But a serious heraldic reform was carried out in the reign of Alexander II in 1855-1857. According to his order, the Armorial Office was created especially for the work on the coats of arms in the Department of Heralds of the Senate, which was headed by Baron B. Kene. He developed a whole system of Russian state emblems (Large, Medium and Small), focusing in their artistic embodiment on the generally accepted norms of European monarchist heraldry. Also under the leadership of Kene, the figure of the eagle and St. George was changed, and the national emblem was brought in line with the international rules of heraldry. 11 April 1857, Alexander II approved the coat of arms of the Russian Empire - the double-headed eagle. Also, the whole set of state emblems was approved - Big, Medium and Small, which were to symbolize the unity and power of Russia. In May 1857, the Senate published a Decree describing new emblems and norms for their use, which existed until the 1917 year without any changes.
The legacy of ancestors
The national emblem and color bear a symbolic and historical value. It must be remembered that state symbols (the figurative expression of statehood, nation, its ideology) occupy an extremely important place in the life of the people, although this is usually invisible in everyday life. The oldest Russian symbols, which originate from the times of the Indo-Europeans-Aryans, were the Solstice, the falcon-rarog, the double-headed eagle, red color.
One of the historical emblems of Russia-Russia is the two-headed eagle. In its antiquity and depth of meaning, it is second only to the rider striking a dragon serpent, which in a later, already Christian understanding, is known as George the Victorious. The rider symbolizes the Thunderer (Perun, Indra, Thor, etc.), who strikes the snake (the symbol of Veles-Volos, the lord Navi). This is one of the basic myths of the Indo-Europeans-Aryans.
The double-headed eagle (bird) is noted in a wide variety of cultures. In particular, in Sumerian and Indian mythologies. So, Gandberunda is a two-headed bird in Vedic (Hindu) mythology (II millennium BC). The name of this bird consists of two words - ganda (strong), berunda (two-headed). In the Vishnu Purana, it is said that the warrior god Vishnu turned into Gandberunda when weaponswhich he owned was not enough and it was necessary to display fantastic power: a two-headed eagle could easily lift in each paw and beak along an elephant or a lion. Such an image of Gandaburundy is preserved not only on medieval coins, but also on the bas-relief of the Rameshwar temple in the Indian city of Keladi, which was built in the 16th century, and also in the coat of arms of the kingdom (principality) Mysore, where Gandberunda holds an elephant in each paw. Gandberunda is also known as the emblem of the dynasty of the Kings of Mysore - Vodeyar, on a number of gold and copper coins of the powerful empire of Vijayanagar (southern India) of the XIII – XVI centuries.
Principality of Mysore (India)
Indians perceived Gandberunda not only as a symbol of the warrior god Vishnu, his highest authority and military power, but also as an avatar (embodiment) of Vishnu, he also symbolized the observance of the principles of dharma (discipline and order). In addition, in Buddhism, the two-headed eagle symbolized the power and authority of the Buddha.
Actively used this symbol in the northern Indo-European (Aryan) cultures. HIt must be said that the many-headedness of various animals, mythical creatures is one of the features of Slavic mythology. No wonder another one of the oldest symbols of the superethnos of the Rus is Triglav, the triune God watches all the kingdoms of the earth: Yavu, Pravya and Navju (known in India as Trimurty, in Christianity - the Trinity). Various biceps, Triglavs-Troyans, four-headed Svyatovidy-Sventovidy, Semiglavy, etc. - this is a sign of the super ethnicity of the Rus.
Especially often in antiquity there is a double-headed eagle in Asia Minor and the Balkan Peninsula. In Asia Minor, he meets since the times of the mighty power of the II millennium BC. er - Hittite kingdom. Its founders were Indo-Europeans-Aryans, whose ancestral home supposedly was the Balkan Peninsula. The Hittite Empire successfully competed with Egypt. The Hittites were among the first to master the secret smelting of iron, controlled all of Asia Minor and the straits from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea. It was the great Aryan (Indo-European) people who worshiped the gods Pirva (Perun) and Sivat (Sveta). The Hittite coat of arms was a two-headed eagle, which was preserved not only on standards, stone bas-reliefs, but also seals. The Hittite eagle is the most important, material evidence of the continuity of Indo-European cultures, the succession of empires.
Gandberunda in Rmeshvar temple in Keladi, India
Double-headed eagle - symbol of the kingdom of Hittite
However, the Hittites adopted the eagle from the more ancient Aryan culture. There are more ancient settlements in Anatolia. In particular, the excavation near the settlement of Alacha-Uyuk (English form - Aladzha-khyuk). This settlement of the Bronze Age - IV - III thousand BC. er And here, along with numerous sculptural and bronze images of swastika-solstice and other Aryan-Indo-European traditional symbols, charms, the reliefs of the two-headed eagle were found. Thus, we observe the most ancient succession of the Aryan-Indo-European culture: Alacha IV thousand BC. er - Hattusa II mil. BC. er - Byzantium I-II thousand n. er - Russia XV-XXI centuries. n er
Russian heraldists noted that the image of the two-headed eagle was known in ancient Pteria (city in Medes). It dates back to the period of the turn of the 7th and 6th centuries. BC er According to Xenophon, the Persians at about the same time served as an eagle symbol of supreme power. The symbol of the double-headed eagle was used by the Persian shahs from the Sassanid dynasty. In ancient times, the eagle and the lion were considered a symbol of royalty. In ancient Rome, Roman commanders had images of an eagle on their rods, it was a symbol of primacy over the troops. Later, the eagle became an exclusively imperial symbol, symbolizing supreme power.
Western heraldists of the XVII century told the legend of how the double-headed eagle became the state emblem of Rome. At the entrance of Julius Caesar to Rome, an eagle flew in the air above him, which attacked two kites, killed them, and threw them at the feet of the great commander. Surprised, Julius considered this to be a sign that predicts his victory and ordered to perpetuate it, adding a second head to the Roman eagle. However, most likely, the appearance of the second head should be attributed to a later time, when the empire was divided into two parts - the Eastern and Western Roman empires. The body of the eagle was one, which meant common interests and origins, but with two heads facing west and east. Such an eagle was adopted as the emblem of the empire by Constantine the Great (272 - 337), or under other sources, Justinian I (483 - 565). Apparently, much later, the same symbolic significance was attached to the double-headed eagle of Austria-Hungary.
But the double-headed eagle was not an official symbol of the Byzantine Empire, as many believe. It was the emblem of the Paleologue dynasty, which ruled 1261 - 1453, and not the whole Byzantine state. In the Muslim world, which took the ancient Indo-European (Aryan) symbolism, the two-headed eagle personified the highest, including military, authority of the sultan, who was represented as a warrior hero, distinguished by courage, will to victory and militancy. The double-headed eagle was located on the Seljuk Turks flag. It was used by the Koni Sultanate (Iconium Sultanate, or the Rum Sultanate, or the Seljuk Sultanate) - a feudal state in Asia Minor that existed from 1077 to 1307. The double-headed eagle is preserved as a symbol of Konya.
The emblem of the Paleologue dynasty
After the start of the Crusades, the double-headed eagle appears in Western European heraldry. Thus, it is marked on the coins of Ludwig of Bavaria and the emblems of the burgraves of Würzburg and the Counts of Savoy. The German King and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa (1122 - 1190) was the first to use the black double-headed eagle in his coat of arms. Frederick saw this symbol in Byzantium. Until 1180, the two-headed eagle was not marked on state seals, coins and regalia, as well as on the emperor's personal belongings. Earlier, the eagle was the symbol of the German rulers, but since the emperor Friedrich Barbarossa, both symbols were depicted on the coat of arms of the Holy Roman Empire. Since the 15th century, the double-headed eagle has become the state emblem of the Holy Roman Empire. The eagle was depicted black on a golden shield, with golden beaks and claws, heads surrounded by haloes. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the double-headed eagle was the emblem of Austria-Hungary. In addition, in Serbia, the double-headed eagle became the emblem of the Nemanjic family. It was the ruling dynasty in the XII-XIV centuries.
Double-headed eagle on the coat of arms of the Holy Roman Empire
In Russia, the double-headed eagle was marked in the XIII century in the Chernigov principality, and in the XV century - in the Tver and Moscow principalities. Had some walking double-headed eagle and the Golden Horde. Some coins of the Golden Horde with the image of a two-headed eagle have been preserved. Some researchers even claim that the double-headed eagle was the State Emblem of the Horde. But most historians do not support this version. The seal of Ivan III Vasilyevich, which was inherited from Vasily II Vasilyevich, depicted a lion who tormented a snake (the lion was a symbol of the Vladimir principality). At the end of the 15th century, two new symbols appeared: the rider (rider), who was used in the Old Russian state and the two-headed eagle. The formal reason for using this symbol was the fact that Ivan III's wife was Sophia Paleolog, for whom the eagle was a generic sign. The emblem of the Paleologov was a black silhouette woven by black silk on a golden field. He was deprived of plastic and internal design, in fact, being a flat ornamental emblem.
Thus, the double-headed eagle was known in Russia before the arrival of the Byzantine princess. For example, the “Chronicle of the Cathedral of Constance” by Ulrich von Riczenthal from 1416, the coat of arms of Russia with the image of a two-headed eagle was placed. The two-headed eagle was not a symbol of the Byzantine Empire, and the great Russian princes accepted it to emphasize their equality with the Western European monarchs, to be equal to the German emperor.
Peremyshl land (XIII century.)
Sovereign Ivan III took the appearance of this emblem in the Russian Empire very seriously. For contemporaries of the Grand Duke, the kinship of the Byzantine imperial dynasty with the house of Rurik was an act of great importance. In fact, Russia disputed the rights of the strongest state of Western Europe - the Holy Roman Empire to this symbol. Moscow Grand Dukes began to rely on the successors of the Roman and Byzantine emperors. From the first half of the 16th century, Elder Filofei will formulate the concept of “Moscow - the Third Rome”. According to this concept, there were two Romes in history, the third stands (Moscow), and “there should not be a fourth”. Moscow became the heir to the Christian and Messianic traditions of Rome and Constantinople. Ivan III the Great adopted this emblem not only as a dynastic sign of his wife, but as a heraldic symbol of the Russian state in the future. The first reliable use of the double-headed eagle as the state symbol of the emblem dates back to the 1497 year, when the grand-ducal letter to the land holdings of the individual princes was sealed with red wax. The front and back sides of the print carried the image of a double-headed eagle and a horseman hitting a snake. At the same time, images of a gilded double-headed eagle on a red field appeared on the walls of the Faceted Chamber in the Kremlin.
The Byzantine eagle on Russian soil acquired new features, "Russified". In Russia, the previously simplified, lifeless graphic silhouette, filled with flesh, comes to life, ready to fly. This is a powerful, menacing bird. The eagle's breast is covered by the most ancient, primordial Russian symbol - the Heavenly Warrior, the Winner of evil, the patron of the military principle of Russia (Perun - George the Victorious). The eagle was depicted in gold on a red field.
During the reign of Tsar Ivan IV, the double-headed eagle finally became the emblem of Russia. First, the emblem of the Russian kingdom was supplemented with a unicorn, and then a horse-serpent rider. The rider was traditionally perceived as an image of the sovereign - “the prince is great on a horse, and having a spear in the hand”. That is, the king in Russia, according to the most ancient Aryan tradition, was the embodiment of Perun - George the Victorious - the defender of the Truth on Earth. Before the reign of Mikhail Romanov, there were two crowns above the heads of the eagle. Between them depicted a Russian eight-pointed cross - a symbol of Orthodoxy. Only in the large seal of Boris Godunov, the three heads of the eagle appear for the first time, they designated the Kazan, Astrakhan and Siberian kingdoms. Finally, the third crown appeared in 1625 year, it was introduced instead of the cross. From now on, three crowns signified Holy Trinity, at a later time, from the end of the 19th century, they began to consider the symbol of the trinity of the three parts of the Russian superethnos — Great Russians, Little Russians, and Belarusians. Since the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich, the Russian eagle almost always holds the scepter and orb in his hands.
From the 15th to the mid-17th century, the Russian eagle was always depicted with wings lowered, which was determined by the Eastern heraldic tradition. Only on some seals of False Dmitry, apparently under Western influence, are the wings of an eagle raised. In addition, on one of the seals of False Dmitry I, the serpent-rider was turned to the right according to the Western European heraldic tradition.
During the reign of Tsar Peter Alekseevich, with the approval of the Order of Sts. Andrew the First-Called, the Moscow coat of arms is almost always surrounded by a chain of the Order. The double-headed eagle itself. Under the influence of Western traditions, it becomes black. The rider from 1699 began to be officially called St. George. Under Empress Anna Ioannovna, a specially invited engraver, I. K. Gedlinger, prepared the State Seal for 1727, which will survive until the 1740 of the year with minor changes. Emperor Pavel Petrovich, who became the grandmaster of the Order of Malta, in 1856, will introduce the Maltese cross on the chest into the Russian coat of arms, on which the Moscow coat of arms will be placed. If it is, an attempt will be made to develop and introduce the full coat of arms of the Russian Empire. By the year 1799 will be prepared a complex coat of arms, which will be 1800 coat of arms. But before the death of Paul this emblem will not have time to take.
Coat of arms of the Moscow principality (XV century)
The coat of arms of the Russian kingdom (XVII century)
State Emblem of Russia (1730 g.)
Russian coat of arms proposed by Emperor Paul I (1800 g.)
State Emblem of Russia (1825 g.)
It must be said that before the reign of Alexander III, the Russian double-headed eagle was never exactly established by law. Therefore, the form, details, attributes and character changed in various reigns very easily and often significantly. So on the coins of the XVIII century, apparently, under the influence of Peter's dislike for Moscow, the eagle was depicted without the coat of arms of the old capital. The scepter and orb sometimes were replaced by a laurel branch, a sword and other emblems. By the end of the reign of Alexander I, the eagles were given not a heraldic, but a completely arbitrary form, which they borrowed in France. It was first placed on silverware made for the imperial house in France. This two-headed eagle had widely spread wings and held in its paws thunder arrows, a rod and a torch (in the right), a laurel crown (in the left) interlaced with ribbons. The dynastic St. Andrew’s chain disappeared, a heart-shaped, pointed shield with the Moscow coat of arms appeared on the eagle’s chest.
Under Nicholas I, there were two types of coat of arms. The simplified coat of arms had only basic elements. On the second on the wings title emblems: Kazan, Astrakhan, Siberian (on the right), Polish, Tauride and Finnish (on the left). The emblem itself is extremely monumental, harmoniously included in the new architectural style, known as the “Nikolaev Empire”. Wings like spread over Russia, as if protecting her. Heads are formidable and powerful.
Under the emperor Alexander II, a heraldic reform was carried out, its main author was Baron Koenet. There is a crown over the Moscow coat of arms, with St.. George is depicted in the image of a medieval knight in silver armor. The shape of an eagle is heraldic. On the small state emblem also appeared shields with the emblems of the territories within the Russian state. 11 April 1857 took a whole set of coats of arms - Large, Medium and Small State Emblems and other, only one hundred and ten drawings.
Large state emblem of the Russian Empire (1857 g.)
Large state emblem of the Russian Empire (1882 g.)
Small State Emblem of the Russian Empire (1883 g.)
In the 1892 year, during the reign of Alexander III, an exact description of the state emblem appears in the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire. The St. Andrew chain will return to the eagle's chest. Black feathers will thicken the chest, necks and widely spread wings. Paws carry scepter and orb. The beaks of the eagles are ominously opened and the tongues are prostrated. The fiery gaze of fiery eyes faces east and west. The view of the eagle was solemn, impressive and formidable. On the wings were placed the arms. On the right: Kazan, Polish, Chersonesos of the Tauride kingdoms, united coat of arms of Kiev, Vladimir and Novgorod princedoms. On the left wing: the Astrakhan, Siberian, Georgian kingdoms, the Grand Duchy of Finland.
As a national symbol of the Russian people and Russian statehood, the two-headed eagle passed through three dynasties of the Russian autocrats — Rurikovich, Godunov and Romanov — without losing the significance of the supreme state emblem. The two-headed eagle also survived during the Provisional Government, when the swastika competed with it - a sign of the sun and a symbol of eternity. The Provisional Government postponed the decision on the state emblem until the Constituent Assembly was convened, and placed a double-headed eagle redrawn from the seal of Ivan III, without crowns, scepter, orb, shield with George the Victorious on the eagle's chest, etc.
Coat of arms of the Russian Republic (1917 g.)
For the first state emblem of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the hammer and sickle emblem was chosen, which was originally intended for the state seal. At the top of the coat of arms were located the letters of the RSFSR. Apart from these letters in the coat of arms, the first Soviet state sign was made in accordance with the heraldic canons. The main image is the hammer and sickle emblem in the rays of the rising sun. The motto emphasized the political orientation of the distinctive sign of the socialist state. In 1978, a red star was added at the top of the emblem.
2-th Congress of the Soviets of the USSR 31 January 1924 approved the constitution, where it was stated that the coat of arms of the USSR consists of a sickle and hammer on the globe, depicted in the sun and framed with ears, twined with a red ribbon with the inscription on it - "Proletarians of all countries , unite! The inscription was in six languages - Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Georgian, Armenian, Turkic-Tatar. Upstairs is a red five-pointed star. With the change in the number of union republics, the inscription on the tape was given in 1937-1946. in 11 languages, in 1946-1956's. - on 16, from 1956, on - in 15 languages.
The coat of arms of the RSFSR was used before the 1993 year, only the inscription on the shield - “Russian Federation” - was changed. In 1993, the double-headed eagle returned to the coat of arms of the Russian state. The proposed project of the state emblem - a two-headed eagle without crowns, scepter, orc and other "royal" attributes - was rejected, remaining on metallic money as the emblem of the Central Bank. The two-headed eagle became the emblem, the drawing of which was made based on the small emblem of the Russian Empire - in a different color scheme, without territorial emblems on the wings of an eagle, without a chain of the Order of St. Andrew the First Called. According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the state emblem of the Russian Federation, its description and the procedure for official use are established by federal constitutional law. Such a law - “On the State Emblem of the Russian Federation” - was adopted on December 25. 2000. The coat of arms is a quadrangular, with rounded lower corners, pointed at the tip of a red heraldic shield with a golden two-headed eagle, which has raised its wings upwards. The eagle is crowned with two small crowns and above them with one big crown connected by a ribbon. In the right paw of an eagle - a scepter, in the left - power. On the chest of an eagle, in a red shield, is a silver rider in a blue raincoat on a silver horse, striking a silver spear of a black tilted dragon backwards and trampled by a horse. Reproduction of the emblem in one-color version, as well as without a heraldic shield, is allowed.
Now, the double-headed eagle is a symbol of eternity of the Russian statehood, its continuity with the great empires of antiquity. Two heads of an eagle remind of the historical need for Russia-Russia to defend the frontiers in the West and the East. Three crowns over their heads, fastened with a single ribbon, symbolize the unity of the three parts of Russia (Russian civilization) - Great Russia, Little Russia and White Russia. Scepter and orb indicate the inviolability of the state foundations of our country. The eagle's chest, protected by a shield depicting a serpent horseman, points to the historical mission of the Russian people on Earth — the fight against evil in all its manifestations. Departure from this program leads to confusion and the collapse of the Russian statehood. Historically, Russia-Russia is the defender of the Truth on Earth. At the present time, when involution (simplification) and degradation have engulfed humanity, and the West has spread the idea of a “golden calf” (materialism) to the entire planet, which has led to global turmoil, this is especially important. The fall of the Russian civilization, which is the bearer of ethics of conscience on the planet, will lead to a global catastrophe (the destruction of the current human civilization).
Double-headed eagle returned to us. This ancient symbol is at least six to seven thousand years old. Let us hope that other undeservedly forgotten ones, and even specially desecrated generic symbols and signs of the Rus super-ethnos (as a solstice) will eventually be fully returned and will eventually occupy a worthy place in Russia-Russia. They kept the Rus Slavs for thousands of years.
Modern state emblem of the Russian Federation