In this article we will discuss foreign analogues of the Soviet ferry-bridge machine PMM "Wave". But for the sake of truth, it must be said that the Soviet wave-mast “Wave” was an analogue of the French development “Gillois” and the American car from the MFAB-F fleet. So, “American” appeared on 11 years earlier, and “Frenchman” was almost on 14.
After the war, in order to increase the mobility of ground forces, the NATO command also intensified work on the creation of new and improvement of existing service crossing facilities. But at present, work on self-propelled ferries has been suspended and the largest work is being carried out in the field of floating and folding bridges, as well as tank bridges
For crossing over water barriers of heavy vehicles (tanks, self-propelled guns and other equipment), amphibious ferry bridge vehicles were developed in the USA, the design of which allows, depending on the specific conditions, to quickly change the way of crossing. In some cases, they are used as single or modular ferries of increased capacity, in other cases, their design allows them to assemble and direct floating bridges of various capacities and lengths.
An example of such a ferry-bridge machine can serve as amphibians of the park. MFAB-F (MAV) - mobile floating assault bridge-ferry (mobile floating assault bridge-steam or mobile assault bridge).
The mobile assault bridge (self-propelled pontoon) was developed by the US Army Engineering Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Belvoir, Virginia at 1959. 98 units of this equipment were delivered to the US Army between April 1963 and December 1967.
Amphibian of the MFAB-F (MAV) park with a river link
The MAB transporter was manufactured by FMC Corporation, bridge elements (intermediate and end - Consolidated Diesel Electric Corporation of Schenectady. In 1966, work began on an improved version of the MAB - self-propelled pontoon park MFAB-F. By September 1970 was completed. The main idea was self-propelled pontoons. Several machines, joining together, formed a floating bridge or ferries. The new self-propelled pontoon had a fully welded hull, improved hydraulics and electrics.
The 220 modernized self-propelled pontoons were delivered to the US Army between 1973 and 1976. Another 132 transporter MAB with bridge elements was delivered to the armies of the NATO countries (mainly to Belgium). Mobile assault bridge companies existed in the US Army until at least the second half of the 1980. Each fleet includes several cars: two coastal machines that, when using the park as a floating bridge, mate with the shores, and linear machines that form the bridge tape or are part of the ferry of the required capacity.
Linear Park Car with River Link
Coastal car park. Moment of disclosure
Each machine is wheeled amphibian 4XXNNMX, the body of which is made of aluminum alloy. The weight of each onshore machine reaches 4 t, and each linear weight reaches 24,6 t. Overall dimensions: length - 21,85 m, width - 13,03 m, height - 3,65 - 3,32 m. Navigational propulsion - propeller in a guide nozzle with diameter 3,53 mm. The screw can be raised to the transport position and lowered to the working position by means of a hydraulic drive. The maximum speed of movement by land is 711 km / h. The maximum water speed is 64 km / h. The speed of the 16,9x engine ferry with a load of 4 t - 60 km / h. It should be borne in mind that on land the machines are not intended for the carriage of goods and have special topsides, with the help of which the carriageway of the floating bridge or ferry is formed.
General view of the amphibian park MFAB-F
Model linear car park. Roadway in working position
The self-propelled pontoon park MFAB-F is intended for aiming floating bridges with a carrying capacity of up to 54 t and a length of up to 120 m, as well as assembling carriage ferries for loads weighing 60 — 70 t. The park consists of 24 wheeled amphibious alligator floating machines that support the upper structure with a carriageway width 4 m. Assembling bridges and ferries is made by crews of cars. A ferry of four cars is assembled in 10 — 15 minutes, and a bridge from the entire fleet is assembled in 1 an hour.
Characteristics of the self-propelled park:
- load class - 60;
- the length of the floating bridge - 120 m;
- width of the roadway - 4,1 m;
- permissible flow rate - 3 m / s
In 1963, the fleet of amphibious self-propelled M2 ferries was adopted by the army of the Federal Republic of Germany. The ancestor of the M2 and M3 ferries was "Gillois". This ferry appeared in 1958 and was developed by the metallurgical company EWK from Kaiserslautern according to a project by Colonel of the French Army Jean F. Zhillou. 7 vehicles were made: 2 vehicle ramps and 5 bridge vehicles. After all the stages of testing "Gillois" was adopted by the German army. Several cars purchased the Armed Forces of Israel, Britain and France.
Gillois ferry car UK
Ferry car "Gillois" of the Armed Forces of Israel, 1973
They were assembled by the French company Pontesa (Pontesa) and the Alsatian SEFA boiler house (CEFA - until 1985, part of EWK). The park is designed to force wide water obstacles. It consists of 12 floating wheel wheeled vehicles with elements of the upper structure. The mass of a separate machine is about 29 t; it has two hard floats reclining in the water. The speed of the machine on land is about 60 km / h, on the water - 12 km / h. It is possible to assemble transport ferries from the property of the park. Calculation of the park - 36 people., The length of the floating bridge from one set - 100 m, the width of the roadway - 4 m, the bridge pickup time - 1 h, carrying capacity - 60 t.
At the end of the 1960-ies on the basis of PMM "Gillois" a ferry-bridge machine was developed and delivered to the series M2which had five modifications. Production was organized at the Klockner-Humboldt-Deutz and Eisenwerke Kaiserslautern factories. The machine is used in the German, British and Singapore armies. In some cases, automobiles are used as single or modular ferries that have an increased carrying capacity, in others, their design allows direct bridges of various lengths and capacities with double-track or single-track traffic of vehicles forwarded. To do this, two additional metal rigid pontoons are installed on the roof of the vehicle's hull, which, using a hydraulic system, are lowered near the hull on both sides before entering the water, turning at 180 degrees on the lower side hinges. At the bow of the pontoons is mounted on one 600 millimeter propeller. The third millimeter 650 propeller screw is installed in the recess of the bow of the hull under the cab of the main machine. The screw is able to climb into and out of a niche, as well as rotate in a horizontal plane.
The first serial M2
Since the car was going afloat astern, an additional control post was set up above the cabin, from which the crew could perform preparatory and basic work on using the car as a ferry-bridge vehicle. In the aft parts of the hull and additional pontoons (during movement on the water, they were nasal), the light-reflecting shields were installed, which prevent the retention of a retaining nasal wave on the body of the machine and the pontoons. To remove seawater in the main machine case, several water-draining pumps with electric drives were installed. In order to facilitate work with additional pontoons during their raising and lowering, as well as for loading and unloading operations with small non-self-propelled cargoes, a low-capacity crane was installed in the transport position along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.
On the right side of the M2, the pontoons are opened and a crane is visible above the cab
The wheel formula of the ferry-bridge car M2 - 4x4. Own weight of the car 22 t. Overall dimensions when driving over land in the transport position: length - 11,31 m, width - 3,6 mm, height - 3,6 mm. Ground clearance - adjustable, from 600 to 840 mm. The width of the machine with deployed ramps and lowered additional pontoons - 14160 mm. The maximum speed on the highway - 60 km / h, the range of fuel - 1 thousand. Km. The speed of the car through the water to 14 km / h, the range of fuel - up to 6 hours.
The experience of using the ferry-bridge machines M2 made it possible to outline the main directions for modifying its structure. In 1967-70 the serial version of the M2B was made in the number of 235 copies.
PMM M2B during testing
In 70-s. produced steam 70-tonne grade M2D. On the new model machine M2D, it was planned to install onboard soft inflatable tanks, which made it possible to increase the carrying capacity to 70 tons. The M2C variant was intended for the Singapore Army, and the M2E received a more powerful diesel and hydrocrane.
In 1982, the development of the 100-ton ferry fleet МХNUMX (3x4), which retained the overall concept of the М4 series, began. But there was one difference - the direction of movement on water and land was the same - the cab forward (in the M2 car, the movement on the water was stern ahead). In the wheel arches to increase the displacement placed inflatable tanks. In addition, four spans removable structures were replaced by three while simultaneously increasing the dimensions of the link in the bridge line.
In August 1994, after much testing, EWK received an order for the ferry 64. Their main features were an improved body shape, the installation of one 343-strong diesel “Deutz”, an automatic 6-speed gearbox, axle differentials, jet propulsion, a centralized tire pressure control system (within 1 – 4 bar), additional inflatable tanks and electronic control.
For 15 minutes, the 8 units of the M3 can be connected to the 100 meter bridge, which has a 85 tonnes capacity for tracked vehicles and 132 tonnes for wheeled vehicles.
The new M3 Amphibious Bridging and Crossing Vehicle has been adopted in 1996.
The British Army also adopted it (purchased 38 units). Also there are in service with the armies of Taiwan, Singapore.
PMM M3 English Army
In 1962, the fleet of amphibious self-propelled ferries was adopted by the French Army. "Zhillua". The fleet set consists of 12 bridges and six ramp floating machines, with additional inflatable floats to increase the reserve buoyancy, which are inflated before entering the water. The carrying capacity of one 30 t machine. During one flight, it is possible to transport four trucks or two light AMX-13 tanks. For ferrying the medium tank AMX-30, two ferries are connected by boards. This operation takes three minutes.
Freight ferries with a carrying capacity of up to 60 t can be assembled from several vehicles. The speed of the ferry on the water is about 10 – 12 km / h. Cruising overland fuel 780 km with a capacity of 547 fuel tanks l. When driving on land, self-propelled river and coastal sections can reach a maximum speed of 64 km / h on a highway. The crew of this machine is 4 people, the length of the floating bridge from one set is 112 m, the width of the roadway is 4 m, the pickup time of the bridge is 1 h, the load capacity is 60 t. The crews of cars spend on bringing the ferries to full readiness for working barrier no more than 45 min.
Overall dimensions of cars: length in transport condition 11861 mm, width in transport condition 3200 mm, width in working condition 5994 mm, height 3991 mm, ground clearance 715 mm, front and rear wheel track 1790 mm. Own weight of the river machine 26,95 t, coastal somewhat more - 27,4 t.
PMM "Zhillua" used not only in the French engineering parts, but also in other countries. For example, in the US Army there was a certain number of Gillois PMM under the name ARCE (Amphibious River Crossing Equipment).
The ferry-bridge complex "Gillois" was subjected to combined tests on land and on water to estimate real, not calculated, technical parameters. Studies and the results of the operation of the complex in the troops showed that this self-propelled fleet does not fully meet modern requirements, since the carrying capacity of an individual machine is insufficient, the congress of the transported armored equipment from the ferry is difficult, and the length of the bridge truss is limited. As a result, France began to create a new self-propelled pontoon park. MAF (Materiel Amphibie de Franchissement). (It should be noted, and another name for this park - EFA, which is found only on the Internet and on video.
In serious print editions, it is precisely the name of the MAF.).
The development of the new MAF self-propelled fleet was conducted on a competitive basis by DC AN and CEFA / EWK, which offered prototypes of the PMM MAF-I and MAF-2, respectively. The set of the new park should have included four such machines with a load capacity of 10,000 x each 54 water. Due to the use of high-strength aluminum alloys, PMM had an acceptable own weight: 40 t in MAF-1 and 38 t in MAF-2. Subsequently, after the development of the prototypes, the basis of the MAF-2 fleet consisted of the Ambidrome ferry-bridge vehicles with its own weight of 34 tons.
The body of the machine MAF-2 made of durable light alloy provides a significant proportion of the required displacement. On the case there are two collapsible two-section ramps with hydraulic drives, each 12 m long. The total length of the upper carriageway is 36 m with a width of 3,6 m. Inflatable tanks on the sides of the hull have a protective cover a large area.
A diesel engine is installed on the MAF-2, which allows the vehicle to travel overland at top speed up to 60 km / h. The average speed of movement on the roads 40 km / h, power reserve more than 400 km. To improve road performance and maneuverability, the PMM has an independent suspension for all wheels with hydropneumatic elastic elements that provide a change in ground clearance in the range from 0,65 to 0,85. When driving through water, the wheels reduce the resistance of the water in the housing niches.
The PMM in the MAF-2 kit can be used as a ferry (to transport one AMX-30 tank), as well as a river or coastal link when navigating floating bridges. To increase the capacity with simultaneous provision of double-track traffic on the floating bridge, the ferry-bridge machines are connected by boards.
To equip the engineering units of the French ground forces, it was planned to purchase 120 ferry-bridge machines of the MAF fleet, which were to replace 250 machines of the Zhillua fleet. The arrival of these MAF fleet vehicles to the troops began in 1984.
In Turkey, engineering machines are being developed by FNSS Savunma Sistemleri. After winning the competition, the company received a contract worth 130 million dollars for the supply of self-propelled floating bridges to the Turkish army AAAB (Armored Amphibious Assault Bridge) called "SYHK". Mobile assault bridge designed for the Turkish armed forces on the platform of a wheeled chassis series Pars 8x8. At the heart of the design is the German self-propelled pontoon M3 EWK. The 52 system was supplied to the army, including one training system consisting of 4 machines.
The AAAB bridge has a fully protected, air-conditioned cab in front, the suspension is the same as that of the Pars cars and all-wheel steering. One AAAB bridge is used as a ferry with a load capacity of 21 t, two bridges provide load capacity of 70 t, and three bridges of AAAB - 100 t. When connecting AAB 12 bridges, a ferry is formed that allows you to cross rivers up to 150 meters wide.
In the postwar years in Japan, a self-propelled wheeled 4x4 ferry-bridge machine appeared. Requirements for this amphibian were issued by ground self-defense forces of Japan at the beginning of 1960, as self-propelled steam, which could also be used as a pontoon bridge. The prototype was made next year. After testing, the machine was standardized as a self-propelled pontoon bridge. "Type 70". By 1979, at the expense of state funding, several more samples of this amphibian were made.
The park is designed to force wide water obstacles on the move. The park kit consists of 10 self-propelled floating machines with elements of the upper structure. Laying elements of the upper structure is carried out with the help of crane equipment with hydraulic actuator installed on the machine itself. From the property of the park, it is possible to assemble transport ferries from two cars with a load capacity of 26 and three cars with a load capacity of 38 and so on. The crew of a separate machine is a person's 4.
The general layout of the ferry-bridge amphibian "Type 70" was similar to the similar machine M2, developed in Germany. Before entering the car into the water, the upper pontoons with the help of a hydraulic system turned relative to the roof of the main machine by 180 ° and were located along the sides for its functioning afloat. This provided the necessary buoyancy and stability.
When the car was afloat, all its wheels with large low-pressure tires were pulled up into the housing niches to reduce water resistance to the movement of the car. At the same time, for some increase in volumetric displacement, tires of wheels were pumped up with compressed air.
The special equipment also included a crane, which was used when installing the gangways and pontoons. Three machines “Type 70” connected together formed a ferry with a carrying capacity of 40 t. The width of the carriageway of the ferry in this case was equal to 3,9 m.
Each 70 Type machine was equipped with a Nissan 8 diesel-cylinder V-engine manufactured in 243 kW at 2200 rpm. Such engine power ensured the movement of a single car on roads with a maximum speed of 56 km / h and on water 12 km / h. The climb rate reached 30 °. The overall overall length of the 11,4 machine is m, the width when moving over land (with the transport position of additional pontoons on top of the main machine hull) is 2,8 m and when the pontoons are lowered into working position - 5,4 m. The total height of 3,4 is m.
In service of Chinese military engineers is a ferry-bridge machine GZM. This is a complete analogue of the Soviet PMM - 2M "Wave". It was purchased in Ukraine in 1993. (For more details, see Driving the "Wave" onto the shore of the enemy. Part Three). Tactical and technical characteristics of the “Chinese”, most likely, at the level of PMM - 2M. The only thing that is immediately noticeable is the new tracked base. Most likely, this is the base of the new tank Type 96A.
In addition to photo information is not. But the photo shows that the Indian machine is made on the basis of the French PMM MAF-2 or is produced under license.
And in the end some more photos
Ferry bridge machine "Gillois" of the French army
Ferry from Gillois, 1981 cars
Gillois machines are in service during testing.
Gillois cars in the Sinai Peninsula, Israel Army, 1973
PMM M2V army of Germany
PMM M2, presumably in Israel
Gromov A.V. Armament and equipment of foreign armies. Pontoon Parks: A Handbook. M. - Military Publishing, 1984
Machinery engineering weapons of H. 2, - M .: Voenizdat, 1986
Reference book officer engineering troops / Under. Ed. E. Kolibernova. - M .: Military Publishing, 1989.