battle with such relics with them. Therefore, the 1st TOE, as soon as it entered the battle with the Japanese linear forces, was immediately defeated and ceased to exist as a combat unit.
      2. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
        Andrei from Chelyabinsk 11 June 2017 15: 59
        +3
        Quote: Alf
        For squadron combat or equal class duels Aurora was unsuitable.

        And as soon as she and Oleg in Tsushima managed to protect transports from the herd of Japanese cruisers, can you tell me? :)))
        The cruiser, of course, was not good, but he could still fight with the armored cruisers. It's just that the Aurora is usually compared with the better Varyag, Askold and Bogatyr, forgetting that few of the fleets of the world could boast of such powerful and fast ships
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 13 June 2017 12: 34
      +1
      Quote: Alf
      Isn’t that so? It was enough to go through the premises of the cruiser to see this.

      And on the inside, it's hard to understand. wink

      © Periscope
      Restoring the tightness of the hull on the Aurora in 1987 was done according to a cunning scheme - the casing and adjacent structures were cut off above the waterline (A), and the internal structures were below the lower deck (B). As a result, a remake in the interior is the lowest level. where not everyone is allowed. And on public decks, historical structures have been preserved.
  6. vodkinmotors1
    vodkinmotors1 11 June 2017 08: 32
    +5
    During the Second World War, the cruiser was in Lomonosov. The bottom is rotten and replaced. There are false rivets. So what?
    1. Alf
      Alf 11 June 2017 09: 05
      +4
      Quote: vodkinmotors1
      The bottom is rotten and replaced. There are false rivets. So what?

      Well, decayed so decayed, replaced so replaced. All know this and are philosophical about it. And the author from this fact almost created a legend.
      1. Paranoid50
        Paranoid50 17 June 2017 14: 25
        +3
        Quote: Alf
        And the author from this fact almost created a legend.

        At the same time, he missed a truly legendary episode from the life of the cruiser. The guns taken from the Aurora defended Leningrad. Their positions were between Voronny Gora and Kiev Highway. A monument to the sailors of the dead battery "Aurora".
  7. Basil50
    Basil50 11 June 2017 09: 03
    +11
    The author is clearly not in order with his head, he himself described how the prison was made out of a warship and how the officer, * concentrating all the most brilliant and noble *, started shooting at sailors. Well, what could be the attitude of such officers?
    During the Civil War, most of the officers, including graduates of the Academy of the General Staff, served HOMELAND in the ranks of the RED ARMY, but the renegades showed their attitude to RUSSIA when they served the interventionists, and to the people when they carried out mass executions and executions.
  8. bionik
    bionik 11 June 2017 09: 16
    +5
    Cruiser Aurora" .
  9. bionik
    bionik 11 June 2017 09: 24
    +4
    Cruiser Aurora"
  10. Curious
    Curious 11 June 2017 09: 28
    +6
    The site continues to collect authors whose works can be described as "jack of all trades".
  11. Andy
    Andy 11 June 2017 10: 06
    +8
    shameful little article
  12. Damir
    Damir 11 June 2017 11: 22
    +2
    the cruiser "Varangian" who, together with the Aurora, fought in the battle of Tsushima exactly forty years ago

    a complete and absolute nightmare .... where are we going ... the editors generally don’t look anywhere or what?!?!?!?!?
    1. Mooh
      Mooh 11 June 2017 12: 12
      +5
      The cruiser Varyag, who, under the leadership of Tutankhamun, together with Aurora, defeated the air fleet of the Livonian Order in the battle of Tsushima ...
      1. Damir
        Damir 11 June 2017 12: 41
        0
        You still forgot to clarify that this all happened in the Tau-Kit Constellation ... and Tsushima is the planetary system of Tau-Kityan (-Chinese?!?!) ... here ... and the Livonian Order is .... sorry it doesn’t work fantasy in the morning ... and I’m not accepting extenders of consciousness and other intelligence-doping ..... maybe I’ll think up something for a beer in the evening ....
  13. Catherine II
    Catherine II 12 June 2017 00: 31
    +2
    his "brother" in Tsushima (so to speak) from the victors of Mikas. She performs the role of a monument. And of course, he can move. It’s generally troublesome to keep the museum and still maintain its buoyancy and ability to move, and historical value ... In general, about the bottom - if there was any other way, tell me ... In the USSR, they put little on the museum from the fleet. Those same battleships from the king went to metal, the famous ships of the Second World War also did not become museums .. well, it didn’t work out like the Americans with naval objects ... Aurora was lucky ... none of her brothers from the Republic of Ingushetia because she is not survived. (warships). And it’s a pity .. the same Cesarevich or the battleship of the imperial series (or Kirov) should be preserved even as a non-floating museum
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      Andrei from Chelyabinsk 12 June 2017 13: 08
      0
      Quote: Catherine II
      And it’s a pity .. the same Cesarevich or the battleship of the imperial series (or Kirov) should be preserved even as a non-floating museum

      Do not pour salt on the wounds :)))
  14. Old warrior
    Old warrior 12 June 2017 11: 19
    0
    It’s strange. And why is it not indicated that the Aurora is one of not many ships that broke through Tsushima (by the way, the Japanese have not yet answered us for it). Hiding the Feat?
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 13 June 2017 12: 41
      +2
      Quote: Old Warrior
      It’s strange. And why is it not indicated that the Aurora is one of the few ships that broke through Tsushima

      But because the assessment of the actions of Enquist is very mixed.
      This "Diamond" erupted. The Emerald almost broke through.
      But “Aurora”, “Oleg” and “Pearls” did not go to Vladivostok, but to Manila - where they interned.
  15. Cannonball
    Cannonball 13 June 2017 21: 29
    0
    Quote: K2017
    Young man. I don’t need to write such things about the RIF. If I write to you that the Varangian was a fighter cruiser. That is how it was.
    This is clearly seen in its performance characteristics, arms composition and dimensions of the corps.

    Thank you, of course, for the "young man", but I was thirty years ago.
    If you liked the term "fighter cruiser" so much, then I want to correct you, there is no such term. There is a "trade fighter cruiser." Read Victor Kataev’s book “Cruisers - Trade Fighters”, there both “Varyag” are mentioned, and “Askold” and many other Russian cruisers.
    In fact, in the RIF during the Russo-Japanese War, cruisers were officially divided into rank 1 and 2 cruisers. Dot. Unofficially, cruisers of the 1st rank were divided into armored and armored.
    The terms “Cruisers reconnaissance (Scouts)”, “Cruisers - trade fighters” were not used in the Russian classification.
    There were still mine cruisers, but these were early types of destroyers.
    By the way, the term "destroyer" in 1904-1905 was also unofficial.
    In 1907, a new classification of cruisers was introduced. They became armored cruisers, or simply - cruisers.
    In 1915 - a new classification, with cruisers and battlecruisers.
    These are real facts. Learn the materiel.

    Now for the "Varangian" and "Askold."

    Armament "Varyag":
    12 × 152 mm / 45 Kane guns.
    12 × 75 mm / 50 Kane guns;
    8 x 47 mm / 40 guns Hotchkiss;
    2 x 37 mm / 22,8 guns Hotchkiss;
    2 x 7,62 mm machine gun;
    2 x 63,5 mm / 19 Baranovsky guns
    6 x 381 mm SLT;
    2 x 254 mm TA (for boats);
    35 minutes.

    Armament "Askold":
    12 × 152/45 mm Kane guns.
    12 × 75/50-mm Kane guns;
    8 x 47/43-mm guns Hotchkiss;
    2 x 37/23-mm guns Hotchkiss;
    2 x 7,62 mm machine gun;
    2 x 63,5 / 19-mm Baranovsky guns (for landing).
    6 x 381 mm SLT;
    2 x 254 mm TA (for boats);
    35 minutes.

    Find differences in armament))
    About the dimensions of the case, in general, something:
    (length / width / draft)
    Varyag - 129,56 / 15,9 / 6,02 m.
    "Askold" - 132,5 / 15 / 6,2 m.

    Almost twins, only the number of pipes vary))


    Quote: K2017
    Do not fantasize. It was about armored cruisers. And there were several types.

    I wrote above about the "types" of cruisers. I do not like this classification, read the "Program of Enhanced Shipbuilding for the Needs of the Far East" 1897.


    Quote: K2017
    Those. provided for. In the amount of 2 pcs. Varangian and Boyarin.

    Nonsense. "Varangian" - a cruiser of the 1st rank, "Boyarin" - a cruiser of the 2nd rank. Later they were ranked as armored.

    Quote: K2017
    Do not make up. In the design 4300 m.m. did not meet, only 3700 m. Then, in fact, Askold became a close rank 1 cruiser reconnaissance.
    Askold had a serious jamb in terms of efficiency, he had three cars and three shafts. Therefore, he ate coal is not childish.

    For swimming 10 nodal move "eat coal is not childish" there is no need.

    During factory tests at maximum speed, Varyag showed outstanding results. So, on July 12, 1900, the Varyag developed a move of 24,59 knots. During the 12-hour continuous tests, the Varyag showed an average result of 23,18 knots. In a 24-hour test, the Varangian traveled 10 miles during an economic speed of 240 knots, consuming 52,8 tons of coal (i.e. 220 kg per mile).

    But the real cruising range of the ship is always significantly different from the estimated obtained from the test results. So, during long-distance crossings, the Varangian spent 10 tons of coal per day at a speed of 68 knots, which corresponds to the longest cruising range of 4288 miles.

    One of the drawbacks of the Varyag was the unreliability of the power plant. The cruiser spent a significant part of the pre-war service in Port Arthur at the mooring wall in endless repairs. The reason was both the careless assembly of the machines and the unreliability of the Nikloss system boilers.

    Askold

    Nine boilers of Thornicroft-Schulz gave steam for cars, eight of them were placed in pairs in four boiler rooms, and one in the fifth. The highest permissible steam pressure was 17 kgf / cm2, the total surface of the grate was 107 m2, and the total heating surface of the boilers was 5020 m2. The steam capacity of one boiler was 21,2 t / h, efficiency - 60%, coal consumption - 1 kg / hp. in hour.

    A normal coal reserve of 720 tons provided a cruising range of only 2340 miles instead of the projected 6500 miles. The total fuel supply was 1050 tons, and the reinforced - 1250 tons. Coal consumption at full speed was 18 t / h.

    Quote: K2017
    What is the result of "action"?


    On February 11, 1904, Askold, along with the Bayan and Novik cruisers, participated in a shootout with four Japanese cruisers.

    On May 5, Askold went to sea, covering the Amur mine transport, which set up a minefield near Port Arthur.

    On July 28, 1904, the Russian squadron of the Pacific Fleet went to sea for a breakthrough to Vladivostok. "Askold" under the flag of Rear Admiral N.K. Reitsenstein led a detachment of cruisers, marching in a wake column for armadillos. On the same day, a battle took place in the Yellow Sea. After the battle of armored forces, when a detachment of Russian armadillos turned back to return to Port Arthur, Askold and Novik went on a breakthrough through the Japanese squadron. The battle was fierce, the Russian sailors showed the best features of stamina and heroism, and at 19 hours 40 minutes the Russian cruisers broke through.

    In battle, the cruiser was severely damaged. One officer, ten sailors were killed, four officers and 44 sailors were injured.
    The guns fired 226 high-explosive 152 mm shells, 155 steel and 65 cast-iron 75 mm shells, 160 47 mm shells on Japanese ships. At noon on July 30, 1904, the Askold anchored at the mouth of the Wuzung River.

    On August 11, 1904, by order of the Askold from St. Petersburg, the destroyer Grozovoi and the gunboat Manjur soon came after him and lowered their flags. Locks of guns, combat compartments of torpedoes, rifles and some parts of machines were handed over to the arsenal. On August 28, the cruiser was taken out of the dock and put at the pier of the Russian Society of the CER along with the destroyer Grozov and the gunboat Manjur.

    On October 2, 1905, in Shanghai, they received notification of the end of the Russo-Japanese War and the ratification of the peace treaty between Russia and Japan.

    On October 11, the Andreevsky flag was again hoisted on Askold, and on November 1, under the command of the new commander of Captain 2nd Rank KV Stetsenko, the cruiser left for Vladivostok.

    Quote: K2017
    So what? These are just design features. At the same time, they were both close rank reconnaissance cruisers. Therefore, comparing them is not what is possible, but even necessary.

    Neighing !!! This is how to compare the BT-7 with the KV-1. "And so what? These are just design features."
    About the "scouts" I already got sick of writing, especially about the "scouts of the 1st rank". And why then not the 2nd guild?

    Quote: K2017
    There was nothing in common between them. Well, that’s generally different in everything. And the antipodes, Boyar fighter cruiser. Novik, a reconnaissance cruiser. Both are 2 ranks. Both neighbors for their classes. Although if we compare the absolute numbers, then Boyarin went much further, of course.

    Neighing again. Learn the materiel, admiral, you are ours, sofa.

    Quote: K2017
    In the "pebbles" from Novik little is left. Yes, and they can hardly be called successful. This is called "finalized the German project." As a result, something average came out of the reconnaissance cruiser. Not a scout cruiser. But not a fighter cruiser either.

    As the saying goes: "Spit in the eyes - all God's dew." The drain is counted. Learn materiel !!!
    1. The comment was deleted.
  16. Sivasa
    Sivasa 6 July 2017 11: 17
    0
    Alas, all three goddesses turned out to be weak ships. The very concept of a large, but lightly armored ship was already obsolete. And they had to fight in a squadron battle - the worst scenario for armored decks.

    Well, everyone knows the historical path of the ship. I will say one thing - the long stay of Aurora in the ranks, a consequence of the exceptional poverty of the ship's crew on the eve of 1MB.