Military Review

Secrets of Peenemünde. Project America

18
Secrets of Peenemünde. Project AmericaAt the end of 1944, a plan of missile attack on the United States began to emerge in the inflamed mind of the leaders of Nazi Germany. Hitler's sick imagination, by then already suffering an unambiguous defeat on all fronts, paints pictures of the ruins of American cities. Hitler still continues to sincerely believe in the imminent turning point in the course of the war, which will become possible thanks to the use of the latest weapons of tremendous destructive force delivered by means, the interception of which with the help of modern air defense forces and aviationwould be impossible. Thus, Hitler and his inner circle seriously dreamed of creating intercontinental ballistic missiles capable of carrying a nuclear warhead. Hitler was optimistic about the practice of rocket attacks on Britain, which did not suffer significant material losses from the attacks of the German Fau-1 and Fau-2, which nonetheless kept the British in constant psychological tension. Although the missile strikes sinned with inaccuracy and did not have tremendous destructive power, they were still an extremely unpleasant phenomenon, primarily because of their suddenness and unpredictability, which brought ordinary Britons a lot of grief and tears.


Immediately make a reservation that due to the fact that no atomic weapons Germany did not appear before the end of the war (that the Nazis were very far from creating a full-fledged atomic bomb, says most serious historians), intercontinental missiles, if they could be created, would have to be filled with ordinary explosives used by the Nazis during the attacks on the British Isles. Therefore, Hitler would not have achieved a decisive turning point in the war under any circumstances. The Germans would certainly not have succeeded in significantly disrupting the American infrastructure with the help of possible missile strikes, but of course it would have had a political significance. A missile that reached the US would become a symbol of the continuation of the struggle and the ability of Nazi Germany to retaliate.

Therefore, the Nazis, as they say, grabbed a straw, struggling to develop their technological superiority over the Western allies. For the implementation of the ambitious plan, involving the delivery of missile attacks on the United States, they had the winged V-1 and the ballistic V-2, which hit only 300 kilometers, was clearly not enough. The nazi military required non-standard breakthrough solutions, both in terms of technology and in terms of tactics for conducting rocket attacks.

At first, the Nazi designers proposed modifying the serial V-2 in such a way as to launch them from the newest submarines of the XXI series, being in close proximity to the shores of the United States. However, this idea, which seemed to be fully embodied, did not find support for the Fuhrer and his naval commanders. In addition, there were not enough submarines, and it would not have been possible to manage the rocket modernization alone - we would have to redo the submarines, which in the conditions of the end of 1944 was a completely impossible task for Germany.

And then the design genius von Braun turns to old sketches, dated 1940 year, describing the process of building a two-stage intercontinental rocket, the first stage of which, in fact, would be an enlarged modification of the same "V-2". The second stage was supposed to contain a warhead and, most importantly, be equipped with swept wings, which, according to the designers, should have made the intercontinental rocket, at times increasing its flight range.

According to the assumption of one of the employees of von Braun Dr. Tiel, a multiple increase in the power of the rocket can be achieved by combining six standard motors from the V-2 into a single carrier unit. As is known, this principle was subsequently successfully applied on Soviet and American missiles. At the first stage, the Nazis planned to use a mixture of oil and benzene as fuel, after which they planned to switch to liquid hydrogen. These ideas of von Braun and his team were also embodied in launch vehicles of the near future, in the American Atlas.

It must be said that the pace of work and the inspiration with which the Peenemünde designers worked, cannot but arouse respect. The result of their efforts was a sample of the upgraded "V-2" with increased engine power and range 800 kilometers. However, the most important nuance was that the rocket was represented by the designers as nothing more than a manned projectile with a cockpit for the pilot. At the turn of 1944-1945, two test rocket launches were made. According to the results of the second test, the rocket managed to reach an altitude of 90 kilometers. The successes of the Nazi rocket engineers in terms of the implementation of Project America ended well here, but a significant part of them nevertheless found its embodiment, albeit in the form of drawings.

One of the drawings of von Braun describes a rocket equipped with wings, a landing gear and a drag parachute. In fact, we are presented with the image of the so-called stratospheric aggressor - an aircraft capable of speeding up to 2900 kilometers per hour and capable of climbing 95 kilometers, flying up to 800 kilometers.

Von Braun was definitely ahead of his time. In the 1944-1945 years, Germany fought a war in which the widespread use of rocket aircraft was neither real nor expedient. The epoch of future wars was then on the threshold, but it had not yet come. For its offensive, the fall of Germany was required, its complete defeat ...

However, by the beginning of the victorious spring of 1945, von Braun had finalized the design of a two-stage rocket designed to carry out ambitious plans for an attack on America. As expected, the first stage was an enlarged modification of the V-2 rocket, which had not six in its womb, but only one powerful engine. The second stage was a flying arrow-shaped wing. The weight of the structure at the start is 85 tons, the flight speed is 10600 km / h, the flight distance is 4800 km. Thus, if Von Braun’s rocket didn’t stay, although it was a genius, the blueprint would be New York and Washington, which could be in the area of ​​potential reach of the new German rocket.

However, the main point of the matter was not the speed and not even the flight range of the rocket, but the height of its trajectory. At the apogee of the rocket was supposed to reach an altitude of 338 km, and this is already a real space. Thus, the pilot of the product, which received the code name A-9, would automatically become not only a suicide bomber or a potential prisoner of war (in the event of evacuation from its side after direction to the target), but also the world's first cosmonaut! And this thought worried von Brown who dreamed about the conquest of outer space is much stronger than the possibility of launching rocket attacks on US territory.

The theme of the Nazi Germany missile program is the basis for numerous falsifications, mythologization stories The Third Reich and the appearance in some print media, media and the Internet frank mystical nonsense associated with the history of German rocket science. Obviously, only one thing: the successes of the Germans in the missile sphere were colossal, and this continues to generate absurd assumptions and multiply the legends associated with this topic. Rocketry has become the industry in which Germany has managed to outrun the whole world for many years. That is why the race for the technological secrets of the Nazis began even before the end of the war. All world powers have joined this race, but this, as they say, is a completely different story ...
Peenemünde. History FAU. Part of 1



Peenemünde. The history of the FAA. Part of 2
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  1. grizzlir
    grizzlir 21 February 2012 09: 15 New
    -1
    Hitler was optimistic about the practice of rocket attacks on Britain, which suffered significant material losses from the attacks of the German Fau-1 and Fau-2, which kept the British in constant psychological tension. Although the missile strikes sinned with inaccuracy and did not have tremendous destructive power, they were still an extremely unpleasant phenomenon, primarily because of their suddenness and unpredictability, which brought ordinary Britons a lot of grief and tears.
    A complete contradiction. Just the material losses of the British from FAA attacks were really minimal, but they could really put pressure on the psyche.
    1. Tram boom
      Tram boom 21 February 2012 19: 49 New
      -1
      All the same, all this German shit was shattered to smithereens am
      1. Норд
        Норд 21 February 2012 22: 54 New
        +1
        Venerable. On this "German shit", as you deigned to say, all post-war rocket technologies of both the USA and the USSR are based. Nobody, by the way, hides this. The enemy must be respected, especially as talented as Werner von Braun.
        1. Eugene
          Eugene 22 February 2012 02: 01 New
          -2
          Do you deny the genius of the Queen?
          1. Норд
            Норд 22 February 2012 21: 03 New
            0
            And where did you read about Korolev in my comment? You just don't have to deny the obvious.
    2. Alex
      Alex 25 May 2014 23: 58 New
      +2
      Quote: grizzlir
      Just the material losses of the British from the FAA attacks were really minimal, but they could really put pressure on the psyche.
      Yes, too, not too much.
    3. Kassandra
      Kassandra 16 July 2014 09: 17 New
      -1
      British casualties from the FAA were greater than in Blitz (battle for Britain).
      in 1940, the English civilian population was not subject to mass targeted attacks. bombed airfields, defense industry, ports and docks.
  2. Artur09-75
    Artur09-75 21 February 2012 09: 25 New
    +1
    Whatever you say, von Braun was a man of genius. It is a pity the Yankees were the first to seize him. If the USSR were captured by von Braun, then, I think, post-war history would be written in completely different ink.
  3. Victor
    Victor 21 February 2012 09: 59 New
    +7
    If it were not for the enormous military power of the Soviet army and the heroism of the Soviet soldiers who had broken the ridge of fascism, the world today most likely would have looked completely different. Given that 90% of the breakthrough technologies in the field of rocket science at that time were in the hands of the Nazis, we can most likely say that if von Braun received another year and a half for the embodiment of his ideas, the world would be under the heel of “Blond Besties” Honor and praise to the Russian soldier who prevented this.
    1. Alex
      Alex 26 May 2014 00: 51 New
      +1
      If Germany could defeat the USSR, then further development is not so difficult to predict. England would be next, then (with Turkey’s help) control will be established in the Middle East (I think it’s not necessary to explain its energy value) and in North Africa. Then the connection with Japan (here it is more difficult to guess: in the Far East or in India), the conquest of China (the task is not easy, but quite solvable), well, and the turn of the United States. It’s hard to say where in this context there is a niche for Brown’s missiles, but I think they would hardly have played a special role: it all seems so fantastic. Such "world empires" are falling apart faster than they are being created, and the speed is directly proportional to the level of technological progress. An example is the modern USA: their empire is falling apart faster than it is being created.
      And ballistic missiles, even with nuclear weapons, are not only an engine and fuel. This is also the most complicated electronic filling, the prerequisites for the creation of which at that time were still not close.
      1. Kassandra
        Kassandra 16 July 2014 10: 42 New
        -1
        the place (militarily) is simple - the destruction of industry, military bases and transport hubs
        on such an important transportation hub as Antwerp, the Nemero V-2 was released.
        electronic filling was on the lamps.
        China conquered Japan with might and main, and encroached on India.
  4. Volkhov
    Volkhov 21 February 2012 11: 11 New
    -3
    The article leads to the conclusion: Nazism develops space technology, and Chekism develops oil production (Hitler was short of oil because he oppressed the Chekists).
    Therefore, it is necessary to send Russian Nazis directly from the demonstrations to Roscosmos and Skolkovo and there will come a harmony of oil and science ...
    1. Volkhov
      Volkhov 21 February 2012 17: 45 New
      +1
      In Germany, a conference on evacuation took place in 43 g, and the whole war after Kursk was only a cover for evacuation. There were already atomic heads, they completed hydrogen, but there was also an understanding that the defense of Germany with atomic weapons was its end. In the Cold War, the Germans were more afraid of NATO poison. land mines and artillery than tanks of the USSR.
      As a Ukrainian, take a better look at the Ordzhonikidze mine - this is just one of the results of that evacuation.
      Stalin understood that the war was not over, but private interests were more valuable to his entourage, so the problem turned into the present.
      1. ikrut
        ikrut 21 February 2012 20: 31 New
        -2
        I do not quite understand your thesis that "the defense of Germany with atomic weapons is its end." If only because it was ordinary defense that was its end. (Don’t you think that Germany, as such, is “alive” today? IMHO - it just had a chance to “revive”.)
        With the equipped nuclear missiles, the Germans could drive the USSR beyond the Urals and keep them in a "strict body." And the arguments against the United States would be easy to find.
        Although, now you can move any ideas about that time. Fortunately - history does not know the subjunctive mood.
        1. Volkhov
          Volkhov 22 February 2012 04: 47 New
          0
          What is incomprehensible here? Nuclear attacks on the Soviet ultimatum of 43 g (after the first attempts to use nuclear weapons in Sevastopol and the Kursk River) provoked a response chemical and bacteriological warfare. This is just the death of the Germans.
          They chose evacuation and technical development and are still active - there are a series of nuclear explosions around the world, especially in Russia and Ukraine, and this is a problem that cannot be solved by silence.
          1. ikrut
            ikrut 22 February 2012 18: 07 New
            0
            Those. - did the Germans use nuclear weapons in Sevastopol and near Kursk? Interesting data. But where exactly? In the strip of which parts? Where does this infa come from?
            1. Volkhov
              Volkhov 23 February 2012 03: 26 New
              +1
              According to Kursk, only the report of the Japanese attache speaks of general results (the regiment burned down, all ammunition detonated) without specifying the part number, it was probably brought for a short time, which is natural. But material traces remained in Sevastopol - the registration of explosions by seismographs in the USA and Canada, the absence of soot on rock fragments, the displacement of the concrete of the tower base inward from a wave in the ground. In addition, the mention of the same attache, one German and a record of the presence in the ammunition gun "Dora" of 5 special grenades.
              Do not disguise big events, some ears stick out.

              http://atnews.org/news/veto_rossii_kitaja_opportunistskij_gambit_ili_podlinnyj_g

              eopoliticheskij_sdvig / 2012-02-18-1304

              http://www.senav.net/planeta_zemlya/4956-zemletryasenie-v-kuzbasse-ne-svyazanno-

              so-vzryvami.html

              Here are 2 links - one to a pack of a certain Matthias Chen, about how to behave in China and Russia, and if something goes wrong, they will be punished “like the rest of the Zionists”, and the second - about the “earthquake” in Kuzbass, uniquely defined like an explosion.
              This is the style of modern Nazism - a statement + a warning nuclear explosion. An appeal to the authorities, and the biomass is written off by both parties.

              A modern series of explosions is more relevant.
            2. Kassandra
              Kassandra 16 July 2014 09: 24 New
              -1
              near Kursk there was a UFO, a fact is confirmed by soldiers on both sides
              that the commissars that the SS went to take photo materials and even sketches from their "wards."
        2. BM-13
          BM-13 24 June 2014 17: 55 New
          +1
          What is the use of fantasizing about the nuclear weapons of the Nazis, if they did not have them in the future? With equal success, you can issue Star Wars as an alternative story.
          1. Kassandra
            Kassandra 16 July 2014 09: 32 New
            -2
            here is your tribe, having interpreted everything, this is everywhere busy ...
            everyone has long known that America came to Europe for the German nuclear bomb.
            rocket science, combat jet aircraft and helicopters - got it as a bonus, the helicopter got to them in trophies back in 1942 in Africa during the Torch, after which Sikorsky and Hughes brought their own to him, and before that he had already been with Sikorsky three steering propellers and did not know how to fly forward (only back and sideways), which in all seriousness was offered to score and simply deploy the pilot's seat back to front.
  5. ikrut
    ikrut 21 February 2012 13: 18 New
    +2
    The article is not quite right. I myself am a former rocketeer. And when we were taught, we had “cuts” of the last German FAA in the classroom .. With German markings. It was with them that our first missiles were made. Even the remote control of the famous 8K63 is very similar to that of the FAA .. The Germans had ready-made and tested rocket engines (and not just blueprints), and there were quite a few.
    I mean, it was precisely the swift offensive of the Red Army in Germany, with enormous casualties, that stopped the very real prospect of CATASTROPHE in the world. The missiles were ready. The only thing left was to finish the nuclear warhead. The Germans did not have time. A month or two was not enough (and not at all a year). What would happen - if not for the Red Army - and I would not want to imagine.
    1. Alex
      Alex 26 May 2014 00: 55 New
      +2
      Quote: ikrut
      The only thing left was to finish the nuclear warhead. The Germans did not have time. A month or two was not enough (and not at all a year).
      Not months, or even years. The German path to the creation of nuclear weapons led nowhere, as it was based on incorrect initial calculations. And until they understood this, they could create their bomb before the second coming of Christ. After all, Gann and his group in England are not that in two months, in almost a year they did not create anything. The Angles once again had to look amers in their mouths.
      1. Kassandra
        Kassandra 16 July 2014 09: 12 New
        -2
        and why did poor Ben Gann have to do something for not his mother, England, who even killed hundreds of thousands of Germans with ordinary carpet bombings (Hamburg, Dresden)?
        specifically where did the German path lead specifically to? please stop lying, dear Mr. Comrade ...
        on the contrary, the Americans were bothered by overestimating the yield of plutonium and having used up their entire supply of silver for an absolutely unnecessary thing. bully
    2. Kassandra
      Kassandra 16 July 2014 09: 04 New
      -3
      they finished it, for reconnaissance of weather over Moscow from the Kurland boiler, the plane flew until the last day of the war.
      by April 8-12 they had fissile materials, if they had used them in the army, the Soviet Army would not have stopped it anyway, and if in the cities, then the consequences for themselves would have been even worse.
      2-3 weeks actually decided the matter - if they had nuclear a little earlier for this period, they would be able to stabilize the front along the Rhine and the Oder, then the war would reverse, because they had uranium like dirt, and for this bird oil blown in pipes up to 2,5 M is not needed as fuel.
      www.youtube.com/watch?v=MvtxjSrImHw
      Americans "Kid" in contrast to the "Fat Man" was not even tested, because it is a captured German uranium JBF, it was tested earlier, on February 7, 1945 in the mountains of Graz. At one time, tourists were brought into the cavern, then the entrance to it was closed up as this place began to be popular with the Nazis.
      realizing that they didn’t have time to deploy nuclear, they began to hand over the territory to the West in the West without fighting, at the same time in any way responding to their aerial bombardment, shooting all V-2s with conventional warheads. the peak of their shooting occurred at the end of March 1945
      the Allies themselves burned Dresden 2-3 days after it became clear to them that the Germans had no time with nuclear.
    3. Kassandra
      Kassandra 16 July 2014 09: 45 New
      -3
      about “oil as fuel” was mentioned because 262 units were produced, but due to the lack of even synthetic kerosene, which by the way turns out to be much easier than synthetic gasoline for piston aviation, only 1500 of them flew (300/1 part).
  6. 755962
    755962 21 February 2012 15: 49 New
    +2
    the success of the Germans in the missile sphere was colossal
    But this technical superiority could no longer significantly change the course of the war. Lieutenant General Erich Schneider wrote about this in 1953: “The Germans cannot recall without pain what amazing achievements their researchers, engineers and specialists came to during the war and how these achievements were in vain, especially since their opponents could not oppose these new types of weapons with anything that could at least to some extent equal with them ”
  7. smprofi
    smprofi 22 February 2012 00: 02 New
    -1
    a little earlier, the shelling of New York was described differently.
    the missile was supposed not to be manned, but to be guided by a radio beacon, which was supposed to be installed on the Empire State Building (where else!). for this, 2 agents were landed from submarines. one fell asleep at once somehow, and the second (the main one, with the transmitter) was searched for according to signs: he put a trifle in the pocket of his waistcoat. so the FBI agents put the whole of New York on their ears, but found it. by the way, one of the few successful operations of the FBI against spy saboteurs is a subject of awesome pride.
    1. Alex
      Alex 26 May 2014 00: 57 New
      +2
      This popular joke was invented by the most valiant FBI, and even America itself does not believe in its reality.
    2. Kassandra
      Kassandra 16 July 2014 09: 36 New
      -3
      he set up reflectors on a skyscraper, behind which he was swept up by his occupation ... (all he had to do was look behind their roofs)
      however, the work of the drive beacon, however, is taken by counterintelligence
  8. DEATH UWB
    DEATH UWB 22 February 2012 16: 13 New
    0
    but it was impossible just for the Germans not to attack the USSR, we ourselves would have given them this
    1. Kassandra
      Kassandra 16 July 2014 09: 38 New
      -3
      they took revenge for 1937, when in the USSR they fired on the 58-F occult blue kabbalist friends.
      Trotskyists and Natsiks, this is actually a single field berry, and therefore were friends.
  9. Alex
    Alex 26 May 2014 01: 00 New
    +2
    As usual, chewing chewing gum "what would happen if ..." and so on. I know only one area of ​​knowledge where the subjunctive mood has scientific significance: in chemistry, the determination of the degree of oxidation of elements. Everything else is complete nonsense, like this article.
    1. Kassandra
      Kassandra 16 July 2014 10: 01 New
      -3
      maybe it’s that you don’t know everything?