For seventy years, Soviet historians have raised young people with examples from the heroes of the Red Army who took the impregnable white fortifications on the Crimean isthmuses — Perekop, Chongar, and the Arabat Spit. But now anti-Soviet historians, most of whom burned their membership cards, paint the heroism of the white army, which defended these inaccessible fortifications.
Alas, neither they nor the others saw the Soviet closed edition "History Domestic Artillery, Volume III, Book 7. It says that the red for the assault had seventy 76-mm field guns. In addition, Frunze had as many as twenty-one "heavy weapons." Of the latter, the most powerful were the 107-mm cannon arr. 1910 of the year, 120-mm French guns arr. 1878 of the year and 152-mm howitzers arr. 1909 of the year and 1910 of the year.
107-mm guns and 152-mm howitzers with the king-father were considered heavy field artillery and intended to destroy light field (ground) fortifications. French guns were more of a museum value than a combat one. The Southern Front did not have more powerful weapons.
NO GROUND, NO WAREHOUSES
But how can you get “impregnable fortifications” with such artillery, and even from an enemy with heavy guns of caliber 254, 203 and 152 mm? It's fantastic! And this phenomenon should be carefully studied in all military academies of the world. But why is it the other way around? Both Soviet and current Russian military theorists are extremely reluctant to commemorate the assault on Perekop.
But in The Notes, Wrangell would lie shamelessly, speaking of the struggle at Perekop: "The Reds concentrated enormous artillery, which provided powerful support to their units." By this time, the Soviet "Agitprom" began to fabricate legends and myths about the storming of Perekop.
Colonel Mikhail Levitov, a participant in the battles for Perekop, ridiculed Soviet historians who painted white concrete fortifications: "We didn’t have any at all."
Another combat participant, Lieutenant Mamonov, recalled: “The trenches on Perekop were good and even with wire obstacles, but again our headquarters forgot that they were dealing with living people. There was no dugout for people, no storehouses, no firewood, no wells. ”
Managed landmines and minefields on the Crimean isthmus were invented by the Wrangel press, and later migrated to the pages of monographs of mastiff Soviet historians.
The head of the French military mission, General A. Brusso, from 6 to 11 in November (NS) examined the Chongar fortifications, wrote in a report to the Minister of War of France: “... the program allowed me to visit the location of the Cossack division in Taganash and three batteries located near the railway bridge through Sivash. These are the following batteries:
- two 10-inch guns east of the railway;
- two field instruments of the old type on the very bank of the Sivash;
- Tools caliber 152 mm Cane, a little behind the previous ones.
These batteries seemed to me very well equipped, but little corresponding, with the exception of field guns, the role that the troops had to play in the upcoming battles. The 10-inch battery had concreted shelters [actually concrete foundations. - A.Sh.] and had at least 15 officers among the personnel. Her fire was well prepared and could adequately fit into the entire organization of artillery fire, in which defense positions from close range would be carried out by field guns. But it was precisely these guns and not enough! The infantry fire support was just as poorly organized.
In the meantime, I crossed three lines of defense, equipped in the rear of the Sivash; The first two of them were a tiny network of fortifications, the third line was a bit more serious, but they were all located in one line, without flanking positions, on the slopes facing the enemy, or on the crest of the hill, too close to one another (from 500 to 800 m) and had no trenches in the depths. ”
Grigory Rakovsky, a journalist at the headquarters of the Don Army, wrote in Constantinople in 1921:
"For many months, the ruling circles of the Crimea in the Russian and foreign press introduced the idea and spread messages about the inaccessibility of Perekop, strongly created the conviction that to take the Crimea," you need to go thirty miles of natural fortifications, interlaced with the same wire, filled with concrete, mines improved on the model of Verdun fortifications by French engineers ", etc.
In fact, these illustrious, advertised as impregnable fortifications were below any criticism. Now it turned out that many months of fortification work, for which huge funds were spent, were conducted with criminal negligence, with the undoubted connivance of the commanders.
The construction of fortifications and the entire defense was led by General Yuzefovich. Then he was replaced by General Makeev, who was the head of the work to strengthen the Perekop isthmus.
Back in July, Makeev reported in an extensive report addressed to Assistant Wrangel Shatilov that almost all capital works to strengthen Perekop are made only on paper, since construction materials are supplied in pharmaceutical doses, which he proved with digital data.
Subsequent reports were written by General Makeev in the same spirit.
In the autumn, as the officers of the rate report, he was sent to reconnoitre the Perekop positions and inspect the fortifications built by the General Staff Colonel Zolotarev. Having toured the positions, he was horrified and presented a report to his superiors, where he certified that no fortifications had been made.
“After all, this is a horror, you need to fight with a lie about the Perekop fortifications,” said the officers of the General Staff after hearing Zolotarev.
“I did everything I could,” answered Zolotarev. - I wrote the truth and presented my report to Shatilova. What will happen next, I do not know ...
Shatilov report put under the cloth ...
On the eve of the catastrophe, appointed by the head of the Dnieper fortified area, General Zembřitsky came to General Makeyev and asked him for his plan for defense.
Makeev made a surprised face and replied that, strictly speaking, there is no defense plan, and "he has only one scheme, but he also needs that one himself."
These fortifications, according to the persons who defended them, consisted of small, carelessly dug, now dilapidated trenches. In some places the wire was tangled. Here and there piled heaps of materials prepared for fortifications lay. What was built was not protected by anyone. Neighboring residents freely hauled away the "peaks" of trenches and dugouts to their home needs, pulled out stakes, and looted wire.
It is not surprising that when the troops arrived at Perekop and Chongar, they found these positions in the most chaotic state.
As for the artillery, one did not have to rely on the notorious “eighteen heavy batteries, which were supposed to prevent the Bolsheviks from putting at least one of their batteries closer than 14 versts”. All this, as it turned out, was a pure lie. Heavy positional batteries almost did not take part in the defense, because, apart from other defects, the batteries did not have the adjusted data, observation points, or a well-established connection. The severity of the battle fell to the share of light field guns, which came to the isthmus with the troops ... "
In September 2016, the creator of the impregnable Perekop fortifications, Baron Wrangel, was erected a monument in Kerch and is going to open a monument in Sevastopol near the Grafskaya quay. Yes, nowadays they like to erect monuments to dubious characters, and then they are quickly destroyed. However, this does not apply to the generals - the creators of fortifications. Try to destroy the Maginot Line - the immortal monument to General Andre Maginot, or the Mannerheim Line. I note that Mannerheim created his fortifications not only on the Karelian Isthmus. I saw them on the island of Valaam, on the right bank of the Svir, and on the Onega near Medvezhiegorsk.
The fortifications of the Molotov and Stalin lines were abandoned, in some places blown up, but their pillboxes cost and will stand for a thousand years if the "new Russian" does not wish to build a skyscraper in their place.
So why our Soviet, and now anti-Soviet historians, before chatting about the impregnable fortifications, did not raise their backs and did not go to the Crimean isthmuses to survey the ruins of the Wrangel fortifications?
But already in the XXI century, the Crimean search engines investigated the remains of a two-gun 10-inch (254-mm) Wrangel battery (it was Brousso wrote about it), located next to the railway in 2,5 km north of the village of Salt Lake. The floor of the courtyards is concreted, the bases are absent, all metal parts are dismantled by scrap metal collectors. The courtyards are recessed 1 meters compared to the surrounding terrain and surrounded by a low earthen wall. The distance between the guns 138 m. Between the guns found the remains of a brick barracks. Judging by the heterogeneity of bricks, it is taken from the destroyed houses in the neighboring village. The most powerful Wrangel battery is a field-type reinforcement, partially protected only from shell fragments and shrapnel.
In addition to this 254-mm battery, 21st century search engines did not find any Wrangel fortifications. The walls and ramparts of the Turkish fortifications are well preserved. The remnants of the 17th century Turkish fortifications, the Soviet and German fortifications 1941 — 1944, and the Wrangel ones, were well preserved.
Here is a rare 203-mm British howitzer photo on Perekop. It is, my dear, in the usual trench, a man to the waist, not even sheathed boards.
But in the movie “Two Comrades Were Serving”, Perekop is an impregnable stone fortress. But, alas, the film was filmed in 1967, in the fortress of Ishmael. And now this movie is given out for documentary shots of Perekop's capture.
So, the impregnable fortifications on the Crimean isthmuses turned out to be haphazardly built field-type fortifications, although they began to be built in the 1919 year under Denikin. Meanwhile, in Sevastopol there were dozens of serfs and naval guns and mortars of 305, 280, 254, 203, 152, 120 and 102 mm. There was also a huge stock of shells.
In Crimea, there was a powerful Sevmorzavod and several other metal processing plants that could easily produce any number of metal devices and structural elements for the isthmus fortifications. In the warehouses of the Black Sea fleet there were hundreds of tons of armored steel, the batteries of the Sevastopol fortress had a large number of bases for guns, armored doors, radios, telephones, cables, electric motors and other equipment for powerful forts.
The British blew up the cars on six Russian battleships, but over a hundred of their 152 – 305 mm guns were safe and sound. I myself read Soviet reports about their dismantling in 1921 – 1922 years, after they were put on coastal batteries from Odessa to Batum.
Well, wood and stone could be taken in towns and villages located a few kilometers away: in Perekop (up to 1920 of the year - Or Kapy), Armyansk and a dozen others. Most of the population left their homes in 1919 year. Dismantling empty houses would take no more than a week.
On the flanks of the fortifications it was possible to put 6 battleships in which the British blew up vehicles in April 1919. The battleships could be extremely unloaded by removing the vehicles, fuel, artillery, etc., and using the pontoons to bring to the shore to a depth of 1 meters. By the way, naval officers offered Wrangel to transfer the battleship Rostislav, which was used as a floating battery in Kerch, to the Arabat Spit, but for some reason this was not done.
Wrangel had human reserves. Almost 400 thousands of "former" fled to the Crimea, fleeing from the Bolsheviks! Let us recall at least the Bulgakov Run. They ate, drank, intrigued and in every way interfered with the military. Why Wrangel did not order them to take in hand weapon or at least shovels? Private educator Golubkov, as an educated man, put the 6-inch Cana guns to the rangefinder, and Mr. Korzukhin and his wife, instead of the “fur goods”, put their hands on a shovel and Perekop on digging trenches.
Now the media calls refugees in Crimea the elite of Russian society, its best representatives. But the question is: why did this elite not want to shed blood, but just sweat a little - lose fat on perekop positions? Long since the civilian population of Russia took part in the defense of cities, and in 1941, hundreds of thousands of women and old men went to dig trenches and anti-tank ditches on the approaches to Moscow and Leningrad.
But here the "educated part of society" and the portly merchants did not want to save either "Holy Russia" or themselves. Mentality allowed the masters in Paris and Istanbul to go to taxi drivers and sex in taverns, and the ladies - on the panel. But take a shovel in hand ... Fi!
RETREAT IN PEACEFUL CONDITIONS
On November 11, the battle for the Crimean isthmuses was completely over, whites fled and no longer offered resistance. Well, what do the "red heroes"? After all, they had two whole cavalry armies and several separate cavalry units. Total 40 – 45 thousand sabers, 57 armored cars and several hundred trucks.
Chop whites in cabbage! So it was, but only in the movies. See “Two comrades served”, “Running”, etc. There horse lava red cavalry smash retreating white carts, cavalry felling of red and white. In "Run" on the pier in Sevastopol Artbuchte, fleeing Wrangel firemen shoot from "maxims" at the red cavalry rushing towards them.
However, after the breakthrough of the Perekop fortifications, 1 and 2, the cavalry armies, which barely participated in the battles, were put to rest. I read the memoirs of a combat participant published in 1920's. To Budyonny somewhere in Dzhankoy the orderly resorts: “Simferopol on the wire!” - “What, did the whites think up to surrender?” - “No, the Simferopol revkom asks: why doesn't the Red Army go?”
During the rest of the Reds, the Wrangelians broke away from them for two day transitions. And as Lieutenant General Yakov Slashchev later wrote, “whites retreated in peacetime.” All without exception Tanksparticipating in the battles were loaded onto railway platforms and sent to the rear. Later, the Reds will capture 5 tanks in Feodosia and 7 in Sevastopol.
November 10 Wrangel gives the order to start the evacuation, which he secretly prepared since April 1920. The Baron until recently lied to subordinates that a big landing in Odessa was being prepared, to the rear in red.
The Tauride Governor Ladyzhensky received Wrangel’s order on time, but on November 11 (October 29) he kept it from his subordinates and the population of Sevastopol.
Meanwhile, November 10 (October 28) in Simferopol, a partisan detachment A. Skripnichenko and workers of the Anatra plant revolted and seized power in the city. The Revolutionary Committee headed by a member of the underground Bolshevik Regional Committee V.S. Vasiliev.
And only on November 13 in 18.00 the units of the 2 Cavalry Army entered Simferopol. The funny thing is that according to the plan, Frunze Simferopol should have taken the 1-i Horse. As a result, Budyonny, with his advanced units, arrived in Simferopol on 15 (!) Of November and was extremely indignant at seeing the 2 Cavalry Army of Mironov there. So, in the capital of Crimea, 3,5 of the day was ruled by the Revolutionary Committee, then two days - by the Revolutionary Committee together with the command of 2-th Horse. Until now, historians can not understand what the 5,5 of the day (working week) was engaged in Semen Mikhailovich with his famous 1-th Cavalry Army?
“Just think, five days!” The theoreticians grin on the soft couch, grinning. But look at the map of the Crimea. From Dzhankoy to Simferopol 87 km! For the Soviet cavalry, the forced day march in 100 km is not a problem. I'm not talking about the "Suvorov crossings", and not cavalry, but infantry.
In Sevastopol, the November 11 (October 29) panic began. Wrangell allegedly ordered not to destroy. Whether there was such an order, but the officers missed it, or was it another Baron’s lie, I don’t know. In any case, the white tactics of the scorched earth continued. Railway stations were turned out to be out of order, arrows, trains at full speed were driven into a dead end or dumped into the water. The latter took place in Sevastopol in Kilen bay. By the way, in almost the same way, the Germans destroyed the locomotives and wagons at the same place in April 1944 of the year.
By order of General Kutepov, a railway bridge across the Alma was blown up and the bridge on the Simferopol-Sevastopol highway was burned. Near the Kerch, the whites flooded the battleship Rostislav, which they used as a floating battery. However, the battleships stationed in Sevastopol did not have time to destroy them.
At the last moment, Wrangel ordered the shooting of more than 500 political prisoners in a prison in Sevastopol. However, the local Bolsheviks were able to convey to prisoners several revolvers, they staged a riot, the guards fled. The prisoners scattered around the city, there was no time left for White to find them.
Gentlemen of November 11 officers set fire to the large warehouses of the American Red Cross with food and medicine at Rabocochaki Mill.
November 13 (October 31) in the Sevastopol Bay stood the French heavy cruiser Waldeck Russo and the destroyer.
On the same day, November 13, by General Wrangel, High Commissioner Count de Martel and Admiral Dumenille, a convention was signed, according to which the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army "transfers his army, navy and his supporters under the patronage of France, offering France as a payment the proceeds from the sale of military and civilian fleet. "
In the port is feverishly loading ships. Loaded already and counterintelligence. Meanwhile, in the center of Sevastopol, in 100 m from the South Bay, in the house number 2 on Pushkinskaya street gathered communists, left-wing Social Revolutionaries and anarchists. After a brief discussion, the first Sevastopol Revolutionary Committee was elected: Ivanov (chairman), Golubev (deputy), Kozlov, Knorus - all communists, Kozlov (left SR), Tverdunov (anarchist) and Kirlas (left SR).
And on November 14 the first issue of the newspaper “Bulletin of the Revcom” (edited by Novoretsky) was released. Only six issues of the newspaper were published.
At the same time, the Order of the Revolutionary Committee No. 2 was issued on the appointment of the commander of the Sevastopol fortress and the garrison commander Sergey Knorus, and the head of the city security, Pivovarov.
By orders No. 3 and No. 5, merchants were asked to open stores and shops and resume normal trading.
And where is our heroic baron all this time? Sat on the suitcases in the hotel "Kist", literally 20 meters from the pier. Only 14 November in 14 h. 50 min. Baron Wrangel boarded the “General Kornilov” cruiser. The cruiser raised anchors and left Sevastopol Bay, escorted by the cruiser “Waldeck Russo” and the destroyer “Algerian”. On board the "Kornilov" were the headquarters of the commander in chief, the headquarters of the fleet commander, a special part of the fleet headquarters, the State Bank, families of officers and cruiser crews and passengers, a total of 500 people, as well as several dozen pigs. By the way, the General Alekseev dreadnought was loaded not only with pigs, but also a flock of sheep.
Well, the Red Army arrived in Sevastopol only on November 15. It is curious that Garford’s large armored car, the “Antichrist”, entered the city first. It is curious that the "Antichrist" still 14 of October in Northern Tavria with its 76-mm gun knocked out a white tank Mk. V "Generalissimo Suvorov". The Reds had a Fiat armored car with a proper name “Damn.”
They lie to the filmmakers. There were no fights. Budyonny himself acknowledged this in his memoirs “The Traveled Path”: “At dawn, Klement Efremovich and I drove to Simferopol. We drive into the city, the streets of Wrangel soldiers stand on the streets with lanes. All are dressed in new English uniforms, on the chest are red bows ... They contacted the Sevastopol Revolutionary Committee of the railway station. We were told that there were no enemy land units that did not lay down their arms in the city. Anyone who did not have time to sit on the court surrendered to Revky. Some ten thousand prisoners. ”
Naturally, Budyonny, Voroshilov, and Blucher would prefer a solemn meeting of at least a small exchange of fire with the “bluelings.” A Sevastopol Revolutionary Committee for them as an awl in a famous place.
In the evening of 3 (16) in November, the city held a joint meeting of the Revolutionary Military Council of the 1 and 2 of the Cavalry Armies, which was attended by top military ranks: Budyonny, Blyukher and Voroshilov. Having heard the report of the Sevastopol Revolutionary Committee, they thanked its members for the work done and ... dismissed the revolutionary committee.
The power in Sevastopol for 5 days passed to the military, and then a new ideologically seasoned Revkom appeared, brought to the city because of Perekop in the 1 Horse Migration.
During the fighting for Perekop, the Crimean rebel army under the command of Alexander Mokrousov operated southeast of Simferopol. So, October 23 (November 5) its 3 th Simferopol regiment took Chokrak village only 9 versts south of Simferopol. From among the prisoners 2 officer and 15 privates went over to the side of the rebels.
October 28 (November 10) detachments (regiments) of the Rebel Army began to concentrate in the Maly Kazailki area. From here, the rebels moved to Feodosia, taking Karasubazar and Old Crimea along the way. October 30 (November 12) insurgents set fire to artillery depots at Sarygol station on the seashore three miles from Theodosia, as well as food stores of the American Red Cross.
After the first explosions, the French cruiser stopped loading the refugees and quickly withdrew. The American destroyer, who was on the roads, opened fire on Theodosia, focusing on the fires - where it burns, there must be red. As in Simferopol, and in Sevastopol, the power in Feodosia and Kerch belonged to the local Revkom Committee for at least two days.
SHIPS DO NOT GO, PLANES DO NOT FLY
The most curious thing is that on November 11 the red stopped flying aviation. Frunze had 51 operational aircraft in the Perekop area, including the Ilya Muromets four-engine bombers. I note that the Reds even before the assault on Perekop flew after Dzhankoy. In the “History of the Air Force of the Soviet Army” (Moscow, 1954) it is said: “Soviet pilots made over a thousand sorties against Wrangel’s troops with a total raid of more than 2 thousand hours.”
The same Frunze praised: “After the Soviet divisions broke into the Crimea, I ordered the front aviation officer V.Yu. Jungmeister will organize strikes against enemy ships in the ports of Evpatoria, Theodosius, Yalta and Sevastopol in order to prevent him from evacuating his troops by sea. ”
And the “villain” Jungmeister did not fly a single aircraft into the air, until Wrangel safely set off for Constantinople. Yes, for such a thing - to the revtribunal and against the wall! And Jungmeister went on increasing. So Comrade Frunze, to put it mildly, is cunning.
October 23 (November 4) the ships of the red Azov flotilla tried to get into the Sea of Azov, but could not because of the freeze-up. What about 16 Flotilla Airplanes? Who prevented them from bombing the whites? Ice too?
The width of the Kerch Strait from 4,5 to 15 km. Why didn't the aviation of the red Caucasian army bomb white ships and the ports of Kerch and Theodosia?
In April, 1920, in the captured Novorossiysk by the Reds, was created the “Sea Forces of the Eastern Black Sea”. They consisted of Turkish gunboats “Aydin Reis” and “Preveza” and several armed merchant ships. They naturally could not intercept the white fleet, but at night they could put up minefields in the areas of Kerch and Feodosia. Moreover, the order to start mine performances from Moscow arrived, but someone on the ground canceled it.
There was another opportunity to prevent the evacuation of the Wrangel troops. In September, the first Soviet submarine AG-1920 entered service in Nikolaev 23. The boat of the newest design, is made in Canada and collected in Nikolaev. Its armament: 4 nasal 457-mm torpedo tubes and one 47-mm gun. Travel range - 2700 miles, surface speed - 12,8 nodes. The submarine could catch up with any Wrangel ship on the surface, including the battleship General Alekseev, which actually launched 6 – 7 units. And the cruising range allowed her to cruise in the Black Sea for a whole month. Meanwhile, Frunze ordered to send the AG-23 into the sea only on November 12! And she went to sea only 13-th. 15 November AG-23 has already cruised off Sevastopol, but the whites have long been gone.
The rhetorical question: why did Frunze give an order to leave the boat only on November 12, when the first ships with the Wrangelians were already leaving Sevastopol? Well, Mikhail Vasilievich overslept! Forgot about the boat. So November 12 could be ordered to go not to Sevastopol, but to the Bosphorus. The boat would surely surpass the Wrangel armada and sink several ships. But the main thing - panic among inexperienced naval officers and sailors (among the latter there were no more than 10% of professionals) would inevitably lead to rams and navigation accidents. Well, "under the guise of" some vessels could turn around in Sevastopol.
What happened? Why in 1919 – 1920 years 1-I and 2-I horse armies showed miracles of heroism and made deep raids to the rear of the enemy; Red warfare before 11 November; 1920 regularly bombed the Crimea; Red military troops on the Caspian Sea, near Odessa and Ochakov, and also on the Sea of Azov, put about 5 thousand mines, on which dozens of white and interventionist ships were blown up? But after November 11, they all became vain and lazy, and whites were beaten exclusively by local partisans. It turns out that the Crimea was liberated by the Mokrousov Rebel Army and the local Revkom committees, while Frunze and Budyonny simply assumed their laurels.
Obviously, there was an agreement between Frunze and the French command in the person of Admiral Dumenil. Later, the French claimed that Dumenil threatened to bombard Sevastopol or other ports of the Black Sea. But in any case, the French could not seriously damage the shelling.
Frunze and his chief Trotsky made a criminal mistake. The destruction of Wrangel's army in the Crimea and the seizure of at least half of the fleet would drastically change the further course of history. It was possible not to send 2 million rubles to Mustafa Kemal. gold and even more so not to give the Kara region. Britain and France would have lost their trump card - the 60-thousand white army "in exile" and would quickly normalize relations with Soviet Russia, etc. etc.
But, as they say, they do not wave their fists after the fight. But it's time to rewrite the history of the Civil War. It is high time that they did it for us in Kiev and Paris!
The expulsion of Wrangel from the Crimea
- Alexander Shirokorad