Military Review

China and the Russian Civil War

Paradoxically, for China participation in the First World War on the side of the Entente and influence on the events of the Civil War in Russia turned out to be two sides of the same coin. In one shot, the Chinese "killed two birds with one stone".

Participation in world war was expressed for China in sending troops to the border, which were supposed to halt the advancement of the Bolshevik units (it was believed that the Bolshevik government was headed by German agents, and accordingly the Bolshevik Russia was considered a German satellite) in the border area with China.

Already by 6 February, 1918, the 2 squadron of cavalry and the 1 battalion of Mongolian infantry were advanced to the border in order to halt the advance of "Bolsheviks and German prisoners of war".

When the 18 of June 1918 was. The Czech troops defeated Irkutsk, 600 people of Chinese and Mongolian soldiers came forward to protect Maymachen. On July 6, 1 squadrons of cavalry and Mongolian troops were sent to protect the eastern and western outposts of China.

20 July 1918 X. 20 Chinese cavalrymen captured 7 Austrian prisoners of war, brought in and interned in Verkhneudinsk. When the Bolsheviks arrested the Russian influential citizens 10 on May 6 in Maymachen, they were beaten off by a Chinese company put forward to save them.

Active operations of the Chinese border units continued. For example, on August 15, two squadrons of cavalry and 1918 battalions of Mongolian soldiers were sent to Kudalin to fight with Bolsheviks approaching the border and Austro-Hungarian prisoners of war. Several people were killed. On the same day, a squadron of cavalry was sent to defend against the Bolsheviks of Verkhneudinsk.

1 September 1918 3 companies of Chinese soldiers and 300 Mongols, in cooperation with the Czechs, captured a Bolshevik commander in Troitsko-Savske, and 2 thousand Austrian-German prisoners of war were interned in the Czechoslovak camp. It was confiscated and transferred to the Czech parts of 40 machine guns, 6 guns, 2 thousand rifles, gunpowder and horses.

In the battle of 12 in September, the Bolshevik detachment from Troitsko-Savska was destroyed in Mongolia, and the 2 companies of Chinese and 400 of Mongolian soldiers pursued the Bolsheviks for over 20 km.

On October 13, 1918, at the request of Japan, a squadron of Chinese cavalry was launched to search for the Bolsheviks.

In total, around 3 thousand Chinese and 1 thousand Mongolian soldiers acted in the vicinity of Kyakhta.

When the Allies decided to help the Czechoslovakians by sending troops to Vladivostok, the Chinese government also decided to take part in this. On July 23, the issue of sending troops to Vladivostok was finally resolved, and on August 25, a declaration of the Chinese government was published about the reasons for it to send its troops to Vladivostok.

It noted that in Russia there was a turmoil, which took advantage of the central powers. German and Austrian prisoners in Siberia rebelled and prevented the Czech troops from advancing to the East. The Chinese government goes to meet the proposal of the American government and sends its troops for joint action with the allies. It was declared that Chinese troops would respect the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Russia and would not interfere in Russian domestic politics. After completing the tasks assigned to them, the Chinese troops will be completely withdrawn from Russia.

The schedule for the transfer of Chinese troops to Vladivostok looked as follows:
18 August 1918 - 600 man of the 1 Battalion, 33 Regiment, 9 Infantry Division, and 20 gendarmes; 19 August 1918 - 600 man from the 2 battalion of the 33 regiment of the same division, about 100 man of a machine-gun company, about 150 a man of the company; 20 August 1918 - a platoon of a consignment company of the 9 Division, about 150 a man of an engineer company, half-squadron of cavalry; 21 of August 1918 - 2-th battery of 1-th artillery division of 9-division (150 people), 2-th squadron of 1-th cavalry division (150 people); 22 August 1918 - 2 th convoy semi-squadron of the 33 Infantry Regiment of the 9 th division, 12 gendarmes, 200 workers [Popov-Tativ NM K stories Civil War in Russia // Military Thought and Revolution. - 1923. - September October. - S. 113].

1918-th year was characterized by a continuous stream of secret loans provided by Japan to China under a variety of pretexts. Their total amount exceeded 240 million yen. To a large extent, these funds were used to support operations in the Kyakhta area 4 thousand people of Sino-Mongolian troops, as well as 1,5 thousand Chinese soldiers and officers in Vladivostok.

A secret agreement was signed on the supply of Japan to China weapons, for which 28, November, was awarded a special loan in 20 million yen.

As a result of the subsequent political perturbations, the situation has changed. In collaboration with the Japanese in order to create Great Mongolia, ataman G. M. Semenov was actively working. Despite the negative attitude of the Mongols to the Japanese-Semenov venture, it served as a pretext for interference from China.

18 July 1919, General Xu Shu-cheng, is appointed Defense Commissioner for the north-western border and takes measures to increase the number of Chinese troops in Urga to 4 thousand people. In October, he personally arrives in Mongolia and by means of threats and bribes, he achieves that on November 16 of the same year the Mongols voluntarily renounced autonomy, and by December 2 the Mongolian troops were disarmed and disbanded.

In November, 1919 was canceled by the Chinese government on the Russian-Chinese-Mongolian agreement of 25 on May 1915, and in January on 1920, the Russian-Chinese agreement on the Hulunbuir district of Northern Manchuria.

The abolition of the autonomy of Mongolia was an unpleasant surprise for Japan. Soon the situation changes once again. July 28 The 1920 of the Border Defense Bureau is abolished, and its troops are included in the regular army of China. General Xu Shu-zheng responds from Mongolia.

By this time, the ratio of forces within Mongolia also changes. The lack of tact on the part of the Chinese administration and its violence cause discontent on the part of the Mongols and induce the latter to support the White Guard detachments of R. F. Ungern, who attacked Urga in October 1920, which was taken by him 4 February 1921. the troops were destroyed.

The direct or indirect participation of the Chinese armed forces in the Civil War in Russia ended with this.

The Entente could not be satisfied with the actions of the Chinese troops, since the transfer to the European theater of military operations that was expected of them did not take place. The military actions of the Chinese against Soviet Russia could not have caused the latter significant harm, but they could not contribute to the establishment of friendly relations.

China and the Russian Civil War

Chinese soldiers 1920

Chinese soldiers. Vladivostok. Autumn 1918

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  1. Ascetic
    Ascetic 24 May 2017 05: 45
    With one shot, the Chinese "killed two birds with one stone."

    the article is somewhat one-sided about the role of the Chinese, especially in the civil war in Russia, the same can be said about the Bolsheviks who created international groups, including from Chinese workers in Russia (guest workers as they say now). Many of them were subsequently specially sent to China, to “export the revolution” - to help create the Chinese Red Army and fight the international imperialists in Asia. Thus, the Communists killed two birds with one stone at once: they got rid of the allies that became unnecessary and even dangerous and “helped” China, which was fighting for independence.
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 24 May 2017 06: 39
    The Chinese mercenaries in the service of the Bolsheviks are not mentioned, for example, along with the Latvians, who protected the Bolshevik bonzes: they did not trust the Russians.
    Their ferocity as punishers has been noted in many testimonies.
    1. Serge72
      Serge72 24 May 2017 07: 56
      As I understand it, the article is about the military-state formations of China. And mercenaries are private individuals participating in hostilities in foreign countries. As a rule, people are illegal.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 24 May 2017 10: 29
        They also have to pay allowance!
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 24 May 2017 09: 44

      Here in this book the Mercenary-CHINESE is mentioned!
      1. cost
        cost 25 May 2017 23: 56
        Yashka-gypsy only in the "Elusive Avengers" was. And in the book of Blyakhin "Red Devils", which put this film, he was a Chinese
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 26 May 2017 04: 36
          “Red Devils” is a Soviet silent feature film by Ivan Perestiani, an adaptation of the novel of the same name by Pavel Blyakhin. One of the most famous and often cited works of Soviet adventure cinema. The film premiered on September 25, 1923 in Tiflis.
          The events shown in the film belonged to the period of the recently ended Civil War and took place in Ukraine against the background of the fighting of the First Mounted Army of Budyonny against the units of Makhno.

          The film tells about the heroic adventures of three young scouts, soldiers of the First Horse Army - Misha, Dunyasha and black street acrobat Tom Jackson. The village in which the young heroes of the film live is attacked by people of Makhno. The guys decide to organize a small detachment.\
          Chinese probably did not find!
          1. cost
            cost 26 May 2017 22: 42
            There were three guys in the story of Blyakhin: Danka, his sister Ksanka and Chinese Yu.
            Chinese Yu-yu (in the 1923 film was replaced by the black street acrobat Tom Jackson, since at the time of the film's creation the USSR had a difficult relationship with China. For the same reason, in the film The Elusive Avengers of 1967, when the USSR had a difficult relationship from the USA, Tom Jackson was replaced by the apolitical gypsy Yashka and added to the company of the fourth boy, an intelligent gymnasium student Valero.
    3. Castro Ruiz
      Castro Ruiz 27 May 2017 23: 22
      Kak mogli russkim doveryat, kogda eti bonzi bili na 99% zhidami. :)
      1. Weyland
        Weyland 29 May 2017 13: 16
        Do not exaggerate. Not 99%, but only 85 lol
    4. The comment was deleted.
    5. Castro Ruiz
      Castro Ruiz 27 May 2017 23: 26
      Nu kak bi mogli eti bonzi russkim doveryat, kogda na 99% buduchi zhidami?!
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 24 May 2017 07: 44
    Question to the author, but what kind of Chinese troops were these? The troops of the "northern militarists" or the troops of Sun Yat-sen? .. According to the meaning of the article, it seems more impressive that during the civil war in Russia, China was a single power, although this is far from the case ..
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 24 May 2017 21: 06
      Naturally, Sun-Yat-sen had nothing to do with them, because in the 18-20 of the last century he still had no army, and indeed was "Lenin's best friend," just like Kemal Ataturk.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 24 May 2017 21: 14
        [Quote] and indeed was "the best friend of Lenin" [/quote†..Much better were the "northern militarists" whose troops the author mentions, some were "friends" with the Japanese, others with the Americans, others with the British and French, helped the Entente and the valiant white troops establish democracy in the Far East ... sowed reasonable, kind and eternal .. And all together they dreamed of a united and indivisible, powerful Russia, by the way these dreams were paid into reality in 1991 ...
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 24 May 2017 21: 50
          The author of the article is extremely raw, but in Manchuria then there was just no one, as in Ukraine in the 1918-1920 years. In the end, by the 1945 year, there was already "Manzhou-go" with the Emperor Pu-I, who also ogreb along with the Japanese in 1945.
  4. Barcid
    Barcid 24 May 2017 08: 57
    Such material did not meet. Honestly, this topic was not considered at all .. Thank you.
  5. moskowit
    moskowit 24 May 2017 09: 03
    Now, when the truth is revealed ... To us in those old days, when we had a happy childhood and the best education in the world (I’m quite serious. I have repeatedly been convinced that a strong Soviet troechnik will give odds to almost any current carrier of higher education) history lessons spoke of 14 intervention countries (I still couldn’t count them) who attacked Soviet Russia ... But no. It turns out that we were deceived ... 15-th China, it turned out was ... Thanks to the author for revealing a new page in the history of the Civil War for me at least ...
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 24 May 2017 21: 08
      As for the 14 of the intervention countries - this is from some newspaper article of Lenin at that time, the phrase later spread through the efforts of party political officers.
  6. hohol95
    hohol95 24 May 2017 10: 37
    By the beginning of 1917, over 200 thousand Chinese were on the territory of the Russian Empire, who arrived in the country quite legally. The number of illegally living in Russia, especially in the Far East, subjects of China is not known to anyone. It can be assumed that the total number of Chinese was approaching half a million. Where did the officially arrived Chinese come from in Russia? The tsarist government did not adhere to the principles of internationalism, the tsarist ministers were good at counting and well versed in the economy, eagerly adopting the experience of developed Western countries, in particular the United States, where the labor of cheap Chinese workers was used very long ago. Many sectors of the economy of the United States, primarily railways, were created by the work of the Chinese: they specially hired Chinese workers who, in the most difficult conditions, were ready to work from dawn to dawn for scant wages. Emperor Nicholas II was presented a project with an economic justification for the benefits of attracting foreign labor for the construction of a railway network in Russia and the use of this force in various enterprises and in the mining industry. His Majesty deigned to approve the project, and the tsarist government quite officially began to recruit cheap labor in China. The Chinese responded eagerly. Life in China was unsweetened, there was already the problem of overpopulation, and the Russian ruble, like the US dollar, was a freely convertible currency that banks of any country in the world willingly accepted. Even lower than the “white” Russian workers, the salary was very good for the Chinese earnings. There was an opportunity to make money in Russia and return home to a relatively wealthy person. Chinese hands were used in the construction of the Murmansk Railway. Many Chinese workers were sent to various mining operations in the Urals, to the coal mines of the Donets Basin, and to logging in Belarus and cold Karelia. The most competent Chinese were selected to work at various enterprises and factories in Moscow, Petrograd, Odessa, Lugansk, and Yekaterinburg.
    According to unverified data, there were at least 40 thousand Chinese internationalists in the Red Army. An important role in the creation of the Chinese red units was played by members of the RSDLP-VKP (b) San Fuyang and Shen Chenkho, completely loyal to the Bolsheviks. The latter even received a mandate from the Soviet government and was appointed special commissioner for the formation of Chinese troops throughout Soviet Russia. San Fuyang created a number of Chinese red units in Ukraine. Shen Chenho played a large role in the formation of Chinese international red detachments in Moscow, Petrograd, Lugansk, Kharkov, Perm, Kazan and several other places. Do not forget about the language barrier - the Chinese should speak their language! One of the heroes of the Civil War in the 1920s was considered the commander of the Chinese regiment of the 29th Rifle Division of the 11th Army, Zhen Fuchenu, who died at the end of 1918 in the battles against Kolchak. But then his name was forgotten.

    More information at
    v-rossii / © QUESTION
    1. captain
      captain 24 May 2017 20: 43
      Thank you, I didn’t. that there were so many Chinese in Russia.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 24 May 2017 21: 09
        About the Chinese in the Red Army, even Sholokhov in the Quiet Don has a mention.
    2. Sorokin
      Sorokin 23 March 2018 09: 33
      Add on Perm. Monument to 250 Chinese volunteers shot by Kolchakites stands on the banks of the Sylva River in the village of Troitsa, 190 meters from my house
  7. Andryukha G
    Andryukha G 24 May 2017 16: 32
    The film "Contribution" is a very truthful and honest film about the civil war in Russia, especially believably shown as the Russian 27-year-old General Pepelyaev A.P. decided the fate of Latvians and Chinese - those who deliberately killed Russian people under the Reds, and after taking Perm, he dismissed 20 thousand former Red Army soldiers (this is not in the film, but this is a historical fact).
  8. cedar
    cedar 24 May 2017 17: 43
    Some kind of strange article. Touching upon such a topic, the author clearly does not agree ...
    But there is something to say.

    "Virtually no source in Soviet historiography speaks of the real contribution of the Second International to the overthrow of the Russian emperor, the seizure of power by force of arms, and how and by what forces this crime was planned to be carried out.
    We will name some real organizers of the destruction of the Russian Empire. One of them is Sun Yat-sen, and in Chinese: Sun Yixian, Sun Zhongshan, Sun Wen; Born on January 12, 1866 in Xianshan, died in Beijing on March 12, 1925, and was buried in Nanjing.
    Returning to China, Sun Yat-sen formed rebel units against the Manchu government. In 1905, he arrived in Tokyo, where under his leadership the all-Chinese organization Tongmenhui was established, which became both an illegal residency and a terrorist training center in China.
    The organization's task was to overthrow the Manchuro-Qing Dynasty and establish the power of Sun Yat-sen. During 1905–1914 he and his wife Song Qingling set up a school for the training of soldiers and officers of punitive detachments that were sent to the territory of the Russian Empire, in its European part, in the amount of about 500 thousand people (?!). This of them, after the overthrow of the king’s power, the so-called international units of the Red Army were created.
    Who fought in the Red Army of Trotsky and the punitive detachments of the Soviet country on the fronts of the Civil War of 1918-1920.
    When seizing settlements, all these “helpers” could do whatever they wanted, doing robbery, robbery and violence. Particular efforts in this were shown by the Chinese units, which were subordinate to Uborevich, Yakir, Fedko, Tukhachevsky and other commanders of the armies and fronts of the Red Army.
    In total, during the Civil War, more than 480 units and formations of punitive units trained in international combat centers appeared in battles against the White Movement! ... "

    CHINESE PUNISHERS as part of CHON (parts special destination ...)
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 24 May 2017 23: 00
      Address the claims to Nicholas II - He allowed to attract Chinese workers to work in RUSSIA!
      1. baudolino
        baudolino 25 May 2017 10: 21
        The Chinese were attracted to Russia primarily because of their hard work and cheapness. In particular, among the workers of Donbass there was a large percentage of non-drinking Tatars and Chinese.
        And by the way, the Yuzovka district of Shanghai was called just since those times.
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 24 May 2017 23: 08
      In your opinion were fluffy and white?
      1. Koshnitsa
        Koshnitsa 25 May 2017 10: 00
        The Czechoslovak Corps, a RIA unit, actively fought against the enemies of Russia, including the so-called. The Red Guard, staffed from German, Magyar prisoners of war, mercenaries and scum of society.
      2. Weyland
        Weyland 29 May 2017 13: 18
        Fluffy - yes, from looted fur products. And white - for the time being, and then simply sold Kolchak to red! am
  9. 3 Gradient
    3 Gradient 26 May 2017 02: 20
    Curious article ...
    Cognitive ..
    However, the strength of the Chinese formations ...
    Participated in the events of the Civil War ...
    Not very ... significant ...
    Hence ... and the small performance of the Chinese ...
  10. besleney59.
    besleney59. 7 July 2017 10: 42
    back in 1983, I was struck by a monument in Vladikavkaz-to the internationalist wars (Chinese ...) who died at the hands of the Cossacks ... I thought, is this what we forgot? Is it worth it now I don’t know ...
  11. andrew42
    andrew42 14 November 2017 19: 32
    The so-called “contribution” of the regular parts of the official authorities of China to the “cauldron” of the Civil War is a minuscule, compared with the contribution of the “Red Chinese”, starting from Moscow, and then to many cities of the former Empire. The revolution was officially "international", but really Russophobic. And therefore, comrades Trotsky had a special honorable account in part of Latvians and Chinese.