In spite of the efforts undertaken in the Soviet Union, it was not possible to bring the deck-based aircraft to the DRLO to mass production. After the collapse of the USSR, due to the permanent lack of money for defense spending, this topic was not returned to the topic in the “new” Russia. Sea helicopters with powerful all-round radar were considered as an inexpensive alternative. Although in fairness it is worth immediately saying that in terms of its capabilities: the detection range, altitude, speed and duration of the flight - rotary-wing machines in all lose to deck planes of the radar watch.
The first attempt to create a Yak-24Р helicopter “radar picket” in the USSR was made in the 1957 year. The Yak-24 helicopter, on which it was decided to install a radar with an antenna in a large ventral fairing, was built according to the “flying car” scheme, which is rare for our country. Serial production of the passenger and transport Yak-24 began in the year 1955. The helicopter, made on a twin-screw longitudinal scheme, was equipped with two ASH-82В piston engines, and could reach a maximum speed of 175 km / h and carry 30 passengers. Flight range with maximum load - 255 km. At the time of creation, it was the largest Soviet helicopter lift. Yak-24 was in serial production from 1956 to 1958 year. During this time, managed to build 40 machines.
In addition to the radome radome of the ventral radome, another external difference of the Yak-24P was the elongated landing gear. The main purpose of the first Soviet Aeroflot helicopter based on ground airfields was to be the search for submarines and enemy ships in coastal areas. In addition to the ships on the surface, the radar had to see the periscopes of the submarines. At an altitude of 2500 meters, according to design data, the radar could detect air targets at a distance of 150 km.
However, after removing the Yak-24 from production, the program for creating the Yak-24P was minimized. It is possible that the decision to stop the construction of the Yak-24P was influenced by the American experience of testing the DRLO helicopter Sikorsky HR2S-1W with the AN / APS-20 radar, which was created on the order of the United States KMP. The reason for the refusal of the Marine Corps from DRLO helicopters was the unreliable operation of the radar, due to the strong vibration effects and a short time of combat patrols. It is worth saying that one of the problems of the Yak-24 was also a strong vibration. In addition, the creation of a compact and possibly lightweight, but at the same time powerful radar station on a lamp element base, in the second half of the 50-s for the Soviet radio-electronic industry was a very difficult task.
The first Soviet deck helicopter of the radar patrol was the Ka-25. This vehicle, intended for detecting surface targets and issuing target designation to anti-ship missile systems of Soviet cruisers, was put into service at the end of 1971. A total of 50 helicopters of this type was built, their operation in the Navy continued until the middle of the 90-x.
From the anti-submarine Ka-25PL, the Ka-25Ts radar reconnaissance and target designation helicopter was distinguished by the presence of a circular radar in the nose radome and an automatic data transmission system. Instead of the antisubmarine armament suspension units, additional fuel tanks were installed at this place. In order to avoid shading the radars of the landing gear are retractable. To carry out search and rescue operations on board mounted winch.
The systems that were part of the Success helicopter-ship reconnaissance and target designation complex made it possible to perform radar patrol, target designation and retransmission of data at a distance of 250 km. The helicopter was able to patrol for an hour at a distance of 200 km from the home ship. The on-board radar detected the target, and the information was transmitted to the ship using an automatic data transmission system. On the basis of the information on the location and course of the target received from the Ka-25T from the carrier ship, the RCC was launched. The Ka-25T helicopters were based on the cruisers Ave. 58, on the aircraft carrying cruisers of the 1143 Ave., large anti-submarine ships of the Ave 1134 and 1155. At the same time, they could conduct reconnaissance and target designation for anti-ship complexes with a launch range of up to 500 km. And although the on-board equipment of the helicopter was not capable of directing the missile, the information transmitted to the cruiser allowed for the correction of the RCC rate before the target was captured by the GOS. After the Ka-25Ц helicopters and Tu-95РЦ long-distance reconnaissance helicopters, which were part of the sea-based Success radar targeting and reconnaissance system, were written off, as well as the Legenda maritime space reconnaissance and targeting system, due to the cessation of operation over-the-horizon target designation.
The only type of AWACS aircraft now operated by our fleetis a Ka-31 helicopter. This machine, originally intended to be based on ships, which excluded the possibility of using carrier-based AWACS aircraft, such as aircraft-carrying cruisers, pr. 1123 and 1143, was built on the basis of the Ka-29 transport and combat helicopter. In the 80s in the USSR, this was perhaps the only platform on the basis of which it was possible to relatively quickly create a “flying radar” for placement on ships.
The main objective of the DRLO helicopter, which was originally designated Ka-252RLD, was the detection of sea and low-altitude aerial targets, including anti-ship missiles. Work on the new machine entered a phase of practical implementation in 1985 year. As the new helicopter was radically different from the progenitor of the Ka-29, it received the designation Ka-31.
A prototype helicopter DRLO Ka-31
To detect air and surface targets, the Ka-31 received a UHF radar station. A rotating antenna with a length of 5,75 meter was placed under the fuselage. In the off position and during landing, the antenna folds. To prevent the chassis from interfering with the rotation of the antenna, it was finalized: the front supports are retracted into the fairings, and the rear, main supports, have a mechanism that pulls them up. Other significant differences from the Ka-29 were the installation of additional fuel tanks in the elongated surges behind the flight deck and the powerful auxiliary power unit TA-8K, which was launched during radar operation.
The helicopter with a maximum take-off weight of 12500 kg developed a maximum speed of 255 km / h. The maximum flight range is 680 km with an 2,5 duration of an hour. Patrols are possible at altitudes up to 3500 km. Crew - 3 person.
The E-801 “Oko” radio complex, developed by NPO Vega, made it possible to detect air targets at a distance of 100-150 km and surface targets of the “rocket boat” type at a distance of 250 km, while simultaneously maintaining 20 targets. Of course, these parameters could not be compared with the design data of An-71 or Yak-44. But, as you know, "for not having a stamp, write on idle." With the complete absence of DRLO aircraft in the deck aircraft, relatively inexpensive, although not meeting all the requirements, the Ka-31 helicopters somehow helped to “look beyond the horizon”.
The Ka-31 first flew in 1987 and, by the time the Soviet Union collapsed, had completed its state test program. Its serial production was to be conducted at the Kumertau Aviation Production Enterprise. However, as in the case of the An-71 and Yak-44, funding for the program was stopped. The hasty withdrawal from the fleet of aircraft-carrying cruisers, pr. 1143, and the cessation of aircraft carrier construction led to a significant decrease in customer interest in the Ka-31. Thanks to the efforts of the Kamov design bureau specialists, the two prototypes built went through state tests, and in 1995 the AWACS helicopter was officially adopted aviation Russian Navy. But, in fact, it was just a formality, the Ka-31 mass production did not start, and two heavily worn out in the process of testing copies were supposed to be based on the only Russian aircraft carrier Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov. In this regard, it seemed to many that, like many other Soviet aviation programs, the Kamov DRLO helicopter was doomed to oblivion, but export orders saved this machine.
20 January 2004 of the year an agreement was concluded on the sale to India of the aircraft-carrying cruiser 1143.4 Ave. “Admiral of the Soviet Navy Pots”. At the same time, there was a large-scale modernization of the ship and the dismantling of unusual weapons for an aircraft carrier in order to free up space to accommodate a larger number of aircraft. Initially, the Indian government considered the option of assembling an aircraft wing with vertical take-off and landing aircraft, but during the negotiations it was possible to agree on converting the ship into a full-fledged aircraft carrier with basing supersonic MiG-29K on it. Naturally, the Indian admirals raised the question of long-range radar patrols, but the Russian military-industrial complex could offer them nothing but Ka-31 helicopters.
Ka-31 Indian Navy
To equip the carrier carrier deck, which received the name Vikramaditya in the Indian Navy and create a reserve, a contract was signed for the construction of nine Ka-31 worth $ 207 million, with the delivery of the first machine in the 2004 year. At the same time, the helicopters received updated radio-technical and flight-navigation complexes. Over the 10 years of active operation in the Indian Navy, the Ka-31 had time to establish itself on the positive side. In the future, India ordered an additional batch and repair parts already received helicopters. In total, as of the beginning of 2017, the Indian Navy had an 14 Ka-31. It is reported that in addition to conducting a radar survey, these helicopters are also assigned the tasks of electronic reconnaissance and jamming.
According to data published by the information agency RIA News", In 2007, the contact was made for the delivery of Ka-9 helicopters to the PLA Navy 31. They were intended to be placed on the first Chinese aircraft carrier "Liaonin" (formerly "Varyag", bought in Ukraine at the price of scrap metal), universal landing ships and destroyers.
In April, the 2012 of the year appeared on the state procurement website an application for the acquisition of the Ka-31Р radar patrol helicopter of the Russian Defense Ministry. The cost was 406,5 million rubles. However, no information was found whether this contract was executed. At about the same time, new DRLO helicopter images taken at the Sokol airfield in Nizhny Novgorod appeared on the network. The helicopter, equipped with a new radar complex L381, designed for reconnaissance of ground targets, made regular test flights. This complex was created by OAO Federal Research and Production Center Nizhny Novgorod Research Institute of Radio Engineering.
Flight tests of the helicopter with the tail number "231 white" began at the end of the 2004 year. This machine is re-equipped from the prototype marine helicopter DRLO Ka-31 with the tail number "031 blue". In the materials of JSC "Kamov" an experienced helicopter appears under the designations: 23D2, Ka-252CB, Ka-31CB and Ka-35.
In 2008, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation signed a contract with OJSC Kumertau Aviation Production Enterprise for the construction of two helicopters. In August, 2015 was published the information about the successful completion of the state test program and the adoption of the Ka-31CB into service.
In October, a Russian DRLO helicopter with the 2016 blue number was spotted in Syria in the Latakia region of Syria in October. According to a number of authoritative sources, this is the Ka-232SV helicopter built from scratch, which is being tested in combat conditions.
According to the Military Balance 2016, there are two Ka-31Р in the structure of the Russian Navy aviation, the number and the identity of the Ka-31СВ are unknown. Apparently, our Ministry of Defense is still not in a hurry to purchase DRLO helicopters in noticeable amounts. The hopes that the number of radar patrol helicopters in the fleet will increase after the conclusion of the contract for the UDC "Mistral", proved to be untenable. Although these machines are significantly inferior in their capabilities to the existing A-50 radar complexes, the advantages of the Ka-31 are much lower cost of construction and operation and the possibility of basing on ships and small platforms.
The first Soviet aircraft intended for ground-based radar reconnaissance was the IL-20 with the Igla-1 radar complex. This machine was created on the basis of the widespread transport and passenger turboprop aircraft Il-18D. Tests of the new reconnaissance aircraft began in 1968. In addition to the incoherent radar of the Earth’s survey, with an antenna in a radio-transparent cigar-shaped fairing (length - about 8 m), the plane carried a set of reconnaissance cameras and equipment, allowing to reveal the location and type of ground-based radars and intercept radio communications in the UHF range.
The radar equipment is mounted in the front luggage compartment. A-87P aerial cameras with lenses under sliding shutters were placed along the sides in two side fairings in front of the fuselage. In the back of the fuselage, in the fairing, there are antennas of the Romb system of electronic reconnaissance, designed to fix the radar radiation and determine the direction to the source.
Workstations of RTK operators on Il-20 aircraft
Behind the wing, in the lower part of the fuselage, the antennas of the Kvadrat radio intelligence station were installed, with the help of which a more detailed collection of information about the detected radio-emitting objects was carried out. Aerials of the Cherry radio interception system are located above the front of the fuselage. Radar and reconnaissance equipment were serviced by 6 operators.
During the tests, a number of flaws emerged, in particular, the military were dissatisfied with the convenience of the operators, complaints about the characteristics, reliability and maintainability of the equipment. After eliminating the comments and expanding the capabilities of the radio-technical complex, the aircraft received the designation IL-20М. To increase the reliability of the information, a mode was introduced in which simultaneous information was collected through several channels, which makes it possible to increase the reliability of intelligence information. In the back cabin of the aircraft there is a special soundproofed compartment, with seating areas, there is a buffet, toilet facilities and a wardrobe. For emergency escape of the Il-20M, an emergency hatch is provided, located in the right-hand side at the rear of the fuselage. On the IL-20M, the number of full-time personnel engaged in servicing the RTK increased to 7 people, there were places on board for 13 people. The flight crew consisted of two pilots, a navigator, a radio operator and a flight engineer. According to its characteristics, IL-20M was close to its “ancestor” IL-18D. With a maximum take-off mass of 64 000 kg, it could cover a distance of more than 6000 km with a cruising speed of 620 km / h and be in the air for more than 10 hours.
Serial construction of all modifications of the IL-20 was conducted from 1969 to 1974 year at the Moscow factory "Banner of Labor", all built around 20 machines. In Soviet times, it was one of the most secret aircraft. The reconnaissance aircraft did not go to the airborne reconnaissance regiments or squadrons, but subordinated directly to the commanders of the military districts. In the West, the aircraft was identified only in the 1978 year, by that time, neither in the USA nor in Europe were there reconnaissance aircraft with side-looking radar systems that could be compared with IL-20M.
In 70-80-ies, these machines are very actively exploited and participated in many exercises and flew along the borders of the countries of NATO, China and Japan. During the fighting in Afghanistan, Il-20M, while preparing large-scale military operations, repeatedly conducted reconnaissance along the borders with Iran and Pakistan and carried out photographs of fortified insurgents. The IL-20M aircraft very often carried the standard color of Aeroflot and civil registration numbers.
Most of the Il-20M intelligence officers remained in Russia after the collapse of the USSR, but due to the “reforming” of the armed forces and the collapse in defense spending, obsolescence and development of special equipment resources in the second half of 90's, many machines were laid up or converted for transportation cargo and passengers. According to the Military Balance 2016, there are 15 Il-20M reconnaissance aircraft in the Russian Aerospace Force. However, these data are greatly overestimated, and apparently, the machines that are “in storage” or in repair and re-equipped for other tasks have entered here along with the serviceable ones.
In 2014, it was reported that OAO Myaschev Experimental Machine-Building Plant is re-equipping several IL-20М. Machines with a new radio engineering complex and those that have undergone a refurbishment began to be designated IL-20М1. Modernized reconnaissance aircraft in addition to the modern RTK, instead of obsolete cameras A-87P received optoelectronic surveillance systems that can operate in the dark.
After the annexation of the Crimea and the exacerbation of relations with the United States, the intensity of the flights of Russian IL-20M increased significantly. In 2015, NATO interceptors repeatedly rose to meet Russian aerial reconnaissance aircraft. And the Estonian Foreign Ministry even protested about the alleged air border violations.
September 30 2015, the Russian Aerospace Forces, launched an air operation in Syria - the first large-scale military campaign outside its borders since the war in Afghanistan. In the aviation group, consisting of almost 50 combat aircraft and helicopters at the Hmeimim airbase in the province of Latakia, also included one intelligence officer Il-20М1. Details of the use of this machine are not disclosed, but based on the capabilities of the onboard radio engineering complex, it can be assumed that not only radar and optoelectronic reconnaissance is conducted, but also the radio exchange between militants is intercepted, and radio signals are relayed.
To replace the outdated Il-20 more than 10 years ago, the creation of a Tu-214P radar and radio intelligence aircraft began. The OCR program “Fraction-4” was agreed with the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation in 2004. The contract provided for the transfer to the customer of two head units of the Tu-214Р until the end of 2008. However, as often happens in the newest stories of our country, the dates were thwarted. The first reconnaissance aircraft took to the air at the end of 2009, only in 2012, the aircraft was transferred to state tests. The second Tu-214P broke into trials in the 2014 year. The disruption of the delivery time of the Tu-214Р aircraft caused a lengthy legal proceedings between the Defense Ministry and KAPO. The plaintiff demanded to recover 1,24 billion rubles from the Kazan aircraft manufacturer for disrupting the deadlines for the execution of the order. The arbitral tribunal found the claims partly justified, but considered that part of the blame did not lie with CAPO, but with other organizations. As a result, the court decided to pay 180 million rubles.
Tu-214P at the airport "Ramenskoye"
The Tu-214Р integrated radio engineering and optical reconnaissance aircraft was built on the basis of the Tu-214 passenger airliner and equipped with the MRK-411 radio engineering complex with side and circular radar stations with fixed AFAR along the sides in the front of the fuselage. According to data published in open sources, the RTK allows radar reconnaissance of ground targets at a height of patrols 9-10 km at a distance of up to 250 km. It is reported that the radar is even able to see targets "under the ground." In this case, we are most likely talking about identifying camouflaged fortifications, or about the ability to see armored vehicles in caponiers. The complex is also able to detect radio emission sources at a distance of up to 400 km, to intercept radio communications.
The plane’s photograph shows four flat antennas along the sides of the fuselage, providing it with a circular view. In addition, a large antenna system is installed in the fairing below the tail of the aircraft.
Antenna modules of the radio-technical complex MRK-411 of the Tu-214Р aircraft
The Tu-214P is also capable of reconnaissance in the visible and infrared range using a high-resolution optical-electronic system. In addition, the T-214P can be used as a point of command and control and targeting weapons at detected targets. The transfer of information about targets in real time is carried out via digital high-speed radio and satellite communication channels with preservation of the primary data array on the recorder.
Shortly after the first copy of the Tu-214P was handed over to the customer, it was 17 December 2012 of the year discovered by the Japan Self-Defense Air Force in international airspace over the Sea of Japan. Apparently, the plane passed military tests in a real situation, testing the air defense system of Japan. After being put into service, the aircraft were tested during major exercises. In 2015, the Tu-214Р flew along the border with Ukraine. In mid-February 2015, one Tu-214P flew from the factory airfield in Kazan to Hamim airbase in Syria.
Currently, there are two reconnaissance Tu-214Ps in the VKS RF. After litigation over the industry’s deadlines for delivery, the Ministry of Defense announced that it would no longer order this type of aircraft. This decision was motivated by the allegedly short time the aircraft was on patrol. In this parameter, the Tu-214P is really inferior to the IL-20M. But the flight data of the aircraft were agreed with the military back in the 2004 year and then did not cause any complaints. The case is most likely in the high cost of the aircraft, and the Ministry of Defense is thus trying to put pressure on the manufacturer. In any case, the need for machines of this class is huge, and in the near future there is no real alternative to the Tu-214Р. In 2016, it became known that at the Kazan Aviation Plant them. Gorbunov is building a third copy of the Tu-214P.
In fact, over the past 20 years, our capabilities in aviation reconnaissance have seriously deteriorated, and this fully applies to radar reconnaissance aircraft. In Soviet times, long-range supersonic reconnaissance Tu-22Р were operated in the air force and in naval aviation. According to various sources, it was built before 130 machines. Aircraft modifications Tu-22Р / РД / РДК / РМ / РДМ differed in the composition of the onboard reconnaissance equipment, the improvement of which lasted until the middle of 80-x.
In addition to conducting reconnaissance using day and night cameras and passive radio engineering systems, powerful Rubin -1M radar was used to detect large sea and land targets, capable of detecting a cruiser target at a distance of up to 450 km. This ability was especially in demand when preparing a strike on the American aircraft carrier squadron. In Soviet times, the actions of aircraft - carriers of anti-ship missiles, provided Tu-22Р. For this, in the naval aviation, there were about 40 supersonic reconnaissance aircraft. In the late version of the upgraded reconnaissance Tu-22RDM, the M-202 “Shompol” pendant side-looking radar was used with increased resolution and selection of moving targets.
To replace the outdated Tu-22Р in 1989, the Tu-22МР was adopted with a variable wing geometry; the aircraft’s operation in combat units began in the 1994 year. This machine, which fully inherited all the advantages of the supersonic Tu-22М3 supersonic bomber, was intended primarily to support the Tu-22X3 of rocket-carrying naval aviation and remote reconnaissance.
Externally, the Tu-22MR from the Tu-22М3 is distinguished by an elongated keel guard, the presence of the ventral fairing of the reconnaissance container and external antennas of radio engineering systems. Unfortunately, it was not possible to find more detailed information about the capabilities of the equipment installed on the Tu-22МР, in open sources it is only said that the aircraft carries a diverse complex consisting of photo cameras and optoelectronic intelligence, radio emission source detection stations and powerful radars. This aircraft did not become a mass, it was built 12 Tu-22MR.
Side-mounted radar "Saber-E" equipped with supersonic front-line reconnaissance bombers MiG-25РБС. On the MiG-25RBSH used radar M-202 "Shompol". The long-range jet reconnaissance Tu-22RDM was in service with the RF Air Force until 1994, and the MiG-25RBSH was removed from service in 2013.
In the first half of the 70-x in a limited number built double Yak-28BI with side-looking radar "Bulat". The aircraft was intended for mapping areas with high resolution, comparable to a photographic image. The mapping was carried out in a strip of width 15 km, in direct flight conditions at low and medium altitudes with subsonic speeds.
Since the MiG-25RBSH was very expensive to operate and poorly suited for low-altitude flights, the military expressed a desire to get a reconnaissance plane based on the Su-24M front-line bomber, which could conduct not only aerial photography, but radio and radar reconnaissance. Currently, the Su-24MR front-line reconnaissance is part of the Russian VKS. Machines of this modification began to arrive in the troops in the 1985 year.
The Su-24M reconnaissance kit includes aerial cameras, as well as interchangeable outboard containers that house radio, infrared, radiation reconnaissance, and laser scanning equipment. For conducting a radar location survey, the M-101 "Bayonet" side-looking radar is used. Theoretically, the Su-24MR should provide comprehensive intelligence at any time of day with the transmission of information over the air in real time. But in reality, the system of remote data transmission in line units, as a rule, is not used. That is, the work is still being done in the old manner. After the combat departure of the reconnaissance aircraft, the storage units and the film with the results of aerial photography are sent for decryption, which means a loss of efficiency and a possible exit of the enemy from under the planned strike. It is clear that the existing front-line scouts Su-24MR need to be upgraded, and this should have been done 20 years ago.
Currently, there is information about the development for the modern Su-34 front-line bomber in the framework of the ROC "Sych" of the reconnaissance container UKR-RL with side-looking radar. A few years ago, at the airfield in Kubinka, Su-34 images were taken with overhead reconnaissance containers. However, how far the work has actually progressed in this direction is that there is no information in open sources.
Of course, unmanned aerial vehicles are a very promising means of radar reconnaissance of the earth’s surface. In this area, our country is still inferior to American and Israeli manufacturers of drones. It is known that the creation of heavy UAVs is carried out by the companies Kronstadt and Sukhoi, the aircraft manufacturing corporation MiG, OKB Yakovlev and the holding Russian Helicopters.
Apparently, the Kronstadt company with its Dozor-600 UAV has advanced the furthest in this direction. The device was first presented at the MAKS-2009 air show. After reviewing it, the Minister of Defense SG Shoigu demanded to speed up the development. In addition to optoelectronic systems, the basis of the payload consists of front and side radar with synthetic aperture. But due to its characteristics, Dozor-600, which is an example of the American MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper, cannot compete with the Il-20М and Tu-214Р aircraft. The Yak-133 created in the framework of the Breakthrough R & D project became more promising. With the use of elements of the Yak-130 TC, it is planned to create three variants of a long-range UAV: shock and reconnaissance with optoelectronic equipment, electronic reconnaissance complexes and side-looking radar.
In the Yak-133RLD version, the UAV with a take-off weight of about 10000 kg and a speed of 750 km / h should patrol for 16 hours at an altitude of up to 14 000 meters. The resulting radar "picture" will be broadcast on radio and satellite communication channels. 7 September 2016 of the newspaper "Izvestia" published an article, which stated that the Irkut Corporation began testing the Yak-133 UAV. A source of "Izvestia" in the aircraft industry noted, quote:
The aerodynamic design of the newest drone (a combination of the geometric and structural design of an aircraft) is very complex, containing many unique technical solutions that have not been previously used in any of the serial aircraft. The unique aerodynamic design of the drone allows you to make UAVs invisible to enemy radar even at the moment when it uses weapon or conducts reconnaissance, but also fairly maneuverable and speedy. In order for the newest UAV to be able to fly with the chosen aerodynamic scheme, it was necessary to do very complex work on the integration of the UAV, which, in particular, involved specialists from Roscosmos. If we talk about navigation and control systems, then our developments are not inferior to their foreign counterparts, but the disadvantage is that they have been fulfilled so far on a foreign element base.
It is not known whether the Yak-133RLD will work on aerial targets or conduct only ground reconnaissance. Theoretically, UAVs are capable of detecting airborne targets, but so far anywhere in the world have they created an AEW drone capable of effectively interacting with fighters and air defense systems. In any case, information from unmanned vehicles via broadband communication channels is dropped on ground-based control gears, and then communicated to consumers. Manned aircraft radar patrol has a much wider capabilities. Airborne equipment operators and guidance officers are able to direct from the board flexibly the actions of their aircraft, distribute air targets between specific fighters and direct strike aircraft at long range without the participation of ground control points.
To be continued ...