Military Review

Transports under attack

16
Enemy troop transports are desirable prey in all wars. The attack on the transports had its own specifics and often led to serious losses for the attacker. About several indicative episodes from stories Russian front of the First World War - this article.


Pikule.

30 August 1914, the 41 Infantry Division of the 16 Army Corps followed the Austrians defeated by Bhyhah through the metro station Modlibožice, Pikule and further south. An infantry regiment, two artillery batteries and a Cossack squadron followed in the forefront of the division.

During the march, information was received from the patrols that a large enemy transport was in the glade near the village of Pikule under the cover of infantry. The head of the avant-garde decided to attack him and ordered his fighters to speed up.

Der. Pikule, consisting of several courtyards spread out in disarray, lay in a forest clearing, and had a length of about 500 steps and almost the same width. The road cut the clearing in half, and its northeastern half, stretching to the forest, was marshy and, accordingly, was only accessible to infantry, while the western and southern parts were dry. The road to the south of Pikule had a planked flooring.

The transport of the enemy came from Janov. It included more than 1000 carts, stretching on a hike to the 15-kilometer distance. The cover of the convoy is the battalion of the German infantry. The transport cover was dispersed, being both behind the wagons of the wagon train and behind the village houses.
For the attack of the transport forces were selected, which included in their composition 2 guns and 6 infantry mouth.

The battle began at noon.
As soon as the first shots thundered, almost all the convoy ran away, part of the carts rushed in different directions and got bogged down in the swamp. Many baggage horses died or were injured. Der. Pikule caught fire - the Germans set it on fire, hoping that the fire would also destroy the cargo of transport.

In 16 hours of 30 minutes, the remaining non-wounded 54 fighter from among those who defended the transport surrendered to Russian captivity, while the rest were killed, wounded or fled.

The 41 Infantry Division lost in this case the killed and wounded 150 people (including the 1 officer was killed and the 3 was injured). More than 1000 wagons with cargoes, which consisted of: shells, hand grenades, flour, oats, linen, equipment, hospital accessories, chocolate and cigars, became trophies. 64 horses, 2 camp kitchens, a motorcycle and 6 bikes were also captured.

The mistake of the avant-garde commander of the 41 division was a waste of time firing into the cover of the transport — after all, using superiority in strength, they immediately attacked the enemy with hostility. The result would be achieved faster and with less sacrifice. It is also not clear why the Russian avant-garde did not surround the transport from all sides, attacking it only from the front.

"Seaside" wagon.

Due to the active actions of the Russian cavalry by the beginning of June 1915, the operational situation in the Baltics on the Shavel direction was temporarily stabilized.

The formations of the German equestrian corps E. von Shmettov (2-I, 6-I, 8-I cavalry divisions) were thrown on June 2-th. Jizhma - to the boundary of Schwendra - Poshimší - the Gelze swamp.

Almost immediately after the famous equestrian attack near Popelyan, parts of the Ussurian cavalry brigade continued to operate actively - on June 3, they attacked Trishki - Dyrsheyka.

On June 5 they received an order to carry out a raid into the German rear. The Maritime Dragoon Regiment was in the forefront of the brigade - and so the story was ordered that it was he who again managed to distinguish himself, now in the second case, all under the same Popelyans.

Received intelligence on the movement of 2 enemy transports, each tentatively in 75-100 carts. The regiment division (5 and 6 squadrons), carrying out the personal order of the brigade commander, Major General A. M. Krymov, crossed the river. Virvita, attacked the enemy wagon train. Sheltered behind the wagons, the Germans put up fierce resistance. The dragoons had to attack three times, but, ultimately, despite the fire at close range, the transport was captured.

Transports under attack

Il 1. Major General A. M. Krymov.

During the attack on the transport, the Primorsky Dragoon Regiment lost 3 officers (both commissaries died - commander of the 5 squadron, staff captain Saveliev and commander of the 6 squadron, Lieutenant Yurenev, as well as a junior officer of the 6 squadron Cornet Loginov) and 19-s squadron, and 900, and 20, and 57-junior officer Cornette Loginov and 11. and 100 is injured. The German transport, which included 64 vans, was captured, and the 3573 officers and officers and the 1 privates were destroyed. Part of him died, and 17 people were captured [RGVIA. F. 28. Op. XNUMX. D. XNUMX. L. XNUMX Rev.].

The Stavka report also noted this fact, stating that in the Shavelsky region the Russian cavalry, acting in the enemy rear on the road between the villages. Telše and Luknyshki, captured and then burned the enemy vehicles (the main load - ammunition), destroyed a lot of convoy, rangers and cavalrymen of the enemy.


Il 2. The attack of cavalry on the enemy wagon train. 1915.

Colonel M. Pozek, chief of staff of the 1 th German cavalry corps during the fighting in the Baltic States, noted that “the Raid of the Ussurian brigade of General Krymov to the rear of the German location was a success. The telephone network of the Germans was destroyed over a large distance along the front and in depth, and the supply of food to the 2 and 6 cavalry divisions was interrupted for 24 hours. ”

Commenting on the June 5 raid of the Ussurians, he noted that the Russian cavalry brigade with 4 machine guns and 2 guns, breaking through between Trishki and Telšель, destroyed the 2 th cavalry division west of Lucniki. Moreover, the colonel noted that at the battlefield, the dead Germans were found partially disfigured and with necks cut (in all likelihood, the theme of “Russian atrocities” is the favorite plot of German propaganda), and the wagons of the convoy were burned or smashed. M. Pozek also recorded that the Russian cavalry then attacked south-west of Lukniki and the convoy of the 6 Cavalry Division. But the last column stubbornly defended itself and managed to reach Zhorany, where at that moment there were two more columns. Their joint efforts managed to repel the Russian attack. And 300 soldiers of the newly arrived mid-flight reinforcement for the 18 Infantry Regiment repulsed a repeated attack on Lucnik [Pozek M. Germanic cavalry in Lithuania and Kurland in 1915. M.-L., 1930. C. 95].

In the latter case, we are talking about the actions of the 2 and 3 squadrons of the Primorsky Dragoon Regiment, moving to Lucniki. Take a place they could not.


3. Attack on transport.

Opponents turned to battles that were purely tactical in nature. Parts of the Ussuri horse brigade continued to be active in the Shavelsky region. So, 11-th June, interacting with the 19-m Don Cossack regiment, the Primorsky Dragoons regiment again made a horse attack, knocking out dismounted Saxon raders from a grove. After that, on foot, squadrons filled the front gap, formed by the village. Zubiki after the withdrawal of the Cossacks-Ussurians, who lost their centenary commander. The regiment lost in these battles 5 dragoons killed, 12 wounded and 1-th missing.

We see that units of the Ussurian horse brigade in general and the Primorsky Dragoon regiment in particular committed not only brilliant cavalry attacks - they were able to act on enemy communications, which, in conditions of the length of the latter, was especially painful for the Germans, who had defended their wagons to the last. The June 5 raid had as a result, in addition to the destruction of food divisional transport, a break in the supply of enemy troops and a disorder of the telegraph communication system of the left flank of the German army that lasted for several days. Having delivered a sensitive blow to the enemy, the Russian brigade, as the German eyewitness writes, managed to withdraw without losses, despite all the attempts of the Germans to surround it - because it was helped by "the knowledge of the area and the assistance of the local population."
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  1. Amurets
    Amurets 16 May 2017 07: 14
    +7
    Colonel M. Pozek, chief of staff of the 1 th German cavalry corps during the fighting in the Baltic States, noted that “the Raid of the Ussurian brigade of General Krymov to the rear of the German location was a success. The telephone network of the Germans was destroyed over a large distance along the front and in depth, and the supply of food to the 2 and 6 cavalry divisions was interrupted for 24 hours. ”

    Well, the actions of the mobile forces introduced into the breakthrough serve to disorganize the headquarters, the rear supply of the enemy army, communications, and transport.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 16 May 2017 07: 55
    +10
    Interesting episodes .. PMV, detailed, with the names of the commanders of the Russian and German troops, is clearly described.
  3. Barcid
    Barcid 16 May 2017 09: 03
    +19
    A good series of articles about the PMV transport. About these "little things" they forget all the time, and they are important for understanding the nature of the war.
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 16 May 2017 09: 16
    +12
    The article is interesting. details Great war.
    Russian troops fought bravely and skillfully with a strong enemy.
    Thanks to the author. hi
    We are waiting for new and new!
  5. Lieutenant Teterin
    Lieutenant Teterin 16 May 2017 09: 30
    +13
    Article plus. Really interesting details of the maneuver war during the First World War. And, notably, the raid on June 5 mentioned in the article was at the height of the Great Retreat of 1915, which indicates that the situation on our front was not absolutely catastrophic if the command found the strength and time to organize such a raid .
  6. Koshnitsa
    Koshnitsa 16 May 2017 10: 46
    +12
    Moreover, the colonel noted that at the scene of the battle the dead Germans were found partially disfigured and with their necks cut.
    It’s just the work of Russian drafts, where the main blow was put on applying obliquely to the neck, someone unfamiliar with this might think that someone specially cut the neck.
    This is how myths are born.
    But this is for the highest individual training of a RIA fighter.
    1. cost
      cost 17 May 2017 03: 24
      +4
      It’s just the work of Russian drafts, where the main blow was put on applying obliquely to the neck, someone unfamiliar with this might think that someone specially cut the neck.

      In the RI cavalry drill charter, of all the 248 pages, cutting and pricking techniques are allotted for only three strokes (to the right, down to the right and down to the left), and four injections (half-turn to the right, half-turn to the left, down to the right and down to the left). honor.
      The main blow with a saber was put “on the fence” - the enemy’s right collarbone. Experienced grunts could ruin the enemy "to the saddle." The other two blows (down to the right and down to the left) were intended to defeat the enemy on foot. The aim of the strike was the collarbone or the head of the enemy. The "signature" strikes of the Caucasian Cossacks were inflicted from the bottom up, for example, into the elbow of the attacking enemy. This was facilitated by the special arrangement of harnessing of Cossack horses: for example, stirrups were tied with a belt under the horse’s body, allowing the rider to hang sideways almost to the ground.
      And the cut necks are the work of Cossack daggers, in extreme cases sabers. But not checkers.
      1. Koshnitsa
        Koshnitsa 17 May 2017 13: 41
        +9
        I was engaged in chopping vines, cut, or rather chopped necks, this is called a swallow, the end of a checker on a running infantryman, his neck.
        Difficult reception, but he was.
        There is not much contact with the neck, and all the tracheas open, the cut is gushing out.
        Neither the Ussuriites, nor even the coastal dragoons had any sabers and daggers in service.
        Sincerely.
        1. Ryazan87
          Ryazan87 28 November 2017 16: 40
          0
          I will allow myself one quotation regarding the work as a saber ("Campaigns and Horses," I think they read):
          "... A group of Cossack officers was talking next to me. Young was surprised.
          - Why are there no beheaded among the dead? Is it possible to cut off the head with one blow? You see sometimes beautiful blows: the skull was slanted obliquely, but I did not see the severed heads.
          The senior officer explained:
          - To chop off your head, you don’t need to hit too hard. This is a matter of position, not strength. You need to be at the same level and cut with a horizontal blow.
          If the mounted opponent bends, and he always bends, then a horizontal strike is impossible. We are chopping up infantry from top to bottom ... Oh, sorry, if I had a chance, I would have shown how they chopped off their heads.
          ... The Commissioner was kindly asked to get down and go to the talking officers.
          “This is a case that suggests itself,” said the elderly man.
          They were polite with the commissioner, offered a cigarette, began to talk.
          I still did not believe in the fulfillment of the plan. But an elderly man went behind the commissar and, with a dry horizontal blow, cut off his head, which rolled onto the grass. The body stood for a split second, then collapsed.
          I made a mistake. It would be necessary to observe what is being done with the head, and I was attracted to his neck. She was fat, probably 42, and suddenly fell into a fist, and her throat popped out and black blood poured.
          I began to feel sick, and I hastened to leave. All this happened without any malice, just as a demonstration of a good blow.
          “This is what,” said the elderly. - It takes strength to cut a person from shoulder to lower back. "(C)
  7. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 16 May 2017 11: 37
    +1
    The mistake of the avant-garde commander of the 41 division was a waste of time firing into the cover of the transport — after all, using superiority in strength, they immediately attacked the enemy with hostility. The result would be achieved faster and with less sacrifice. It is also not clear why the Russian avant-garde did not surround the transport from all sides, attacking it only from the front.


    And if he was covered by a machine gun and not one?
    Your "bayonet" would end in a massacre.

    Well, it doesn’t say about the losses of the Germans? 56 people surrendered from the German cover battalion, how many more were killed? Apparently the Germans lost more than 150 people.
    So shelling with two guns to cover the convoy - it looks quite competently, based on available information.
    1. soldier
      soldier 16 May 2017 12: 54
      +20
      And if he was covered by a machine gun and not one?
      "bayonet" would end in a massacre.

      In many respects, this depended on how infantry tactically competed.
      For example, on July 9, 1915, in the battle of Maidan Khut, the 202nd Gori infantry regiment of the 51st infantry division during a bayonet attack destroyed 2 German batteries at once, operating under machine gun fire in a field battle.
      Losses of the regiment of 100 people killed and 567 wounded. Losses of the Germans - more than 1 thousand people killed, wounded and captured (more than 500 German corpses remained at the scene of the battle, and some trenches were completely littered with the dead). Trophies of Russian troops - 6 guns, 3 machine guns and about 200 prisoners.
      This article is about a decisive throw, especially in a situation where the cover of the convoy is dispersed and did not expect a strike
      1. DimerVladimer
        DimerVladimer 18 May 2017 08: 41
        0
        Quote: soldier
        during a bayonet attack, he immediately destroyed 2 German batteries, operating under machine gun fire in a field battle.


        Here the situation is different - 2 batteries of 4 guns with shrapnel shells regiment will be broken in 10 minutes (1 shot per gun in 4-5 seconds).
        In this situation, it was only a throw, when the calculations did not have time to rearrange the remote tubes to lead.
        And then - the batteries turned out to be well covered by machine guns - hence the big losses.
        Quote: soldier
        Losses of the regiment of 100 people killed and 567 wounded


        By the way, it’s not a fact that cavalry would have been more successful.
        In WWII, during the collapse of the German defense near Stalingrad, there was a case when a battery of German field guns reinforced by an infantry company and machine guns defeated 2 cavalry squadrons attacking their positions.
  8. sivuch
    sivuch 17 May 2017 09: 48
    +1
    The last picture is not very believable. Cossack with a gun (it seems, browning)?
    1. Koshnitsa
      Koshnitsa 17 May 2017 13: 43
      +7
      A Cossack officer, it seems the centurion, out of order the RIA officers had the right to carry 8 types of pistols in peacetime, including powerful browning. It is believable. Such a real detail.
      1. sivuch
        sivuch 17 May 2017 14: 43
        +1
        Yes, I know it . For home wearing - please God, but so that in an officer the officer exchanges a gun as reliable as a hammer, I don’t think
        1. Koshnitsa
          Koshnitsa 17 May 2017 15: 31
          +6
          There are sources, in the same Brusilovsky breakthrough, Russians and parabellums and other pistols were used. Individual, probably, qualities play a role.