Military Review

Yak overtaking F-35

81
In the design office of Alexander Sergeevich Yakovlev, they engaged in vertical take-off and landing aircraft (VTOL) in the 1962, and two years later the first car, the Yak-36, was ready for testing. Work on this program was carried out over forty years, the crown was the supersonic fighter Yak-141. In 1991, the chief-pilot of the design bureau Andrei Sinitsyn set 12 world records on it. But the car did not go into the series. Today he, a test pilot of the 1 class and Hero of Russia, recalls the dramatic history Domestic "verticals".


- Vertical take-off and landing require special skills. Classical training received by the pilot, strongly interfere? Is it difficult to retrain in "verticalshchiki"?

- I just did not get a classic flight education. I graduated from MAI in 1972 year. While studying, I flew in the DOSAAF aeroclub. Distributed me in LII them. Gromov, worked as an engineer at the School of Test Pilots Minaviaproma and took the fortress from the inside. Just then, at the Smolensk Aviation Plant, they launched the Yak-18T series, and I was among the students of this very school. After graduation, I went to Smolensk as a factory test pilot, then to Tbilisi in the same capacity as a serial plant, but flew already on the MiG-21UM. And in 1980, I was invited to a test pilot at the Yakovlev company. By the time the Yak-38 was produced in series, even the first modifications began to appear, respectively, and the tests were in full swing. I joined them, but not immediately - I started with transport flights. Then the test bases were many, the message was maintained with all, because the fate of all the new arrivals was the same - the right seat in the Yak-40 and Yak-42. Test flights along the way.

To join the Yak-38 program, it was necessary to master the piloting of the helicopter, since in the hover mode the algorithm of actions is similar. But there are fundamentally different moments. First, the helicopter lands on an air cushion, under which pressure is higher than the ambient. And under the plane there is a vacuum, it sucks. Secondly, the center of gravity of the helicopter is below the point of application of lift, in contrast to an aircraft standing on gas jets. It can be compared with a bulb, in one case located in a hole, and in the other - on a bulge. The very behavior of gas jets and the method of controlling them became the subject of numerous studies and dissertations, the picture there is very complicated.

Yak overtaking F-35


- By the time you came to the "verticalshchiki" already had the experience of predecessors. Were all the aircraft accepted or were those who could not cope with it?

- The leading test pilot of the very first Yakovlev “vertical” - Yak-36, which was shown, including at the parade in 1967 in Domodedovo, was Valentin Grigorievich Mukhin, Hero of the Soviet Union. He also began to work with the Yak-38. Of course, the machine is specific to mastering. In my opinion, it all starts from the roots, from the theory. If a person understands how everything works and works, if all this is passed through the head first, and then through the hands, only then you can feel the plane. "Vertikalka" flies in three modes - the classic aircraft, hovering due to jets and transitional, combining the first two. And success depends on understanding what happens at each stage. For a pilot with a lot of experience behind him, all his previous baggage is often inapplicable. Many, even those who had the qualifications of a tester, turned out to be very difficult to break themselves. They are telling how one very eminent colleague first flew by helicopter - naturally, in the right-hand seat. Before landing, the speed is reduced, which, as a rule, is associated with aerodynamic shaking. And all the man's airplane reflexes rebelled, he began to look for catapult holders. It is clear why - the speed drops, the vibration increases, the height is minimal. On the plane, this means stalling will happen now. What is the normal psyche will stand? Because not all coped. The Yak-36 was attracted to a large group of experienced pilots from LII to the tests of the first “vertical”, but many were not able to work with this machine. When I started to fly, everything became easier - automation was constantly improved and took on many functions. This simplified the work, but did not cancel the reflexes. Mukhina on tests Yak-38 was replaced by Mikhail Sergeyevich Deksbakh, later Hero of the Soviet Union. It was he who essentially managed to completely change the attitude of the pilots to the car. Focus in what? It was believed that if during the tests the power unit fails, then the height of up to two meters seems to be safe, nothing will happen if you fall either with the machine or the pilot. Therefore, it is this height that was chosen for hovering tests. The car in a semi-free state was hung above the concrete. But for a “vertical”, a height of up to two meters is a reactive “garbage”, where gas jets, reflecting from concrete and colliding, behave in the most unpredictable way. The plane chats terribly, keeping it at such a height is almost impossible. Obviously, pilots didn’t evoke optimism. And when Dexbach intuitively turned on the gas and lifted the car up five meters, the situation magically changed: the plane in hover mode became much more docile and controllable. From that moment on, it was this height that became the base for both hover tests and pilot training.

The Yak-38 was also notable for the unique automatic ejection system, not only calculated by pitch and roll, but also taking into account the speed at which the machine approached the boundary values. This system, which was included in the climb of two meters, saved the lives of many pilots.

The experience gained in the tests led to the fact that to recruit "vertical" in the sea Aviation became not from those who already had a solid touch and accumulated reflexes, but from graduates of schools for whom adaptation to unusual piloting conditions was faster and easier. Although experience is not always a hindrance, it is mainly a matter of psychology. They recruited “vertical men” from helicopter pilots, having previously trained them in piloting a fighter. Pilots, respectively, were taught helicopter piloting.

- Just your situation ...

- I didn’t immediately sit down on the Yak-38, although I was transferred to KB with an eye on this car. There were not enough pilots, there was a lot of transport work, and no one was in a hurry to transfer me to the "verticals". At that time, Alexander Yakovlev’s first deputy, who by the time I came to the company was already retiring, was the chief designer of the design bureau Kerim Bekirovich Bekirbayev, who devoted a lot of energy to vertical topics. In many ways, thanks to him, the topic has developed. And it was in his hands was my fate. When I finally could not stand it, I approached Bekirbayev and asked: “Why don't they cook me on Yak-38?”, He answered unexpectedly: “But really, why?”. And gave the command to make a program for me. Nikolay Bessonov taught me in a helicopter, God rest his soul - he died at the G8. I received tolerances for Mi-4 and Mi-8, while flying to LII at MiG-21. But we didn’t have the Sparky Yak-38, but in Saki, there was a naval aviation combat center. The whole story came out with the agreement - Minaviaprom, the Ministry of Defense, the Navy ... I went to Saki, when there was some last signature left, it should have been delivered from day to day. True, I was waiting for her in the Crimea for almost six months. I was mainly taken by the regiment commander for flight training, Volodya Kuchuyev, also already passed away. The guy was wonderful, he became a lieutenant colonel in 29 years, he flew great on the "vertical". But I spent half a year knowingly - in the morning I went to the start, watched the takeoffs and landings, studied the style of piloting, noted some mistakes. I analyzed, I listened attentively to the flight debriefing, so everything went pretty easy for me and I got access to independent work on the Yak-38 quickly.

- And then they returned to the design office with an allowance for the Yak-38 and ...

- Work on this subject for me was not a whole year. On the next painted test program. At that time there were three of us on this car, two experienced ones - Mikhail Deksbakh and Yuri Mitikov, I am young and early. Naturally, they put me everywhere understudy. But it so happened that one flew away on a long trip to Afghanistan, the other fell ill, and the whole amount of test work hung on me. That year I spent a lot of programs, flew into the car, I really liked it. Then there was a modification of the Yak-38M, the lead on it was Mitikov, I had a backup for him.

By the time we experienced a takeoff with a short run-up. It turned out - the most effective thing. During the run-up, the entire shaft of aerodynamic garbage remained behind, the effect of suction disappeared, to compensate for which a fair share of power and fuel was consumed. But the development of this regime was given very hard. As a result, the scheme worked: engine start, main engine nozzle - from the horizon 30 degrees, revolutions of the lifting engines slightly rise, and in this state the run begins. When the speed of 80 – 100 is reached, kilometers per hour, the automatics performs a vertical take-off and the car starts. This way of taking off increased the payload of the machine by 1200 kilograms, a huge number. It turns out either a significant increase in the bomb load, or an equally significant increase in the radius of action. After all, the weight was the most critical parameter for the Yak-38 and, as far as I know, for all the inventions and development proposals that worked to reduce the mass of individual nodes, in the design bureau they gave good prizes. And then immediately such an increase only because of the change of the algorithm of takeoff! That is, we can safely say that the car had enormous hidden reserves. At the same time, science believed that such a take-off for aircraft of the Yak-38 type is impossible in principle due to the fact that the pilot cannot control the three engines synchronously at the moment of separation. There was even an official conclusion that taking off with a short run-up on this car is impossible. Bekirbayev kept this paper in his possession for a long time. But it was thanks to him and the scientists from LII, who had substantiated and thoroughly calculated the methodology, that a takeoff with a shortened run-up became possible. From KB on this program worked Mitikov and Deksbakh, from LII - a wonderful pilot Oleg G. Kononenko. He died just in this mode during tests from a ship in the Far East. You saw that the "nozzles" did not go away with him during takeoff, but it was not possible to find out the specific cause of the catastrophe: the car was not immediately lifted up; it lay in salt water for several months. As it was not found out why the pilot did not eject. I myself flew quite a bit on ships, with the Yak-38 I worked on the Black Sea and then from the Yak-141 - on the Barents Sea.

But as a result, the WRC mode, a takeoff with a short run-up, after everything was worked out, turned out to be very simple and, in addition, saves a huge amount of fuel. In takeoff mode, as far as I remember, the 38-I car ate five kilograms of kerosene per second, and it turned out that with a purely vertical take-off of kilograms of 300, it was spent even at the most efficient work of the pilot. A similar landing, also known as “landing with slipping,” is carried out at a speed of 80 kilometers per hour. Its principle is that when a car goes down, it leaves the aerodynamic “garbage” about which we spoke.

- Could hover mode at a height of, say, 2000 meters be used to solve combat missions?

- It was tested, in particular during tests in Afghanistan. But there, in addition to the high mountains (and in these conditions, the thrust falls) was also very hot, the car barely rose, having only a couple of rockets. Therefore, the tests were carried out; they proved the possibility of using the “vertical” in such conditions, but were convinced that the combat effectiveness of the classic Su-25 attack aircraft in the high mountains is much higher.

What is the point of using "vertical"? Virtually no band needed. Give a stub length 120 – 150 meters, and we take off. WFP during the fighting become almost the main objectives. And we will take off from any surviving piece of concrete. The take-off programs were worked out directly from concrete shelters, which, if needed, made it possible to simultaneously lift into the air all available aircraft without waiting for their turn on the runway. There was a project when the Yak-38 took off from the trailer and boarded it, and the transformable landing pad was also the container in which the aircraft was transported. These tests were successfully conducted by Oleg Kononenko in 1980. To facilitate orientation, a special optical visual landing system was created, which allowed the pilot to see the space under the plane.

It turns out that the first great advantage of the “verticals” is work outside the airfields, this is on land. As a result - covert movement to any point, take-off from any platform. And at sea, it is possible to use practically any vessels for basing and take-off / landing, tests of launch from container ships were carried out. This program was perfectly worked out by instructors from the Saki Center, thus proving that with vertical take-off aircraft any barge can be turned into an aircraft carrier.

- The Yak-38 in its parameters corresponded to the attack aircraft, and the Yak-141 was originally developed as a supersonic fighter. It was you who were the first to lift it into the air, and who, if not you, would appreciate it ...

- Between 141 and 38-y machines was still Yak-39. Formally, the modernization of the Yak-38, but in fact a completely different machine. This project did not take place, although, in my opinion, it would be very useful. And the Yak-141 was developed for a very long time, mainly because of problems with the power plant. At first, one engine was planned that would be able to work “for three” according to the “Harrier” English scheme. Then, due to technical problems, they returned to the three-engine layout. Work began somewhere in the 1979 year, and I made the first flight only in 1987.

The Harrier had a big advantage over the Yak-38 - one engine, not three. The engine is dual-circuit, two front nozzles were taken from the “cold” primary circuit, the two rear ones were already “hot”. It has less pressure of gas jets, which allowed working from the ground. In LII, experiments were also carried out on the take-off of the Yak-38 from the ground, with the installation of special protective nets on the air intakes. The takeoff with a short run-up was obtained, but it did not become standard for the car.

Another advantage of the two-circuit engine "Harrier" - significantly lower fuel consumption. It cannot be said that our engines could not create such a power plant. Rather, they did not have due interest: the work is specific and time-consuming, and the serial order will certainly be small.

- If we talk about the feelings of the pilot, the difference between light and heavy machine is very noticeable?

- The YN-141 turned out to be a percent 60 heavier than the Yak-38, and in piloting it was very noticeable, mainly due to the increased moments of inertia. It was necessary to control the car very carefully, especially on hovering.

The first flight on the Yak-141 was performed on 9 March 1987 of the year. Taking off like an airplane, then the contour of the vertical take-off was not yet brought to mind, but they were in a hurry with tests. Engine developers have assigned 50 hours of engine resources, if not less: there were, as far as I know, problems with the destruction of the nozzle on the stand, so the engines insured. The first test program included twenty flights. After I completed three of them, Bekirbayev calls: “That's all, Andrew, we’re finishing the program, sending the engine for revision.” I tried to object: the program is there, I fly like normal, why stop it? And he: while you are quietly flying there, we are all in a pre-infarction state. They knew that the engine was still raw, that there could be a failure at any time. And to me something is young, an interesting program. Just fly! Then the tests were stopped for two months, which as a result resulted in two years.

A total of four Yak-141 were built - one bench, one for static tests and two flight vehicles. In flight, the control systems differed slightly, with a greater or lesser degree of automation. In September-October 1991, both flight copies were delivered to the Northern Fleet for testing. I happened to be the first to land the Yak-141 on the aircraft-carrying cruiser Admiral Gorshkov and take off from it. That test cycle was essentially the last for the Yak-141. One car crashed and completely out of order.

- What does your ship experience say?

- "Vertikalki" when used with ships is much more humane in relation to the pilot than the classic aircraft. When landing on the aerofinisher, the pilot experiences colossal longitudinal overloads, which affects health, particularly in the eyes and spine. Therefore, the restriction of the number of landings in the flight shift at the deck pilots was introduced. And the approach itself, when the most exact observance of the glide path is required, causes the strongest tension. "Vertikalka" in this regard is very comfortable. We carried out in due time tests on instrumental approach when landing on the ship - the car comes almost at zero. And while no excess loads. How to ride a bike. The landing calculation is the simplest; in adverse weather conditions, only two external parameters need to be known - distance to the site and direction to it. The trajectory can be built in the mind, and this simplicity is captivating. And if the pilot went over that very difficult line, after which piloting the "vertical-bike" becomes comfortable and familiar, then there are some advantages.

- Surely you talked with pilots who have been on long hikes. What did they tell?

- The pilots are hard on the ship. Unaccustomed for them closed space - for months. Plus, problems of hygienic properties, completely unexpected for those who are not in the subject. Fly in the MSC - sea rescue kit, and this is essentially rubber. The pilot dressed in MSK throughout the entire flight shift. The costume has a ventilation system connected to external sources - on the ship and on the plane. Put on - sweat, reached the pre-flight preparation room, connected it to the ventilation system there - you blew it. Colds became the norm, plus some skin irritation. Of course, these issues are solvable, but it is necessary to understand: it is not enough to create a plane and train pilots. There are no trifles in the system of operation of the ship aviation, there are a lot of nuances, and everything must be taken into account - the efficiency of the ship aviation depends on this.

- Why did the Yak-141 project stop and what cars could replace it?

- The designers had amazing ideas, offered non-standard and very promising solutions. I will not tell in detail, because I am not their copyright holder. But the progressive development of vertical themes slowed down at first, and then stopped altogether. The problem is that for the implementation of any technical idea you need an interested customer. And we need funds for research and development, to translate ideas into metal. You can’t forcibly be nice, and it’s pointless to speak in the absence of a customer about some schemes that could be implemented. And after all, not only the Navy can be a customer of machines with vertical takeoff and landing. The same "Harriers" in the set were delivered not only to the fleet, but also to land aviation. In due time, this direction, as far as I know, was supported by Defense Minister Dmitry Fedorovich Ustinov, it was precisely through his efforts that things moved. And slowed sharply soon after his death. And now it is not even known if there are competent people among those who make decisions who really understand what “vertical talk” is and what its capabilities are. After all, with the Yak-141, we were ahead of the West in this direction for ten years, and as it turned out now - even for twenty. Our main highlight is a three-section swiveling nozzle capable of operating at high temperatures. I suppose that the rumors that the Americans in the F-35B modification developed for the Marine Corps used the groundwork of our Yak-141 are based precisely on the similarity of the design of the jet-propulsion nozzle. You must admit, it is strange: having the most powerful carrier-based fleet, the USA nevertheless invested huge sums in the development of the "vertical line", while we, having no similar aircraft-carrier, have curtailed our program. I really hope that the history of domestic aircraft with a vertical and shortened takeoff on the Yak-141 has not stopped, there will be more cars of the next generation.
Author:
Originator:
http://vpk-news.ru/articles/36759
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  1. Andrey Yuryevich
    Andrey Yuryevich 21 May 2017 06: 55
    +6
    vertical lines are interesting, but are they needed? request at present, I do not see any use in our troops ... what
    1. yuriy55
      yuriy55 21 May 2017 07: 03
      +4
      Quote: Andrey Yurievich
      vertical lines are interesting, but are they needed?

      I agree with you in terms of whether we need them? And do Russia really need aircraft carriers? We often read that in Russia here and there they invented something that the world does not have. For example, they now claim that our processors allow ... fellow But we use Chinese, Korean, Japanese ... electronic devices ... Perhaps this is necessary ...
      1. venaya
        venaya 21 May 2017 07: 35
        +2
        Quote: yuriy55
        vertical lines are interesting, but are they needed?
        I agree with you in terms of whether we need them? And do Russia really need aircraft carriers?

        Let them be! "Stock pocket does not pull" - maybe come in handy.
        1. NIKNN
          NIKNN 21 May 2017 16: 31
          +2
          - Vertical take-off and landing require special skills. Classical training received by the pilot, strongly interfere? Is it difficult to retrain in "verticalshchiki"?
          Quote: venaya
          - Vertical take-off and landing require special skills. Classical training received by the pilot, strongly interfere? Is it difficult to retrain in "verticalshchiki"?

          He says it’s not quite right ... "A pilot (at a call) easily flies on everything that flies and makes efforts to fly, on the fact that a priori should not fly ...", but flies ... wink
          And all the man’s plane reflexes rebelled, he began to look for catapult arms. It is clear why - the speed drops, the vibration increases, the minimum height. On a plane, this means that stall will occur. What normal psyche can stand this?

          What is it like a report from House No. 6 ... I don’t know the pilots who grab hold of the pens inconsistently .... we were taught the wrong things and many guys were lost precisely because they did not learn to grab the pens ... recourse
          1. NIKNN
            NIKNN 21 May 2017 17: 19
            +2
            Yak-38 in its parameters corresponded to the attack aircraft

            Oh, and load capacity ??? he only had enough of the 2nd guided explosive rockets to raise, what kind of attack aircraft are we talking about ???
            ,
        2. Zulu_S
          Zulu_S 21 May 2017 17: 48
          +10
          Quote: venaya
          Let them be! "Stock pocket does not pull" - maybe come in handy.

          There is such a thing - "cost of ownership". Imagine that they gave you maybach. For free. The condition is that you use it, and it must be on the go at any moment. Gasoline, 3 drivers, repair and maintenance - at your expense. Question: Will such a supply pull you by the pocket? I look forward to hearing.
          1. KaPToC
            KaPToC 21 May 2017 18: 34
            +1
            Quote: Zulu_S
            Question: Will such a supply pull you by the pocket?

            Gasoline in barrels, spare parts for the warehouse, drivers on indefinite vacation.
            PySy Maybach on pads.
          2. venaya
            venaya 21 May 2017 19: 22
            +1
            Quote: Zulu_S
            There is such a thing - "cost of ownership"

            Take a closer look at the economy and its component military economy. For an understandable reason, the most successful economically developed states almost always have a developed army. The periods of the greatest development of our country also coincide with the development of military equipment. I am always surprised by the desire to get rid of a whole class of aircraft with the capabilities of explosives and P, because such devices, although they have slightly reduced flight performance characteristics, do not require long runways, which is especially important for theaters of military operations at sea. Just the lack of the need to have a runway dramatically reduces the cost of ownership. Try to recalculate the total "cost of ownership" yourself, taking into account the weather conditions in our country, where the cost of maintaining GDP in a good operational condition, the catastrophic shortage of runways and even simple a / m roads is high. In sum, the very presence of HDLP only reduces the total cost of maintaining the aerospace forces in a sufficient combat-ready condition. Is it really so difficult to make such intricate calculations and see the significant total benefit of owning LAVVP?
            1. Zulu_S
              Zulu_S 23 May 2017 00: 01
              +1
              Quote: venaya
              significant total benefits of owning HDL?

              Following your logic, let ALL of our aircraft translate into vertical take-off and landing. Imagine the benefits of the Tu-160 with gdp? No need for super-duper airfields, etc.
              I’m not talking about civil aviation at all. Airport on Komsomolskaya Square in Moscow - stunned! And the fact that the liner will fly exactly to Domodedovo is nonsense. The main thing is that the pocket does not pull.
              If the Yaks had enough for combat use in range, they would have perspective. And so, "if my grandmother had something, she would be a grandfather." Here, calculations are not needed.
              1. Aqela
                Aqela 18 June 2017 06: 59
                +1
                Following your logic, let's use KAMAZ trucks as delivery trucks for bread stalls! laughing good You can also eat borsch with a shovel!
                Tell me, sir, it never occurred to your head, sometime, by chance, the daring idea that tools are usually made optimal specifically for solving specific problems, while universal ones can do a lot, but somehow rather poorly, as a temporary replacement ... request sad For example, with a wrench, you can still hammer a carnation, only with a hammer it’s handy yes I will tell you a terrible secret! belay This also applies to aviation systems! bully
                1. ProkletyiPirat
                  ProkletyiPirat 18 June 2017 20: 57
                  +1
                  "everything is good that in moderation" - no need to overdo it with a narrow specialization, it’s stupid to do two bombers, one for missiles and the other for bombs.
    2. Vladimir73
      Vladimir73 21 May 2017 09: 33
      +8
      Can you read the article a little more closely? repeat
      What is the point of using "vertical"? Virtually no band needed. Give a stub length 120 – 150 meters, and we take off. WFP during the fighting become almost the main objectives. And we will take off from any surviving piece of concrete. The take-off programs were worked out directly from concrete shelters, which, if needed, made it possible to simultaneously lift into the air all available aircraft without waiting for their turn on the runway. There was a project when the Yak-38 took off from the trailer and boarded it, and the transformable landing pad was also the container in which the aircraft was transported. These tests were successfully conducted by Oleg Kononenko in 1980. To facilitate orientation, a special optical visual landing system was created, which allowed the pilot to see the space under the plane.

      Thanks to the author for the article. Very informative.
      1. Per se.
        Per se. 21 May 2017 10: 18
        +12
        Quote: Vladimir73
        Can you read the article a little more closely?
        I wanted to advise this. Somehow everyone forgot that the USSR lost most of its aviation on the very first day of the war, when the Germans hit the airfields in June 1941. Somehow, people don’t want to understand that kilometer runways have long been priority goals, and they will be destroyed along with all infrastructure at the outbreak of hostilities, especially when there is a preemptive strike with ballistic or cruise missiles. Speaking of the fleet, which is always in business, and which is one of the main tools for "prevention" from a major war or its pre-launch state, one must also understand this. First, a fleet is needed, and a full-fledged fleet is needed, capable of performing all tasks at sea. All tasks at sea cannot be completed without naval aviation. If anyone is tormented by the question whether Russia needs aircraft carriers, first you need to realize that an aircraft carrier, first of all, is an aircraft carrier, its mobile platform, sea airfield, capable of moving to any desired point in the world ocean. If aviation is needed for the fleet, and this is so, then aircraft carriers, no doubt, are needed. For stubborn "economists" it is important to know that an aircraft carrier is more efficient and cheaper than a number of ground-based airdromes, especially abroad. Secondly, it is the VTOL aircraft that can be used both from practically any ships suitable for their launch and landing, and directly from smaller aircraft carriers or UDC. In addition, VTOL can also use the traditional take-off to save fuel or shorten it if there is no need for a vertical one, and traditional planes do not have such a choice. In short, those who cut down our VTOL project, either fools or traitors, are not given a third. The sooner the work on the topic of VTOL will be resumed, the better, you can lag behind here forever.
        1. Vladimir73
          Vladimir73 21 May 2017 11: 16
          +4
          Absolutely agree!!! Only the Saratov Aviation has already been "torn apart" so it is necessary to build a new one, new equipment, to teach specialists and pilots ... It is much easier to steal and it’s more difficult to restore ...
        2. Aqela
          Aqela 18 June 2017 07: 04
          +1
          I agree. I would like to note that the presence of "Hornets" and (in the old days smile ) “Corsairs” did not stop the amers from setting up the release of the British VTOL “Harriers”. Taki shut up hopes for the development of the A-12 deep in the bosom and went to the "islanders" to bow ...
          PySy Nick is cool. Hammered Latin, she is so hammered good
      2. ProkletyiPirat
        ProkletyiPirat 21 May 2017 15: 15
        +1
        Quote: Vladimir73
        Can you read the article a little more closely? repeat

        Stop! and now what the heck is this? the concrete runway is repaired in a couple of hours, it can be faster, it just doesn’t make sense, because the same time it takes to prepare the aircraft.
        1. Vladimir73
          Vladimir73 24 May 2017 19: 59
          +2
          Quote: ProkletyiPirat
          concrete runway is repaired in a couple of hours


          I will not argue, only repair after a massive blow in case there is anyone to repair and what ... request
          The planes are then hidden in the caponiers .... with equipment and personnel I'm not sure that it is constantly in shelters ...
          1. ProkletyiPirat
            ProkletyiPirat 24 May 2017 22: 55
            0
            everything is also in caponiers, and even hidden in the greenhouse, there isn’t so much needed then, a few runway cleaners and a couple of canisters with special solution, if more powerful means were used, for example, high-explosive when there are funnels several meters away, then there is no problem there, they use crushed stone, a pair of shovels and a new concrete slab on top. Even if all the equipment is destroyed, then from the city you can drive a conventional Belarus tractor with brushes and several bags of rubble, concrete and a chemical thickener for adhesion to it. The 21st century in the yard for a long time everything is there even for a citizen.

            It used to be nothing and all the runways were unpaved, and now these concrete blocks are a dime a dozen, some airports are worth something ...
            1. Aqela
              Aqela 18 June 2017 07: 11
              +1
              Yeah ... Well, yes ... And, after suppressing the anti-aircraft defense of the object, during these two hours they will make another five air raids and land on shelters with cruise missiles ... good From the town from which they hoped to drive the tractor, there will be a radioactive clearing or a mustard lake, sprinkled with vi-gas good In short, not a war with massive methodical mixing of personnel with shovels and gravel into a homogeneous mass, but the amelioration of air and a cloud of leaflets of liberal content wassat fool With your lips and yes the honey would grunt! laughing
              1. ProkletyiPirat
                ProkletyiPirat 18 June 2017 21: 04
                0
                don't exaggerate, then what you described is decided by stocks of anti-aircraft missiles.
                By the way, which is better? keep 100 airfields for 10 air defense systems or 10 airfields for 200 air defense systems? the second is clearly more profitable
    3. Nikolai Baryshov
      Nikolai Baryshov 21 May 2017 16: 16
      +3
      We do not need plants and factories, according to the battalion of Gaidarovtsev !! They will sell everything and buy !!
    4. KaPToC
      KaPToC 21 May 2017 18: 30
      +2
      Quote: Andrey Yurievich
      vertical lines are interesting, but are they needed?

      Vertical helicopters will replace helicopters, since helicopters have reached the limits of their perfection.
    5. gridasov
      gridasov 23 May 2017 11: 06
      +2
      The reasoning is very logical and this is understandable why. Because the possibility of achieving vertical take-off by such a complex of efforts has no justification. The vast majority of people expressing their opinion on the vertical take-off of a machine weighing tens of tons do not even know what physical issues this is connected with. Therefore, in modern design turbines, an effective take-off, flight, maneuverability and landing at any site will never be achieved in general. Particularly terrifying is the problem of fuel consumption during vertical take-off and landing. At the same time, the absence of a significant supply of the reference flow instantly overturns the machine and means that there must be a huge increase in traction when the vector of this reference flow changes. None of the existing physical methods and devices can provide such an instant increase in the speed of rotation and increase the air flow. Essentially new solutions are needed.
      1. Aqela
        Aqela 18 June 2017 07: 23
        +1
        Yeah ... Well, yes ... You still say that a CPU with a frequency of 4 gigahertz and two element lards is also all enemy propaganda ... wassat good
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 18 June 2017 10: 43
          0
          I can’t say that this is not an achievement. However, everything should be much simpler and mean better, and most importantly, orders of magnitude more efficient. That's what I’m talking about. If you are in your right mind, then imagine for yourself that 2 billion elements and each with its own functional task and with its own parameters, which means that everyone can exit the workflow and cause the entire system to fail. In addition, 4 GHz is not the limit
        2. ProkletyiPirat
          ProkletyiPirat 18 June 2017 21: 05
          0
          no gigahertz lives alone CPU laughing
  2. karish
    karish 21 May 2017 07: 08
    +21
    What I like is the diversity of articles on Vaud.
    One day you can see
    F35 bullshit, stealth - no, PAK FA - cooler and stealth.
    The shuttle was licked with snowstorm. snowstorm - power. Shuttle - bullshit. why? because . that having flown more than 100 times - never flew in autopilot.
    f-35 vertical - bullshit. but Yak was the first and certainly cooler .-- what difference does it make - that there is no Yak and practically wasn’t - it is cooler.
    aircraft carriers - bullshit. corvettes are better, Russia certainly can make an aircraft carrier 9 as Rogozin said yesterday) - but why do we need 7 large ships (I quote). a large ship is a large target. we will manufacture smaller ones, with the possibility of larger ones.
    ITD ITP - all that is in the West is invented in Russia \ USSR and the West is stolen.
    I believe that rumors that the Americans in the modification developed for the Marine Corps modification F-35B used the achievements of our Yak-141, aboutjust based on the similarity of the design of the nozzle lift-propulsion engine.

    gut.
    1. Same lech
      Same lech 21 May 2017 07: 41
      +10
      smile

      I will continue your logic ...
      comment bullshit ... concocted in the west ...

      all bullshit but we’ll do better bullshit.
      smile hi
      1. karish
        karish 21 May 2017 07: 59
        +13
        Quote: The same Lech
        smile
        I will continue your logic ...
        comment bullshit ... concocted in the west ...
        all bullshit but we’ll do better bullshit.
        smile hi

        without continuing the logic - bullshit was invented from us, but the west stole it from us.
        Their bullshit is bullshit, and our present wassat
    2. saturn.mmm
      saturn.mmm 21 May 2017 11: 09
      +4
      Quote: karish
      ITD ITP - all that is in the West is invented in Russia \ USSR and the West is stolen.

      Lockheed Martin themselves give out information that when creating the F-35 they collaborated with Yakovlev Design Bureau and bought certain documentation on the Yak-141 for 500 thousand dollars.
      1. Blackmokona
        Blackmokona 21 May 2017 15: 55
        +2
        However, they had an experimental aircraft much more similar to the F35B than the Yak.
        1. saturn.mmm
          saturn.mmm 21 May 2017 21: 11
          0
          Quote: BlackMokona
          However, they had an experimental aircraft much more similar to the F35B than the Yak.

          What is this?
          1. Blackmokona
            Blackmokona 21 May 2017 23: 07
            +1
            https://topwar.ru/52542-rossiyskie-konstаrukcii-p
            ovorotnogo-sopla.html


            Convair Model 200
            1. saturn.mmm
              saturn.mmm 22 May 2017 00: 58
              0
              Quote: BlackMokona
              Convair Model 200

              The Convair Model 200 is just a drawing; they didn’t go any further; there was no plane.
              1. Blackmokona
                Blackmokona 22 May 2017 11: 00
                0
                Nevertheless, the ideas and ideas of the Model 200 did not disappear without a trace. In the 90s, Lockheed-Martin bought from General Dynamics all their aviation units, including Convair. All information and results obtained during the work on the Model 200 were used in subsequent projects, including the F-35
                1. wazza
                  wazza 23 May 2017 23: 45
                  +1
                  Somehow this picture is not like the F-35 from the word at all, even in the nozzle part. Then they drew something on the other side on this sheet of paper with the Convair 200?
      2. Koluj
        Koluj 23 May 2017 13: 45
        0
        Why so cheap?
    3. NIKNN
      NIKNN 21 May 2017 17: 48
      +8
      Quote: karish
      ITD ITP - all that is in the West is invented in Russia \ USSR and the West is stolen.

      Well, your irony is clear to me, and it’s not worthwhile to rely on the erroneous opinion of commenters as proof (you first specify their education and specialization, that is, their profession), no one who hates the US aviation industry, I’m sure that there are no less brains, and the possibility of implementation there are probably more ideas .. And f35 for the next modernization will fix many of its problems ... JUST HERE HAVE BEEN ADOPTED TO HANDLING TO PROTECT YOUR INTERESTS. So, this is normal and I see no reason to break copies, but I see only the possibility of respecting the opinion, as for me, the F35 is a worthy confidante and my interest in him consists in studying and analyzing its strengths and weaknesses, everything seems to be banal ... , IT'S NOT ALL YOU DROP BY YOU, WE'LL DROP ON YOURSHEPS ...
      1. KaPToC
        KaPToC 21 May 2017 18: 41
        +3
        Quote: NIKNN
        SIMPLY HERE HAVE BEEN USED TO GRAVE TO PROTECT YOUR INTERESTS

        This is probably the answer to the fact that someone under the God's chosen flag likes to scold all of ours? let them go to American forums - everything American is praised there.
        1. NIKNN
          NIKNN 21 May 2017 18: 42
          +3
          Quote: KaPToC
          This is probably the answer to the fact that someone under the God's chosen flag likes to scold all of ours? let them go to American forums - everything American is praised there.

          Yes, let go let them entertain you. Let yourself really look at things ... wink
  3. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 21 May 2017 07: 11
    +3
    "Ehidny question": well, where is now the production and technological documentation for the Yak-141, who now owns it?
    1. karish
      karish 21 May 2017 08: 01
      +5
      Quote: Monster_Fat
      "Ehidny question": well, where is now the production and technological documentation for the Yak-141, who now owns it?

      Well, of course, in the West - do you even imagine how much this documentation takes?
      And if you take the accompanying technological chains?
      1. Monster_Fat
        Monster_Fat 21 May 2017 08: 14
        +5
        Do you even imagine how much this documentation takes?


        blues? "tracing paper"? escorts? etc. or ... "photo-digitization"? In different cases, the volumes will be different, from a few paper cars to about 10 TB depending on compression ...

        And if you take the accompanying technological chains?


        Are you from mining? Then yes, "it's hard to even imagine ...."

        Well, what if, nevertheless, “on the merits of the matter”? "Where .... Zin?"
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 21 May 2017 08: 51
      +2
      Quote: Monster_Fat
      The echidna question ": where is the production and technological documentation for the Yak-141 now, who now owns it?

      Here.https: //topwar.ru/4724-yak-141freestyle-gon
      ki-po-vertikali.html
    3. Winnie76
      Winnie76 21 May 2017 09: 59
      +1
      "Echidna answer": it was necessary to send docks to the death star to the heap. Let them build \ saw ...
  4. lance
    lance 21 May 2017 10: 56
    +4
    surely new developments will appear in 25 years from the operation of the f-35v, maybe by that time we’ll save up money and the corresponding aircraft carrier.
  5. mahoney
    mahoney 21 May 2017 11: 11
    +1
    Who cares who invented?
    It is important who applied ....
    1. Aqela
      Aqela 18 June 2017 07: 30
      0
      Right! For example, an apparatus for measuring blood pressure:
      The method for registering blood pressure using a mercury manometer, which underlies the tonometer, and the first metal sphygmomanometer were invented in 1881 by Austrian physiologist and pathophysiologist Samuel Siegfried Karl von Bash. In 1896, Shipione Riva-Rocci supplemented the device with a measuring cuff. In 1905, the Russian surgeon N. S. Korotkov proposed the use of auscultation in measuring blood pressure and described systolic and diastolic tones that accompany cuff deflation.
      love
  6. Sanny
    Sanny 21 May 2017 12: 04
    +3
    Already wrote in a nearby branch that the future of both the military and civilian future is for vertical takeoff and landing aircraft! In the military sphere, the use of aviation is radically changing with the support of troops on the battlefield, at the naval theater of operations. This is a departure from GDP, from the same strip, which is expensive and often closes under weather conditions. Previously, there were problems with the controllability of vertically taking off and landing vehicles due to the limited capabilities of pilots. In the 21st century, with the development of information on-board systems, this became a practically solved problem. Landing of the 1st stage of the Ilona Mask missile system is just what it costs!
    1. Walanin
      Walanin 21 May 2017 12: 50
      +4
      Get ready, now the poson here will explain to you what Mask drank and in general the Falcon does not fly laughing
    2. Conserp
      Conserp 8 March 2018 10: 00
      0
      Quote: Sanny
      Landing of the 1st stage of the Ilona Mask missile system is just what it costs!


      It costs $ 100 million dollars. While the launch of the "Union" is entirely worth only 48. This is so, just in case.

      But in fact, yes - VTOL aircraft, ekranoplanes and many other devices primarily suffered from the lack of perfect electronic autopilots.
  7. cedar
    cedar 21 May 2017 12: 43
    +7
    Quote: karish
    I believe that the rumors that the Americans in the F-35B modification developed for the Marine Corps used the achievements of our Yak-141 are based on the similarity of the design of the nozzle of the lifting-marching engine.


    On the Deriban of the USSR, the West and Izrail profited be healthy. Most likely you still disassemble suitcases with Soviet, military developments. You know how to reap that did not sow ...
  8. the same doctor
    the same doctor 21 May 2017 13: 05
    0
    Interestingly, but where did my post go? Really again accidentally issued military secrets?
  9. ares1988
    ares1988 21 May 2017 13: 09
    0
    Well, a very provocative headline)) If it was meant that the Yak-141 overtook the F-35 in terms of performance characteristics, then: just simulate the air battle of these machines, and everything will become clear. If you had in mind that you overtook it in time, it was created before - then there are no questions, but with the same success we can say that it was also overtaken by the Yak-38 and Harrier ...
  10. The comment was deleted.
  11. kig
    kig 21 May 2017 13: 15
    +1
    The headline, of course, is loud, it is already becoming a tradition. The fact that the F35 flies, and the Yak was made in 4 copies, does not mean anything. But in the end, only rumors: rumors that the Americans in the modification developed for the Marine Corps modification F-35B used the achievements of our Yak-141

    In the history of aviation, you can find a lot of original projects that have not received development and have not come true. So with the 141st it happened. Probably a pity. But if he were so wonderful, he would surely have been launched into the series.
  12. staviator
    staviator 21 May 2017 13: 48
    +2
    Quote: Per se.
    For stubborn "economists" it is important to know that an aircraft carrier is more efficient and cheaper than a number of ground-based airdromes, especially abroad.

    A very controversial issue. "Aircraft carriers in this case are considered as part of an aircraft carrier strike group (ASG). According to analysts, the contents of the ASG, which includes one aircraft carrier, five cruisers and destroyers, a multi-purpose nuclear submarine, about 80 pieces of aircraft and not less than 6700 people, the Pentagon costs a very large figure - about six and a half million dollars a day.Since December 1, last year 2012, when the USS Enterprise aircraft carrier was expelled from the Navy, the United States has ten such ACGs. 65 million daily. "But the aircraft carriers do not know one at a time, and where is the savings here? Very informative article https://vpk.name/news/86870_avianoscyi_i_dengi_mn
    enie_g_hendriksa.html
    And here's another one from the archive: http: //topwar.ru/military-archive/army/This is for stubborn "economists." hi
    1. Tsoy
      Tsoy 27 May 2017 23: 21
      0
      Quote: staviator
      have ten such AUG. About 65 million daily is spent on their maintenance and operation.


      Not quite a valid count. On the operational duty and combat operations are 1-2 group. The rest in the ports for repair or off the coast on exercises in a reduced group configuration.
      1. staviator
        staviator 29 May 2017 13: 53
        0
        Well, in any case, an aircraft carrier, even in a parking lot, is several times more expensive than a stationary aerodrome, isn’t it? Plus, the construction of an aircraft carrier (4-5 billion greenery) And there is no question of saving. Not every nation can afford several aircraft carriers.
        1. Tsoy
          Tsoy 31 May 2017 17: 46
          0
          Quote: staviator
          To contain several aircraft carriers can not afford every power.


          Moreover, only the USA can afford 10 AUG. Despite the rest of the fleet, bases, payments to the military, and R & D of new types of weapons. But in relation to the US GDP is far from the first place in the world. They have a lot of money, so do not soar. But of course the aircraft carrier is an expensive toy, with dubious efficiency.
  13. Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 21 May 2017 14: 00
    +4
    Again they shake the glorious Soviet past in front of the damned American present. We go down to earth and are proud only of what is in the current Air Force that you can touch and throw into battle, rather than museum exhibits and, all the more, drawings.
  14. silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 21 May 2017 14: 07
    +2
    aircraft with vertical take-off ... this is probably the future of fighter and attack aircraft ... and it does not matter unmanned or manned ... the benefits of combat use are obvious ... and suitable airfields in the area of ​​warfare may not be from the word at all. ..for example, support for a ground operation in the central part of the United States in the conditions of the complete disruption of all runways ... an aircraft carrier can’t help ... fly from the coast through a half-continent ... COMMAND NEED AND IMPORTANT TOPIC
  15. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 21 May 2017 14: 27
    +4
    In fact, the Yak-141 was not the "last dying rattle" ,, vertical bars ,, ... there was also the Yak-201 project, which differed in some technical solutions from the Yak-141. I can’t dare to prove why, but for some reason Yak -201 (although in the project) I "like" more than the Yak-141 ... It is unfortunate that the E.B.N. mess did not allow the Yak-201 project to be implemented into real "hardware"!
  16. Lancer
    Lancer 21 May 2017 15: 40
    0
    What else do the F-35 and Yak-141 have in common, besides the possibility of vertical take-off?
  17. FART_RU
    FART_RU 21 May 2017 16: 40
    0
    Yak 38 served at 99, while changing engines to that 16 in Severomorsk3 2 fell in 2 weeks
    1. saturn.mmm
      saturn.mmm 21 May 2017 21: 28
      0
      Quote: FART_RU
      Yak 38 served at 99, while changing engines to that 16 in Severomorsk3 2 fell in 2 weeks

      Harriers fell no less than the Yak-38
      1. ProkletyiPirat
        ProkletyiPirat 21 May 2017 21: 53
        +1
        Quote: saturn.mmm
        Quote: FART_RU
        Yak 38 served at 99, while changing engines to that 16 in Severomorsk3 2 fell in 2 weeks

        Harriers fell no less than the Yak-38

        great reason to use yak38! fool
        1. saturn.mmm
          saturn.mmm 22 May 2017 01: 22
          +1
          Quote: ProkletyiPirat
          great reason to use yak38!

          I didn’t write about the reasons, I just pointed out that the western vertical lines were as emergency as the Soviet ones, it’s something that you self-excited
      2. sivuch
        sivuch 22 May 2017 09: 07
        +1
        Actually, less. I won’t give statistics on the move, but if you really want to, I’ll try to find it. Although Harrier also fell a lot and willingly. Moreover, in the database it turned out to be much more confusing than classic aircraft. The reasons are quite obvious - one engine with 4 rotary nozzles in the form of the letter Zu. Moreover, they were located close to the CM and were not screened by the design
  18. NIKNN
    NIKNN 21 May 2017 17: 15
    +2
    Why didn’t they publish me ... I’ll try again ... - Vertical take-off and landing require special skills. Is the classic training received by the pilot a big hindrance? It is difficult to retrain in the "vertical"?
    Quote: venaya
    - Vertical take-off and landing require special skills. Classical training received by the pilot, strongly interfere? Is it difficult to retrain in "verticalshchiki"?
    He says it’s not quite right ... "A pilot (at a call) easily flies on everything that flies and makes efforts to fly, on what a priori should not fly ...", but flies ... wink
    And all the man’s plane reflexes rebelled, he began to look for catapult arms. It is clear why - the speed drops, the vibration increases, the minimum height. On a plane, this means that stall will occur. What normal psyche can stand this?
    Something like a report from the ward number 6 ... I don’t know the pilots who grab hold of the pens in an inconsistent way .... we were taught the wrong things and many guys were lost precisely because they didn’t teach us to grab the pens ... recourse
  19. Willywonka
    Willywonka 21 May 2017 17: 38
    +1
    F-35B will be shipped to Israel and EMNIP Brit. First of all, this is the expansion of capabilities during special operations.
    F-35 at the moment inspires respect, more than 90 thousand hours of flight without a fallen plane is not a muhra muhra. While we do not have a single 5th generation aircraft, the Americans already have more than 400 aircraft in their composition. At the time when we will have the first link, the total number of 5th generation cars in the USA should be about 1000.
    1. ProkletyiPirat
      ProkletyiPirat 21 May 2017 21: 55
      0
      that sense of this quantity? an anti-aircraft missile will still bring down that 4th or 5th generation ...
      1. Willywonka
        Willywonka 21 May 2017 22: 30
        +1
        To bring down it is necessary to carry out target designation, but with the latter there is a problem. That is the point. Having the ability to penetrate contested areas, having an overwhelming advantage in the fight against the 4th generation, the quantity is very important.
        1. ProkletyiPirat
          ProkletyiPirat 23 May 2017 18: 43
          0
          hde logic? awww! fool
          why do you need a new plane if it just does not detect the enemy? for detection, you need radars on the ground that on board the car inside the rocket, the same plane of the 5th, 6th, 100500th generation will not see nichrome without radar, but if there is already a radar then why put it on the plane?
  20. Pate
    Pate 22 May 2017 13: 37
    +2
    VTOL need the fleet and the leadership of our state to recall these aircraft, because the Americans supply their aircraft carriers with similar aircraft, so it’s time for the fleet management to remind the head of state about the Yak-41, under the pretext that the Americans have VTOL and that our fleet these are also needed.
  21. A1845
    A1845 22 May 2017 16: 43
    0
    vertical lines are of course great inferior to real fighters, but on the other hand they have their own advantages, for example 2 (two!) dozens of starting positions on Elizabeth! And how many start on the Storm?
  22. Taoist
    Taoist 22 May 2017 17: 56
    0
    In fact, now vertical lines like the 41 and cruisers like the 1143.4 project could be more than a topic. A universal combat vehicle that independently solves a small but almost unlimited range of tasks.
    And how to retrain pilots to vertical lines ... Yes, there was still the sight of 4 flight shifts per week on 6-8 sorties on board ...
  23. Just a man
    Just a man 27 May 2017 03: 58
    +1
    So, a little bit of "puff" on the topic of aviation. When I look at how flies fly, their ability to take off from a quarry in any direction, how they can maneuver, the ratio of energy (refueling) to time and flight range, the idea comes to which of the designers will be able to realize this natural phenomenon in iron or other materials will make a revolution in all aviation.
  24. mac789
    mac789 9 June 2017 09: 39
    0
    If you move the air intakes up, placing them above the wings, then the air intake from below will disappear, and the lifting force will increase.
    1. ProkletyiPirat
      ProkletyiPirat 9 June 2017 17: 56
      0
      Yes, even where you make air intakes, stability will not increase anyway ...
    2. Conserp
      Conserp 8 March 2018 10: 10
      0
      There is nothing to do with the OT, because of the Bernoulli effect, the engine jets create a suction siphon on the plane.
  25. seacap
    seacap 10 August 2017 20: 01
    +2
    In power in the 90s, our liberists (traitors) sold it (they didn’t forget about their pockets), donated, so many technologies and inventions that the Westerners had to create an entire institute to rake everything, still work in sweat faces. And this aircraft among them, which saved the so adored states (owners) of the billion dollars, i.e. For a long time they unsuccessfully fought over this type of machine, injecting $ bills, received it, a few years later launched their brainchild in a series. At the same time, they dragged specialists and engineers to themselves, it is hardly possible to find a laboratory or a design office in the states without ours now (no longer our) people. I will never forget how the granddaughter of the writer or the redhead, said that let them go at least everything that they learn there, acquire new skills and technologies and return to create and create here with us, well, where they are all trained , 25 years have passed, would it be time already to learn? Along the way, with a brain drain, the education system and science were destroyed, laboratories and design bureaus were closed and sold out. As a result, now when they started talking about a technological breakthrough, by whom, with what and where? And again the voucher redhead at the next a place on the edge of progress, where the loot, with zero effect for the country, there are scandals and disassembly again, no effective manager will ever create or build anything, he is not able to create, be Yakovlev, Tupolev, etc. So good luck to us not to see so m cheating, recalling past achievements and feats, like the same Poles. living at times the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Italians-Roman Empire and other minor unimportant countries