75 years ago, 4 on April 1942, the plane of Lieutenant Alexei Maresyev was shot down in an air battle.
The pilot, who was injured in his legs, made a forced landing on the territory occupied by German troops. He crawled to the front line 18 for days, from where he was sent to the hospital and underwent amputation of both legs, after which he again went to the front by a fighter pilot. Subsequently, the feat of Alexei Maresyev became the basis of the plot of The Tale of a Real Man by Boris Polevoy.
Alexey Petrovich Maresyev was born 29 in May 1916 (in the old style 16 in May) in the city of Kamyshin, Kamyshin district, Saratov province of the Russian Empire (now the administrative center of the Kamyshin district of the Volgograd region).
TASS remembers the life path of the legendary pilot and his feat.
Father - Peter Avdeevich Maresyev, a soldier of the First World War, died of tuberculosis, when Alexei was three years old.
Mother - Catherine Nikitichna Maresyev, worked as a cleaner at the plant. Alexey was the youngest of her four sons.
Alexey Maresyev was married to Galina Viktorovna Maresyeva (nee Tretyakova, died in 2002), an employee of the Air Force University Management.
The eldest son is Victor (born 1946), an engineer, now President of the Regional Public Foundation A.P. Maresyev "Disabled Insured".
The youngest son is Alexey (1958 – 2002).
In 1930 in Kamyshin he graduated from six (according to other data - seven) classes of the school, in 1930 – 1932. in the Kamyshin school factory apprenticeship (FZU) mastered the profession of a turner.
In 1933 – 1934 on the job he studied at the Kamyshinsky workers' faculty. M. Gorky Saratov Agricultural Institute (now Saratov State Agrarian University).
In 1940 he graduated from the Bataisk military aviation pilot school named after A.K. Serov (now Krasnodar Higher Military Aviation School of Pilots), in 1952 - the Higher Party School under the Central Committee of the CPSU, in 1956 - graduate school of the Academy of Social Sciences under the Central Committee of the CPSU. Candidate historical Sciences (1956).
Work and service
In 1933 – 1934 Worked at the Kamyshin timber mill as an oil shaker, turner.
In 1934, he was sent to the construction of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, where from March 1935 to August 1937 worked as a woodcutter, then a diesel engineer on a Partizan boat. Engaged in the flying club.
In the fall of 1937, he was drafted into the ranks of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army (RKKA), until 1938, he served in the 12 th aviation border detachment on Sakhalin Island.
In 1939, sent to the Chita Aviation School.
From 1940, the pilot-instructor of the Batay military aviation school of pilots.
Since the beginning of World War 1941 – 1945. sent to the South-Western Front (first combat flight - 23 August 1941, in the area of Krivoy Rog).
He was a pilot, flight commander of the 296 th Fighter Aviation Regiment, then the 580 th Fighter Aviation Regiment on the North-Western Front.
April 4 (according to the list of irretrievable losses of the commanding personnel of the 6 th attack airgroup of the Supreme Command Headquarters - April 5) 1942 was fired by the Yare-1 Maresyev fighter in the area of the so-called demyan boiler (Demyansky, Valdai district of the Novyyursk area made a forced landing in the rear of the Nazi troops.
During the 18 day, the pilot, severely wounded at his feet, was crawling to the front line. He was found by the inhabitants of the village of Plav of the Kislovsky Village Council of the Valday District.
At that time, the village of Plav was located in the rear of the Soviet front line, somewhere over 13 km. Sergey and Sashka were the only almost adult men. Some woman and then a man brought a rumor to the village that they had heard the groans in the woods for help, but they didn’t come close to the place. Then everyone was afraid of fascist provocations, the front is near, who is it - Russian or German? Therefore, the old father of Alexander, the grandfather of Mikhail Vikhrov, discouraged the guys to go, but they did not obey, thus Alexei Petrovich Maresyev, and then, by the way, he was only 26 years old, saved his life.
The guys found a pilot in the woods behind the swamp, dragged him to the road, and a little later the same grandfather Vikhrov took him on a cart to the village, from where the wounded man was sent to a military medical unit
Son of Sergei Malin (a resident of the village who saved Maresiev from death)
At the beginning of May, 1942, the city of Maresyev, was transferred to a Moscow hospital, where, because of the developed gangrene, the doctors had to amputate the pilot both lower legs. He mastered dentures and asked to be returned to the army in the field. At the beginning of 43, he underwent a medical examination and was sent to train at the 3 th aviation primary school (Ibresi village and Klimovo village of the Chuvash ASSR, now Chuvashia).
Hero of the Soviet Union
Since June, 1943 - as part of the 63 Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment (later on, this military unit repeatedly changed numbers and names, disbanded in 2009).
In the post of deputy commander of the squadron, then assistant commander and navigator of the regiment participated on the La-5FN fighter in the battles of Kursk and in the Baltic States.
20 July 1943 in an air battle with superior enemy forces was saved by a slave plane and the plane of the commander of a neighboring air unit, for which Maresyev was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
In total, during the war years, he made 86 combat missions, conducted 26 air battles in which he personally shot down 11 enemy planes, including seven - after amputation.
After the war
In 1944 – 1946 - Pilot inspector in the Office of Higher Education Institutions of the Air Force (Air Force) of the Red Army.
In July, 1946 was transferred to the reserve in the rank of major.
In 1948 – 1949 - Head of Aviation Training of the 1-th Moscow Air Force Special School (eliminated in 1955).
In the period from 1956 to 1983, he was the executive secretary, and from 1983, the 1 deputy chairman of the Soviet (from 1991, the Russian) committee of war veterans. C 1958. - First Vice-President of the International Federation of Resistance Fighters (Federation Internationale des Resistantes, FIR).
8 May 1967 participated in the ceremony of lighting the Eternal Flame at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Moscow.
In 1997 – 2001 - Head of the Regional Public Fund A.P. Maresyev "Invalids of the Great Patriotic War".
Maresyev died 18 on May 2001 in Moscow as a result of a heart attack. He was buried at the Moscow Novodevichy cemetery.
Ranks and regalia
Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR 12-th convocation (1989 – 1991).
Hero of the Soviet Union (24 August 1943 g.).
Awarded two Orders of Lenin (1943, 1986), Orders of the Red Banner (1942), the October Revolution, the Battle of the Red Banner (1942), World War I (1985), two Orders of the Red Banner of Labor, the Order of the Red Star, Friendship of PeoplesNGNN , Honor (1976), "For services to the Fatherland" III degree (1991), Friendship (1996) and others, orders and medals of foreign countries.
Awarded the Diploma of the Government of the Russian Federation (1996) and the Gratitude of the President of the Russian Federation (2001).
Freeman of the town of Kamyshin (1968), the Bulgarian town of Stara Zagora (1973), Komsomolsk-on-Amur (1977), Orel (1990).
Winner of the Russian National Award "Olympus" (title "National Hero", 2000).
The author of the brochure "On the Kursk Bulge. Notes on party political work in aviation units in the days of the Battle of Kursk" (1960).
The Tale of a Real Man
Alexey Maresyev was portrayed under the name Meresyev in Boris Polevoy’s book "A Tale of a Real Man" (1946, more than 100 editions in the USSR and the Russian Federation, more than 30 abroad).
The book served as the basis for the performance of the Moscow Art Theater (1948), audio performances (1964, 1973, 1973), the film was made on it (1948, directed by Alexander Stolper) and the opera of the same name (1947 – 1948, composer Sergei Prokofiev, premiered in 1960).
The feat of the pilot formed the basis of the performances of "Fallen from the sky" (directed by Dmitry Bertman, Moscow, Helikon Opera, 2012) and Alexey Maresyev (directed by Sergey Burlachenko, Kamyshinsky Drama Theater, 2015); a series of documentary television films.