Military Review

The expulsion of Wrangel from the Crimea

90
The expulsion of Wrangel from the CrimeaFor seventy years, Soviet historians have raised young people with examples from the heroes of the Red Army who took the impregnable white fortifications on the Crimean isthmuses — Perekop, Chongar, and the Arabat Spit. But now anti-Soviet historians, most of whom burned their membership cards, paint the heroism of the white army, which defended these inaccessible fortifications.


Alas, neither they nor the others saw the Soviet closed edition "History Domestic Artillery, Volume III, Book 7. It says that the red for the assault had seventy 76-mm field guns. In addition, Frunze had as many as twenty-one "heavy weapons." Of the latter, the most powerful were the 107-mm cannon arr. 1910 of the year, 120-mm French guns arr. 1878 of the year and 152-mm howitzers arr. 1909 of the year and 1910 of the year.

107-mm guns and 152-mm howitzers with the king-father were considered heavy field artillery and intended to destroy light field (ground) fortifications. French guns were more of a museum value than a combat one. The Southern Front did not have more powerful weapons.

NO GROUND, NO WAREHOUSES

But how can you get “impregnable fortifications” with such artillery, and even from an enemy with heavy guns of caliber 254, 203 and 152 mm? It's fantastic! And this phenomenon should be carefully studied in all military academies of the world. But why is it the other way around? Both Soviet and current Russian military theorists are extremely reluctant to commemorate the assault on Perekop.

But in The Notes, Wrangell would lie shamelessly, speaking of the struggle at Perekop: "The Reds concentrated enormous artillery, which provided powerful support to their units." By this time, the Soviet "Agitprom" began to fabricate legends and myths about the storming of Perekop.

Colonel Mikhail Levitov, a participant in the battles for Perekop, ridiculed Soviet historians who painted white concrete fortifications: "We didn’t have any at all."

Another combat participant, Lieutenant Mamonov, recalled: “The trenches on Perekop were good and even with wire obstacles, but again our headquarters forgot that they were dealing with living people. There was no dugout for people, no storehouses, no firewood, no wells. ”

Managed landmines and minefields on the Crimean isthmus were invented by the Wrangel press, and later migrated to the pages of monographs of mastiff Soviet historians.

The head of the French military mission, General A. Brusso, from 6 to 11 in November (NS) examined the Chongar fortifications, wrote in a report to the Minister of War of France: “... the program allowed me to visit the location of the Cossack division in Taganash and three batteries located near the railway bridge through Sivash. These are the following batteries:

- two 10-inch guns east of the railway;

- two field instruments of the old type on the very bank of the Sivash;

- Tools caliber 152 mm Cane, a little behind the previous ones.

These batteries seemed to me very well equipped, but little corresponding, with the exception of field guns, the role that the troops had to play in the upcoming battles. The 10-inch battery had concreted shelters [actually concrete foundations. - A.Sh.] and had at least 15 officers among the personnel. Her fire was well prepared and could adequately fit into the entire organization of artillery fire, in which defense positions from close range would be carried out by field guns. But it was precisely these guns and not enough! The infantry fire support was just as poorly organized.

In the meantime, I crossed three lines of defense, equipped in the rear of the Sivash; The first two of them were a tiny network of fortifications, the third line was a bit more serious, but they were all located in one line, without flanking positions, on the slopes facing the enemy, or on the crest of the hill, too close to one another (from 500 to 800 m) and had no trenches in the depths. ”

Grigory Rakovsky, a journalist at the headquarters of the Don Army, wrote in Constantinople in 1921:

"For many months, the ruling circles of the Crimea in the Russian and foreign press introduced the idea and spread messages about the inaccessibility of Perekop, strongly created the conviction that to take the Crimea," you need to go thirty miles of natural fortifications, interlaced with the same wire, filled with concrete, mines improved on the model of Verdun fortifications by French engineers ", etc.

In fact, these illustrious, advertised as impregnable fortifications were below any criticism. Now it turned out that many months of fortification work, for which huge funds were spent, were conducted with criminal negligence, with the undoubted connivance of the commanders.

The construction of fortifications and the entire defense was led by General Yuzefovich. Then he was replaced by General Makeev, who was the head of the work to strengthen the Perekop isthmus.

Back in July, Makeev reported in an extensive report addressed to Assistant Wrangel Shatilov that almost all capital works to strengthen Perekop are made only on paper, since construction materials are supplied in pharmaceutical doses, which he proved with digital data.

Subsequent reports were written by General Makeev in the same spirit.

In the autumn, as the officers of the rate report, he was sent to reconnoitre the Perekop positions and inspect the fortifications built by the General Staff Colonel Zolotarev. Having toured the positions, he was horrified and presented a report to his superiors, where he certified that no fortifications had been made.

“After all, this is a horror, you need to fight with a lie about the Perekop fortifications,” said the officers of the General Staff after hearing Zolotarev.

“I did everything I could,” answered Zolotarev. - I wrote the truth and presented my report to Shatilova. What will happen next, I do not know ...

Shatilov report put under the cloth ...

On the eve of the catastrophe, appointed by the head of the Dnieper fortified area, General Zembřitsky came to General Makeyev and asked him for his plan for defense.

Makeev made a surprised face and replied that, strictly speaking, there is no defense plan, and "he has only one scheme, but he also needs that one himself."

These fortifications, according to the persons who defended them, consisted of small, carelessly dug, now dilapidated trenches. In some places the wire was tangled. Here and there piled heaps of materials prepared for fortifications lay. What was built was not protected by anyone. Neighboring residents freely hauled away the "peaks" of trenches and dugouts to their home needs, pulled out stakes, and looted wire.

It is not surprising that when the troops arrived at Perekop and Chongar, they found these positions in the most chaotic state.

As for the artillery, one did not have to rely on the notorious “eighteen heavy batteries, which were supposed to prevent the Bolsheviks from putting at least one of their batteries closer than 14 versts”. All this, as it turned out, was a pure lie. Heavy positional batteries almost did not take part in the defense, because, apart from other defects, the batteries did not have the adjusted data, observation points, or a well-established connection. The severity of the battle fell to the share of light field guns, which came to the isthmus with the troops ... "

IMMORTAL MONUMENT

In September 2016, the creator of the impregnable Perekop fortifications, Baron Wrangel, was erected a monument in Kerch and is going to open a monument in Sevastopol near the Grafskaya quay. Yes, nowadays they like to erect monuments to dubious characters, and then they are quickly destroyed. However, this does not apply to the generals - the creators of fortifications. Try to destroy the Maginot Line - the immortal monument to General Andre Maginot, or the Mannerheim Line. I note that Mannerheim created his fortifications not only on the Karelian Isthmus. I saw them on the island of Valaam, on the right bank of the Svir, and on the Onega near Medvezhiegorsk.

The fortifications of the Molotov and Stalin lines were abandoned, in some places blown up, but their pillboxes cost and will stand for a thousand years if the "new Russian" does not wish to build a skyscraper in their place.

So why our Soviet, and now anti-Soviet historians, before chatting about the impregnable fortifications, did not raise their backs and did not go to the Crimean isthmuses to survey the ruins of the Wrangel fortifications?

But already in the XXI century, the Crimean search engines investigated the remains of a two-gun 10-inch (254-mm) Wrangel battery (it was Brousso wrote about it), located next to the railway in 2,5 km north of the village of Salt Lake. The floor of the courtyards is concreted, the bases are absent, all metal parts are dismantled by scrap metal collectors. The courtyards are recessed 1 meters compared to the surrounding terrain and surrounded by a low earthen wall. The distance between the guns 138 m. Between the guns found the remains of a brick barracks. Judging by the heterogeneity of bricks, it is taken from the destroyed houses in the neighboring village. The most powerful Wrangel battery is a field-type reinforcement, partially protected only from shell fragments and shrapnel.

In addition to this 254-mm battery, 21st century search engines did not find any Wrangel fortifications. The walls and ramparts of the Turkish fortifications are well preserved. The remnants of the 17th century Turkish fortifications, the Soviet and German fortifications 1941 — 1944, and the Wrangel ones, were well preserved.

Here is a rare 203-mm British howitzer photo on Perekop. It is, my dear, in the usual trench, a man to the waist, not even sheathed boards.

But in the movie “Two Comrades Were Serving”, Perekop is an impregnable stone fortress. But, alas, the film was filmed in 1967, in the fortress of Ishmael. And now this movie is given out for documentary shots of Perekop's capture.

So, the impregnable fortifications on the Crimean isthmuses turned out to be haphazardly built field-type fortifications, although they began to be built in the 1919 year under Denikin. Meanwhile, in Sevastopol there were dozens of serfs and naval guns and mortars of 305, 280, 254, 203, 152, 120 and 102 mm. There was also a huge stock of shells.

In Crimea, there was a powerful Sevmorzavod and several other metal processing plants that could easily produce any number of metal devices and structural elements for the isthmus fortifications. In the warehouses of the Black Sea fleet there were hundreds of tons of armored steel, the batteries of the Sevastopol fortress had a large number of bases for guns, armored doors, radios, telephones, cables, electric motors and other equipment for powerful forts.

The British blew up the cars on six Russian battleships, but over a hundred of their 152 – 305 mm guns were safe and sound. I myself read Soviet reports about their dismantling in 1921 – 1922 years, after they were put on coastal batteries from Odessa to Batum.

Well, wood and stone could be taken in towns and villages located a few kilometers away: in Perekop (up to 1920 of the year - Or Kapy), Armyansk and a dozen others. Most of the population left their homes in 1919 year. Dismantling empty houses would take no more than a week.

On the flanks of the fortifications it was possible to put 6 battleships in which the British blew up vehicles in April 1919. The battleships could be extremely unloaded by removing the vehicles, fuel, artillery, etc., and using the pontoons to bring to the shore to a depth of 1 meters. By the way, naval officers offered Wrangel to transfer the battleship Rostislav, which was used as a floating battery in Kerch, to the Arabat Spit, but for some reason this was not done.

Wrangel had human reserves. Almost 400 thousands of "former" fled to the Crimea, fleeing from the Bolsheviks! Let us recall at least the Bulgakov Run. They ate, drank, intrigued and in every way interfered with the military. Why Wrangel did not order them to take in hand weapon or at least shovels? Private educator Golubkov, as an educated man, put the 6-inch Cana guns to the rangefinder, and Mr. Korzukhin and his wife, instead of the “fur goods”, put their hands on a shovel and Perekop on digging trenches.

Now the media calls refugees in Crimea the elite of Russian society, its best representatives. But the question is: why did this elite not want to shed blood, but just sweat a little - lose fat on perekop positions? Long since the civilian population of Russia took part in the defense of cities, and in 1941, hundreds of thousands of women and old men went to dig trenches and anti-tank ditches on the approaches to Moscow and Leningrad.

But here the "educated part of society" and the portly merchants did not want to save either "Holy Russia" or themselves. Mentality allowed the masters in Paris and Istanbul to go to taxi drivers and sex in taverns, and the ladies - on the panel. But take a shovel in hand ... Fi!

RETREAT IN PEACEFUL CONDITIONS

On November 11, the battle for the Crimean isthmuses was completely over, whites fled and no longer offered resistance. Well, what do the "red heroes"? After all, they had two whole cavalry armies and several separate cavalry units. Total 40 – 45 thousand sabers, 57 armored cars and several hundred trucks.

Chop whites in cabbage! So it was, but only in the movies. See “Two comrades served”, “Running”, etc. There horse lava red cavalry smash retreating white carts, cavalry felling of red and white. In "Run" on the pier in Sevastopol Artbuchte, fleeing Wrangel firemen shoot from "maxims" at the red cavalry rushing towards them.

However, after the breakthrough of the Perekop fortifications, 1 and 2, the cavalry armies, which barely participated in the battles, were put to rest. I read the memoirs of a combat participant published in 1920's. To Budyonny somewhere in Dzhankoy the orderly resorts: “Simferopol on the wire!” - “What, did the whites think up to surrender?” - “No, the Simferopol revkom asks: why doesn't the Red Army go?”

During the rest of the Reds, the Wrangelians broke away from them for two day transitions. And as Lieutenant General Yakov Slashchev later wrote, “whites retreated in peacetime.” All without exception Tanksparticipating in the battles were loaded onto railway platforms and sent to the rear. Later, the Reds will capture 5 tanks in Feodosia and 7 in Sevastopol.

November 10 Wrangel gives the order to start the evacuation, which he secretly prepared since April 1920. The Baron until recently lied to subordinates that a big landing in Odessa was being prepared, to the rear in red.

The Tauride Governor Ladyzhensky received Wrangel’s order on time, but on November 11 (October 29) he kept it from his subordinates and the population of Sevastopol.

Meanwhile, November 10 (October 28) in Simferopol, a partisan detachment A. Skripnichenko and workers of the Anatra plant revolted and seized power in the city. The Revolutionary Committee headed by a member of the underground Bolshevik Regional Committee V.S. Vasiliev.

And only on November 13 in 18.00 the units of the 2 Cavalry Army entered Simferopol. The funny thing is that according to the plan, Frunze Simferopol should have taken the 1-i Horse. As a result, Budyonny, with his advanced units, arrived in Simferopol on 15 (!) Of November and was extremely indignant at seeing the 2 Cavalry Army of Mironov there. So, in the capital of Crimea, 3,5 of the day was ruled by the Revolutionary Committee, then two days - by the Revolutionary Committee together with the command of 2-th Horse. Until now, historians can not understand what the 5,5 of the day (working week) was engaged in Semen Mikhailovich with his famous 1-th Cavalry Army?

“Just think, five days!” The theoreticians grin on the soft couch, grinning. But look at the map of the Crimea. From Dzhankoy to Simferopol 87 km! For the Soviet cavalry, the forced day march in 100 km is not a problem. I'm not talking about the "Suvorov crossings", and not cavalry, but infantry.

PANIC

In Sevastopol, the November 11 (October 29) panic began. Wrangell allegedly ordered not to destroy. Whether there was such an order, but the officers missed it, or was it another Baron’s lie, I don’t know. In any case, the white tactics of the scorched earth continued. Railway stations were turned out to be out of order, arrows, trains at full speed were driven into a dead end or dumped into the water. The latter took place in Sevastopol in Kilen bay. By the way, in almost the same way, the Germans destroyed the locomotives and wagons at the same place in April 1944 of the year.

By order of General Kutepov, a railway bridge across the Alma was blown up and the bridge on the Simferopol-Sevastopol highway was burned. Near the Kerch, the whites flooded the battleship Rostislav, which they used as a floating battery. However, the battleships stationed in Sevastopol did not have time to destroy them.

At the last moment, Wrangel ordered the shooting of more than 500 political prisoners in a prison in Sevastopol. However, the local Bolsheviks were able to convey to prisoners several revolvers, they staged a riot, the guards fled. The prisoners scattered around the city, there was no time left for White to find them.

Gentlemen of November 11 officers set fire to the large warehouses of the American Red Cross with food and medicine at Rabocochaki Mill.

November 13 (October 31) in the Sevastopol Bay stood the French heavy cruiser Waldeck Russo and the destroyer.

On the same day, November 13, by General Wrangel, High Commissioner Count de Martel and Admiral Dumenille, a convention was signed, according to which the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army "transfers his army, navy and his supporters under the patronage of France, offering France as a payment the proceeds from the sale of military and civilian fleet. "

In the port is feverishly loading ships. Loaded already and counterintelligence. Meanwhile, in the center of Sevastopol, in 100 m from the South Bay, in the house number 2 on Pushkinskaya street gathered communists, left-wing Social Revolutionaries and anarchists. After a brief discussion, the first Sevastopol Revolutionary Committee was elected: Ivanov (chairman), Golubev (deputy), Kozlov, Knorus - all communists, Kozlov (left SR), Tverdunov (anarchist) and Kirlas (left SR).

And on November 14 the first issue of the newspaper “Bulletin of the Revcom” (edited by Novoretsky) was released. Only six issues of the newspaper were published.

At the same time, the Order of the Revolutionary Committee No. 2 was issued on the appointment of the commander of the Sevastopol fortress and the garrison commander Sergey Knorus, and the head of the city security, Pivovarov.

By orders No. 3 and No. 5, merchants were asked to open stores and shops and resume normal trading.

And where is our heroic baron all this time? Sat on the suitcases in the hotel "Kist", literally 20 meters from the pier. Only 14 November in 14 h. 50 min. Baron Wrangel boarded the “General Kornilov” cruiser. The cruiser raised anchors and left Sevastopol Bay, escorted by the cruiser “Waldeck Russo” and the destroyer “Algerian”. On board the "Kornilov" were the headquarters of the commander in chief, the headquarters of the fleet commander, a special part of the fleet headquarters, the State Bank, families of officers and cruiser crews and passengers, a total of 500 people, as well as several dozen pigs. By the way, the General Alekseev dreadnought was loaded not only with pigs, but also a flock of sheep.

Well, the Red Army arrived in Sevastopol only on November 15. It is curious that Garford’s large armored car, the “Antichrist”, entered the city first. It is curious that the "Antichrist" still 14 of October in Northern Tavria with its 76-mm gun knocked out a white tank Mk. V "Generalissimo Suvorov". The Reds had a Fiat armored car with a proper name “Damn.”

Fictional FILES

They lie to the filmmakers. There were no fights. Budyonny himself acknowledged this in his memoirs “The Traveled Path”: “At dawn, Klement Efremovich and I drove to Simferopol. We drive into the city, the streets of Wrangel soldiers stand on the streets with lanes. All are dressed in new English uniforms, on the chest are red bows ... They contacted the Sevastopol Revolutionary Committee of the railway station. We were told that there were no enemy land units that did not lay down their arms in the city. Anyone who did not have time to sit on the court surrendered to Revky. Some ten thousand prisoners. ”

Naturally, Budyonny, Voroshilov, and Blucher would prefer a solemn meeting of at least a small exchange of fire with the “bluelings.” A Sevastopol Revolutionary Committee for them as an awl in a famous place.

In the evening of 3 (16) in November, the city held a joint meeting of the Revolutionary Military Council of the 1 and 2 of the Cavalry Armies, which was attended by top military ranks: Budyonny, Blyukher and Voroshilov. Having heard the report of the Sevastopol Revolutionary Committee, they thanked its members for the work done and ... dismissed the revolutionary committee.

The power in Sevastopol for 5 days passed to the military, and then a new ideologically seasoned Revkom appeared, brought to the city because of Perekop in the 1 Horse Migration.

During the fighting for Perekop, the Crimean rebel army under the command of Alexander Mokrousov operated southeast of Simferopol. So, October 23 (November 5) its 3 th Simferopol regiment took Chokrak village only 9 versts south of Simferopol. From among the prisoners 2 officer and 15 privates went over to the side of the rebels.

October 28 (November 10) detachments (regiments) of the Rebel Army began to concentrate in the Maly Kazailki area. From here, the rebels moved to Feodosia, taking Karasubazar and Old Crimea along the way. October 30 (November 12) insurgents set fire to artillery depots at Sarygol station on the seashore three miles from Theodosia, as well as food stores of the American Red Cross.

After the first explosions, the French cruiser stopped loading the refugees and quickly withdrew. The American destroyer, who was on the roads, opened fire on Theodosia, focusing on the fires - where it burns, there must be red. As in Simferopol, and in Sevastopol, the power in Feodosia and Kerch belonged to the local Revkom Committee for at least two days.

SHIPS DO NOT GO, PLANES DO NOT FLY

The most curious thing is that on November 11 the red stopped flying aviation. Frunze had 51 operational aircraft in the Perekop area, including the Ilya Muromets four-engine bombers. I note that the Reds even before the assault on Perekop flew after Dzhankoy. In the “History of the Air Force of the Soviet Army” (Moscow, 1954) it is said: “Soviet pilots made over a thousand sorties against Wrangel’s troops with a total raid of more than 2 thousand hours.”

The same Frunze praised: “After the Soviet divisions broke into the Crimea, I ordered the front aviation officer V.Yu. Jungmeister will organize strikes against enemy ships in the ports of Evpatoria, Theodosius, Yalta and Sevastopol in order to prevent him from evacuating his troops by sea. ”

And the “villain” Jungmeister did not fly a single aircraft into the air, until Wrangel safely set off for Constantinople. Yes, for such a thing - to the revtribunal and against the wall! And Jungmeister went on increasing. So Comrade Frunze, to put it mildly, is cunning.

October 23 (November 4) the ships of the red Azov flotilla tried to get into the Sea of ​​Azov, but could not because of the freeze-up. What about 16 Flotilla Airplanes? Who prevented them from bombing the whites? Ice too?

The width of the Kerch Strait from 4,5 to 15 km. Why didn't the aviation of the red Caucasian army bomb white ships and the ports of Kerch and Theodosia?

In April, 1920, in the captured Novorossiysk by the Reds, was created the “Sea Forces of the Eastern Black Sea”. They consisted of Turkish gunboats “Aydin Reis” and “Preveza” and several armed merchant ships. They naturally could not intercept the white fleet, but at night they could put up minefields in the areas of Kerch and Feodosia. Moreover, the order to start mine performances from Moscow arrived, but someone on the ground canceled it.

There was another opportunity to prevent the evacuation of the Wrangel troops. In September, the first Soviet submarine AG-1920 entered service in Nikolaev 23. The boat of the newest design, is made in Canada and collected in Nikolaev. Its armament: 4 nasal 457-mm torpedo tubes and one 47-mm gun. Travel range - 2700 miles, surface speed - 12,8 nodes. The submarine could catch up with any Wrangel ship on the surface, including the battleship General Alekseev, which actually launched 6 – 7 units. And the cruising range allowed her to cruise in the Black Sea for a whole month. Meanwhile, Frunze ordered to send the AG-23 into the sea only on November 12! And she went to sea only 13-th. 15 November AG-23 has already cruised off Sevastopol, but the whites have long been gone.

The rhetorical question: why did Frunze give an order to leave the boat only on November 12, when the first ships with the Wrangelians were already leaving Sevastopol? Well, Mikhail Vasilievich overslept! Forgot about the boat. So November 12 could be ordered to go not to Sevastopol, but to the Bosphorus. The boat would surely surpass the Wrangel armada and sink several ships. But the main thing - panic among inexperienced naval officers and sailors (among the latter there were no more than 10% of professionals) would inevitably lead to rams and navigation accidents. Well, "under the guise of" some vessels could turn around in Sevastopol.

COLLUSION

What happened? Why in 1919 – 1920 years 1-I and 2-I horse armies showed miracles of heroism and made deep raids to the rear of the enemy; Red warfare before 11 November; 1920 regularly bombed the Crimea; Red military troops on the Caspian Sea, near Odessa and Ochakov, and also on the Sea of ​​Azov, put about 5 thousand mines, on which dozens of white and interventionist ships were blown up? But after November 11, they all became vain and lazy, and whites were beaten exclusively by local partisans. It turns out that the Crimea was liberated by the Mokrousov Rebel Army and the local Revkom committees, while Frunze and Budyonny simply assumed their laurels.

Obviously, there was an agreement between Frunze and the French command in the person of Admiral Dumenil. Later, the French claimed that Dumenil threatened to bombard Sevastopol or other ports of the Black Sea. But in any case, the French could not seriously damage the shelling.

Frunze and his chief Trotsky made a criminal mistake. The destruction of Wrangel's army in the Crimea and the seizure of at least half of the fleet would drastically change the further course of history. It was possible not to send 2 million rubles to Mustafa Kemal. gold and even more so not to give the Kara region. Britain and France would have lost their trump card - the 60-thousand white army "in exile" and would quickly normalize relations with Soviet Russia, etc. etc.

But, as they say, they do not wave their fists after the fight. But it's time to rewrite the history of the Civil War. It is high time that they did it for us in Kiev and Paris!
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  1. timyr
    timyr April 1 2017 05: 44
    +6
    I will express my opinion about the 1 konarmia, maybe erroneous, she was engaged in robbery.
    1. cost
      cost April 1 2017 06: 14
      +7
      commander of the 2nd cavalry army MIRONOV PHILIPPE KUZMICH
      Born in 1872 on the farm Buerak-Senyutkin, the village of Ust-Medveditskaya Region Don troops in a Cossack family. He graduated from the parish school and two classes of the gymnasium, having mastered the rest of the course independently. In 1890 — 1894 He was in active military service, from where, as one of the best, he entered the Novocherkassk Cunk Cossack School in 1895, successfully graduating in 1898. Already as an officer, he took part in the Russo-Japanese War as part of the 26th Don Regiment, where he earned the reputation of a dashing Cossack, as he commanded a hundred who went behind enemy lines, as well as four orders, the rank of poddesaul and the rights of the personal nobility associated with it. For belonging to the revolutionary movement, Mironov was dismissed from the army in 1905. He was expelled from the Don army (with the deprivation of the rank of the poddesaul "for actions defaming the rank of officer"). In 1914, he volunteered for the front as part of the 30th Don Regiment of the 3rd Don Division, became the commander of the reconnaissance hundreds of this division (he was returned the rank of sub-trooper), was promoted to Yesaul (March 1915) and military foremen (January 1916), awarded Georgievsky weapons. Over the next three years, he was awarded two more orders, rising to the rank of army foreman (lieutenant colonel). Since March 1916, the assistant commander of the 32nd Don Regiment on the combat front. After the October Revolution of 1917, he joined the Bolsheviks. During the Civil War, commanded large military units, including the 2nd Cavalry Army. He was very popular among the Don population. He opposed the politics of slander and did not receive the support of L. D. Trotsky in matters of interaction with the peasantry. In September 1918 he was awarded the Order of the Red Banner No. 3, becoming one of the first gentlemen. He opposed, in his opinion, the incompetent military leadership of Trotsky. Having learned about the circular letter about the tale, apparently falsified on the initiative of the Don Bureau, in a letter to the member of the PWS of the Southern Front Sokolnikov Mironov writes: “... it is time to disperse the Donburo political adventurers, and together with them Trotsky from the army was arrested by order of Trotsky S. М. Budyonny and sentenced to death, but Trotsky himself stopped the execution [2], then Mironov was pardoned by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. According to the whites (A. Denikin), in August 1919, Mironov revolted, to which several Don Soviet regiments joined. The uprising was crushed in a few days by Budyonny troops (4th Cav. Division O. Gorodovikov, later deputy commander of Mironov). At a meeting of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the RCP (B.) On October 23, 1919, Mironov expressed political confidence and was entrusted with command of the cavalry army. In 1920 he joined the RCP (b). October 12-14, 1920 for the rout of the troops of Baron P. N. Wrangel in the ensuing Nikopol-Alexander battle, for disrupting the intentions of Pilsudski and Wrangel to unite on the right bank of the Dnieper and the defeat of the horse corps of General N. G. Babiev and General I. G. Barbovich Mironov was awarded the honorary revolutionary weapons and the Order of the Red Banner. He participated in the defeat of the White forces at Perekop and the expulsion from the Crimea of ​​the remnants of the White armies. In February 1921, Donchek was arrested on a false charge when he inadvertently drove into his native village (supposedly his Second Horse Army did not deliberately defeat Makhno’s army, since in 1919 the brother of Philip Kuzmich served as the corps commander - although, in fact, the Makhnovists were defeated by Mironov, only Makhno himself left with a small group of associates). Killed by a sentry in the courtyard of Butyrka Prison under mysterious circumstances, Researchers R. A. Medvedev and S. AP The old men argued without evidence that Mironov was killed by personal order of L. D. Trotsky, an ardent hater of the Cossacks.
      Awards
      for the Russo-Japanese War:
      Order of St. Anne of the 4th degree with the inscription "For Courage" (1905)
      Order of St. Anne of the 3rd degree (1905)
      Order of St. Stanislav 3rd degree with swords and bow (1905)
      Order of St. Vladimir 4th degree with swords and bow (1905).
      for the First World War:
      Golden St. George's Arms (1914)
      Order of St. Anne of the 2nd degree with swords (1916)
      Order of St. Anne of the 1rd degree (1917)
      for the Civil War:
      Two Orders of the Red Banner (the first KZ for number 3)
      Honorary revolutionary weapon (with a second short circuit soldered into a hilt).
      The fate of F. Mironov is dedicated to Igor Talkov’s song “Former Poddesaul”.
      He became the prototype of Migulin in the novel “Old Man” by Yuri Trifonov.
    2. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 1 2017 07: 43
      +5
      What is there to rob something at Perekop?
      1. Weyland
        Weyland April 2 2017 12: 16
        +2
        Quote: Cartalon
        What is there to rob something at Perekop?


        At Perekop - nothing. But on the way from Perekop to Sevastopol, such rich estates were ...
        1. Looking for
          Looking for April 2 2017 16: 24
          -1
          After 3 years of civil war ??
    3. Aviator_
      Aviator_ April 1 2017 14: 02
      +3
      Well, Babel in his "1 Horse" mentioned incidents of this kind, but these were incidents, no more. Thus, the army differs from the gang in that it has discipline.
      1. Weyland
        Weyland April 2 2017 12: 18
        +2
        Quote: Aviator_
        Thus, the army differs from the gang in that it has discipline.

        It's just that Budenny’s gang was officially ordered to be considered an army. Do you think why Babel was repressed?
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ April 2 2017 15: 38
          +2
          Babel was repressed for liberal chatter. Such is the dissident of the 30's. And the gangs, in principle, cannot fight - only guerrilla actions, and so on, until then, until they are taken seriously.
          1. Weyland
            Weyland April 2 2017 19: 04
            0
            Quote: Aviator_
            And the gangs, in principle, cannot fight - only guerrilla actions, and so on, until then, until they are taken seriously.

            It depends on which gang ... Temujin from the bandit has grown to the khan, and Nadir to the shah - because there was just discipline in their gangs!
            1. Aviator_
              Aviator_ April 2 2017 22: 32
              +1
              Well, it wasn’t gangs, but fighters for their leader, who didn’t lock himself in his claims on the neighboring ulus, climbed on.
  2. Conductor
    Conductor April 1 2017 06: 17
    +2
    Robbed ALL.
    1. Smog
      Smog April 1 2017 06: 57
      +4
      Quote: Conductor
      Robbed ALL.

    2. avva2012
      avva2012 April 1 2017 10: 51
      +10
      Damn, personally caught by the hand? No? Breathe more often with fresh air. The eyewitness is another. The Reds, the same Trotsky, introduced fierce discipline. They shot the violators without ceremony. Unlike the same Cossacks Denikin. Oh, damn it, just to spoil the air.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh April 2 2017 14: 09
        +2
        "The Reds, the same Trotsky, imposed severe discipline. They shot the violators without ceremony" ////

        You are right.
        In the First Horse after its defeat by the Poles (it was not so difficult, since it turned into a gigantic crowd of looters), and the ensuing complete decomposition - in every tenth of the most bandit squadrons, they were shot before the formation. A rare measure used in the Red Army in exceptional cases.
        ("Decimation in the Red Army")
        1. Alexander Greene
          Alexander Greene April 2 2017 17: 57
          +5
          Quote: voyaka uh
          In the First Horse after its defeat by the Poles (it was not so difficult, since it turned into a gigantic crowd of looters), and the ensuing complete decomposition - in every tenth of the most bandit squadrons, they were shot before the formation. A rare measure used in the Red Army in exceptional cases.


          Is not it a shame to lie. There was no defeat of the First Cavalry Army, nor was it a marauding, and there were no shots of every tenth.
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh April 2 2017 22: 47
            +2
            After the rout from the Poles, the remnants of the army were withdrawn to the reserve:

            "At the end of September, riots broke out in the units of the 6th Cavalry Division of the commander Apanasenko, who was following to the concentration center in the rear guard of the main forces. Cases of disobedience to command orders on the pretext of fatigue and poor material support, a sharp drop in discipline. There were cases of looting, Jewish pogroms, murders civilians, desertion. Georgy Shepelev was killed by the division’s commissar on September 28. Lenin and the commander-in-chief Kamenev became aware of what happened in the division. In October, at an emergency meeting of the Army’s Revolutionary Military Council, an order was issued that the regiments noted in these crimes should be disarmament , to disband, they are deprived of all awards, banners and permanently deleted from the lists of the 1st Horse. However, on the initiative of Budenny, these measures were mitigated, the weapons returned to the soldiers. Persons convicted of the pogroms were subjected to trial by the military revolutionary tribunal and were shot, but part of the instigators managed to escape "

            “Persons convicted of pogroms were subjected to trial by a military revolutionary tribunal and were shot” - not just shot, but every 10th in squadrons.
            1. Alexander Greene
              Alexander Greene April 3 2017 19: 44
              +2
              Quote: voyaka uh
              “Persons convicted of pogroms were subjected to trial by a military revolutionary tribunal and were shot” - not just shot, but every 10th in squadrons.


              Whose whistle is this? Volkogonov or Rezun-Suvorov?
              1. voyaka uh
                voyaka uh April 3 2017 23: 06
                0
                "People's Commissar for Military Affairs" (Minister of Defense) Trotsky am
                1. Alexander Greene
                  Alexander Greene April 5 2017 00: 29
                  +2
                  Quote: voyaka uh
                  "People's Commissar for Military Affairs" (Minister of Defense) Trotsky


                  Stop lying, even Trotsky in his memoirs, “My Life,” denies every tenth shooting in the Red Army. Read it carefully.
  3. Basil50
    Basil50 April 1 2017 07: 08
    +15
    With Crimea an interesting story. While there were * whites *, seizing South RUSSIA with the help of the interventionists, they were putting their own * order * in place, none of the future * great * * thinkers * and * writers * even mentioned executions or executions of those suspected of disloyalty or robbery gangs of outright robbers. None of this seemed to happen. And what to mention, because neither * tiligents * nor even future * great * ones were concerned. True, some wrote about * impressions * and no more. That's when they liberated the South of Russia and the Crimea, and then they began to write about the horrors of executions and about mass arrests. It seems to me that as soon as the threat * of personal security * disappeared, they began to describe * horrors *, especially since those who had fled to Europe and paid for an order were describing * the horrors of Bolshevism *.
    I read about the Countrywoman and about how officers shot and drowned. Here are just the official report and * artistic whistle * differ dramatically. If you believe those who under Denikin-Wrangel flourished and served whites, then there were much more executed officers than there were any in the Crimea and in the south of RUSSIA in general. And it is not clear then, but where did those parts of the RED ARMY come from that were formed including in CRIMEA. Where did the commanders and fighters come from? And what * miracle * survived those who then described * the horrors of the Cheka *, years later?
  4. Nehist
    Nehist April 1 2017 07: 09
    +8
    Well, there was a conspiracy and there was, what's wrong? The victory was needed, and it happened, the more White gave up everything without a fight, it made no sense to sit on either shoulder, it was necessary to clear the territory of the interventionists and the Wrangel troops, which was done with minimal losses and the Sovietskaya was established on the territory of Crimea power which was at that time the main task.
    1. avva2012
      avva2012 April 1 2017 10: 45
      +9
      I agree with you. Yes, on those ships that the author proposed to heat with liner, there were not a small number of civilians, including women, old people, children. Somehow, once again I affirm that the Bolsheviks were more humane than modern authors. For the article itself, thank you, if it were not for such offers, there would be no price.
      1. Roman 11
        Roman 11 April 1 2017 18: 54
        +3
        Quote: avva2012
        Somehow, once again I affirm that the Bolsheviks were more humane than modern authors.

        Yeah, especially before and during the October coup ... Who went on searches, robbed, raped, killed? And how many officers were killed without trial, just because they were officers? Did you see their characters in the photo? And this is not only the result of vodka and cacaine ....
        I don’t stutter about the work of the Chekists during the Red Terror ..
        1. avva2012
          avva2012 April 1 2017 19: 36
          +11
          And don't stutter. "Baltic Cocktail", is it from Pelevin's historical delights? Read Melgunov, watch anime with Poklonskaya, love and live in their world. My ancestors, built a great country, you can dream about "what country you lost." Nothing good, I do not do to you, and not because of my spite, but simply because your business is not right.
          1. Weyland
            Weyland April 2 2017 12: 21
            +2
            Quote: avva2012
            My ancestors built a great country,

            My ancestors built a great country that the Bolsheviks destroyed. This is what scum was your burry Pahan am that in addition to lifetime abominations, he also laid such a time bomb that he burst into 91 meters!
            1. Moore
              Moore April 2 2017 13: 26
              +4
              Quote: Weyland

              My ancestors built a great country that the Bolsheviks destroyed. This is what scum was your burry Pahan am that in addition to lifetime abominations, he also laid such a time bomb that he burst into 91 meters!

              Sing along with a sailor:
              1. Weyland
                Weyland April 2 2017 18: 59
                +3
                Quote: Moore
                Sing along with a sailor:


                That is essentially you have nothing to answer? Drain counted!
            2. murriou
              murriou April 2 2017 22: 05
              +3
              Quote: Weyland
              My ancestors built a great country that the Bolsheviks destroyed.

              This "great country" miscalculated the war with a small but firm spirit of Japan, because the tsar, his relatives and admiral generals did not show enough sense of duty, did not fulfill their primary duties, and instead engaged in entertainment and embezzlement.

              This “great country” assumed that almost 90% of its population lived in poverty and ignorance, regularly dying of hunger, but bread abroad always went on sale properly.

              This "great country" was increasingly lagging behind developed countries in the development of advanced technologies, and was not able to provide its own army and navy with its own forces.

              This "great country" died in cramps even before the Bolsheviks became a real force in it.
              1. Weyland
                Weyland April 3 2017 16: 39
                0
                Quote: murriou
                This "great country" miscalculated the war with a small but solid spirit of Japan

                1) The yuppa war cost much more (including losses) - just our "sworn friends" impudently provided the yupps with almost unlimited credit.
                2) Are you familiar with a term such as "logistics"? Transsiberian simply did not pull! With Tsushima - the same thing: after such a long transition, in a good way, the ships needed repairs - which we, too, did not have the opportunity to carry out thanks to the Naglosaks am
                Quote: murriou
                This "great country" assumed that almost 90% of its population lived in poverty and ignorance, regularly dying of hunger,

                You did not confuse it with China? Or are you guided only by Leninist agitation?

                Quote: murriou
                This "great country" died in cramps even before the Bolsheviks became a real force in it.

                Look, you, hornfurters, hate Russia ... "Small countries perish from an external enemy, large - from an internal ulcer"(c). Liberast was dismissed, but it was necessary to simply outweigh half of the State Duma for treason! am (or at least shoot Guchkov, Milyukov and Rodzianko, as the empress advised her husband)
                1. murriou
                  murriou April 3 2017 17: 17
                  +2
                  Quote: Weyland
                  Yuppa war cost much more (including loss)

                  Yah. It is you who are not aware of the topic and believe the myths that were created in imperial times, and still carefully preserved by the bakers.

                  Yes, the official number of Russians killed in the REV totals "only" 32 thousand.
                  It does not include those who died in the rear and from accidents, those who do not die from wounds and diseases, do not count for losses in minor battles, and this is several more. thousand
                  The prisoners are not included in it, and these are also losses irreparable in the military sense, of which from the Russian side there were a little more than 80 thousand

                  Even the number of dead does not include “missing people”, of whom there were a huge number, about 30 thousand — almost as many as officially registered dead, and who in fact were unaccounted for dead - at least, among the living then did not have.

                  There were other unaccounted losses. For example, in the 2nd TOE, before Tsushima, there were 16,2 thousand personnel, of which 870 people broke into Vladivostok, a little more than 6 thousand. were captured, 1,8 thousand. interned (the often quoted figure of 2,1 thousand is the list of interned ships WITHOUT accounting for those killed on them). This is the list of LIVES over.

                  We know how to count? The difference is 7,5 thousand people! Where did they go? Either they died in battle, or they drowned later, what difference does it make - but they all died. And the tsarist media immediately after the battle announced about 5 thousand dead, while the real numbers were not yet known, and clung to this figure tightly, although the real one and a half times more.

                  Total, it turns out from the Russian side irretrievable military losses of about one and a half hundred thousand, against less than fifty thousand similar Japanese losses, including just over 100 missing persons (HUNDREDS fewer times than from the Russian side) and 2,2 thousand prisoners (40 times less than from the Russian side).
                  THREE times more Russian irretrievable losses than Japanese.

                  As for financial losses, the production of armadillos in England cost the Japanese about 1,5 times cheaper per combat unit than Russia cost the production of the worst quality armadillos in Russia.

                  At the same time, Russia lost almost ALL of the battleships participating in the REV, except for those who managed to escape to neutral ports and intern there. Some of the Russian EDB and other warships were captured immediately by the Japanese, some were sunk, raised, repaired and sold to Russia for quite decent money.

                  In addition, Russia lost all the funds invested in the construction of the Port Arthur base and that part of the railway that appeared on the territory of Manchuria.
                  Other funds invested by Russia in Korea and Manchuria either disappeared altogether or served the Japanese.

                  So here, the Russian losses are many times more than the Japanese.
                  The lies about Japan "exhausted and devastated by war" instantly dissipate when you see how Japan is after 1905. ahead of Russia in the development of its fleet, and this is a very expensive pleasure.
                2. murriou
                  murriou April 3 2017 17: 25
                  +1
                  Quote: Weyland
                  our "sworn friends" impudently provided the yupps with virtually unlimited credit.

                  So what?
                  Russia also took considerable loans, except in France, and not in England. Nothing personal, business is business.

                  In addition, England in general since 1902. became an ally of Japan - after the Ito mission, aimed at concluding Japan’s long-term peace with Russia, several. months they marinated in St. Petersburg, without even giving a single audience with people who decided something, the Japanese did not immediately go home, but first to London.
                  So stupid tsarist diplomats in their arrogance and rudeness laid one of the reasons for the loss of a future war.

                  But England could have taken the alliance with Japan much more seriously!
                  After the Gull incident, shameful for Russia, when Russian ships foolishly fired at the fishing fleet and each other, the British generally could wrap the Russian squadron of Rozhestvensky back to St. Petersburg and put on trial all its leadership, but escaped with an official apology and modest monetary compensation, given the circumstances, .
                3. murriou
                  murriou April 3 2017 17: 34
                  +2
                  Quote: Weyland
                  Transsiberian simply did not pull!

                  And who is to blame? Japanese, British, Martians? laughing

                  And aren't you, bakers, necessarily including Transib, who, it turns out, “didn’t pull,” the first measures to increase its throughput were taken only after more than six months of the ongoing war, just before the fall of Port Arthur.
                  Although the war was expected from 1897 at least.

                  But the Transsiberian began to “pull” normally only after its completion by the Bolsheviks. In 1939 and 1945 The Red Army no longer had such logistics problems.

                  And why did the British, with their colonial wars across the globe, logistics not be such a stumbling block, as for Russia, fighting only on its own borders?

                  Why, during the Crimean War, England supplied its army on Russian territory better than Russia supplied the Russian army on its own land? laughing
                4. murriou
                  murriou April 3 2017 17: 37
                  +2
                  Quote: Weyland
                  With Tsushima - the same thing: after such a long transition, in a good way, the ships needed repairs - which we, too, did not have the opportunity to carry out thanks to the Naglosaks

                  A little more detail about the blame of the naglosaksa possible? lol

                  And why are the arrogant Saxons, not Nikolashka, guilty of the decision of Nikolashki to slaughter the squadron in such a half-fighting state, and not leave it on the border of the theater of war for repair, putting in order and as a threat to the Japanese?

                  Quote: Weyland
                  You did not confuse it with China?

                  No, they didn’t.
                  YES, tsarist Russia was extremely similar in this respect to China.

                  Quote: Weyland
                  how do you, hornbeam, hate Russia

                  I love Russia, but not the squalor that it became under Nikolashka. At the time of Peter, at the time of Suvorov-Kutuzov, at the time of the USSR, Russia was truly great.
            3. murriou
              murriou April 2 2017 22: 07
              +3
              Quote: Weyland
              He also laid such a time bomb that already at 91 m it exploded!

              Do not be confused. This fart you pulled laughing

              And in the USSR, when it existed, there was nothing like the interethnic conflicts of the 90s.
              1. Weyland
                Weyland April 3 2017 16: 33
                0
                Quote: murriou
                And in the USSR, when it existed, there was nothing like the interethnic conflicts of the 90s.

                And they suddenly arose from scratch? laughing
                It’s just that everything was hushed up with the scoop!
                1. murriou
                  murriou April 3 2017 17: 39
                  +1
                  Quote: Weyland
                  It’s just that everything was hushed up with the scoop!

                  Reveal to us the great secrets of what this is about in the USSR.
                  And do not forget the sources and justifications for your statements, can I? lol
          2. Roman 11
            Roman 11 April 2 2017 12: 24
            +1
            Quote: avva2012
            My ancestors built a great country

            And where is she now, if she was Great? Why didn’t millions come to the defense in 1991, as in 1941, if it was Great? .... I exaggerate, but it means that something was wrong in the minds of the majority, would be Great - that would not be ....
        2. Sanya Terek
          Sanya Terek April 2 2017 17: 43
          +3
          Dear Roman 11, how many Red Army men were executed (not executed, namely they were executed in all possible ways) your “white and fluffy”? I remember when my grandfather, crouching, in the evening after a quarter of the pervach with his neighbor (twice they went to war together, (in 1915 - in the 2nd Gorsko-Mozdok regiment, in 1941 - in 137 cavalry) and from 1918 and before the end of the civil war - on opposite sides of the barricades) they started talking about the civil one, there were many complaints against each other, and none of them could refute these claims, only lamented about the blood spilled in vain.
        3. murriou
          murriou April 2 2017 22: 00
          +4
          Quote: Novel 11
          And how many officers were killed without trial, just because they were officers?

          You are confusing times. Massive judicial killings of officers, for only their officer rank - this is February-March 1917, and not October.

          And the reason for this is the hatred of the "lower ranks" that has accumulated over the entire previous time due to the fault of the officers themselves, for their bestial treatment of subordinates.
    2. Diana Ilyina
      Diana Ilyina April 1 2017 16: 25
      +13
      Nehist Today, 07:09 AM
      and established in Crimea Sovetskaya power which was at that time the main task.
      Everything is correct, but the word "Sovetskaya" is spelled correctly Soviet and with a small letter! Do not take it for nitpicking, but somehow the eye hurts ...
      And about the methods, it’s not for us to judge now. We did not live at that time and did not see all the difficulties. And the winners, as they say, are not judged!
  5. baudolino
    baudolino April 1 2017 07: 41
    +12
    The author needed to defend Soviet power 25 years ago. And now the train is gone. And the white and red again became just Russian in the fratricidal war.
    1. Caretaker
      Caretaker April 1 2017 10: 26
      +1
      Quote: baudolino
      ... And the white and red again became just Russian in the fratricidal war ...

      You are trying to wishful thinking. Do not wait!
      1. Caretaker
        Caretaker April 1 2017 16: 30
        0
        Quote: Caretaker
        Quote: baudolino
        ... And the white and red again became just Russian in the fratricidal war ...

        You are trying to wishful thinking. Do not wait!
  6. parusnik
    parusnik April 1 2017 08: 07
    +16
    Privat-docent Golubkova, as an educated man, put to the rangefinder on a battery of 6-inch cannons Kana, and Mr. Korzukhin with his wife instead of “fur goods” - in the hands of a shovel and at Perekop to dig trenches.
    ... Wrangel, whether it was a beast, to put docents and merchants to guns and make trenches to dig .. Somehow it’s not worthy .. that such people would do such work, no matter how, the color of the nation .. this color, Mr. Baron ... not like the Bolshevik bloodsuckers, turned the scoundrels, the whole country into a military camp, they forced everyone to dig trenches, to cut firewood, to clean up the garbage ... scoundrels, then they came up with a free work on Saturdays .. And Baron, he is yes .. a man of great soul ... was .. He was not engaged in a similar ..
  7. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 1 2017 08: 37
    +12
    An absurd article with the enumeration of the armored doors and the metal of the “powerful” northern plants (non-working), fortifications and other mortars.

    The main thing was that Wrangel did not have no resources- neither financial nor material to continue the struggle, the Allies TRIED Wrangel, depriving him of supplies, quite calmly reasoning that the Bolsheviks were much more convenient for them.

    Nevertheless, even in such conditions, the commander of the Russian Army P.N. Wrangel fought, worthily resisting the rebels.

    Therefore, it is worthy of monuments in Simferopol and Sevastopol.
    1. Caretaker
      Caretaker April 1 2017 10: 40
      +10
      Quote: Olgovich
      ... Wrangel fought, resisting with dignity the rebels...


      In this case, the rebel was Wrangel with a camarilla.

      "Simple truth
      The rebellion cannot end in success, otherwise his name is different. "
      S.Ya. Marshak, free translation of D. Harington's epigram


      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 1 2017 12: 45
        +12
        Quote: Caretaker
        In this case, the rebel was Wrangel with a camarilla. "Simple truth
        The rebellion cannot end in success, otherwise his name is different. "


        I agree. The Bolshevik camarilla rested in the Bose, so they were and remain rebels.
    2. Bigriver
      Bigriver April 1 2017 15: 45
      +7
      Quote: Olgovich
      ... The main thing was that Wrangel did not have no resources- neither financial nor material to continue the struggle, the Allies TRIED Wrangel, depriving him of supplies, quite calmly reasoning that the Bolsheviks are much more convenient for them ...

      It is not true.
      And in order to understand this, you need to read the memoirs of Wrangel himself, Slashchev, you can Shkuro, and especially - Lieutenant General Pyotr Mokhrov, chief of staff of the All-Union Union of Liberal Democratic Forces.
      By the summer of 1920, the same Mokhrov writes that of all the so-called Wrangel’s “Russian Army”, which consisted of five corps, was conditionally combat-ready with only one - Kutepov’s corps. And the only fully operational formation in this corps was the Kornilov Division. Mokhrov qualifies the remaining forces as completely decomposed and demoralized, which cannot be relied on.
      They had everything. There was no desire to fight. Slashchev writes well about this.
      And contrary to the current image in society, the Don and Kuban Cossacks least of all wanted to fight.
      Just match the numbers.
      In September 1920, the army with all the rear institutions totaled about 300 thousand people., of which at the front about 50 thousand, about 80 thousand in military camps and approx. 30 thousand wounded. The combat strength of the army in September did not exceed 30-35 thousand people. (in mid-September 33 thousand), in October - 25-27 thousand. Of the 50 thousand officers in the Russian Army, 6 thousand were directly in combat formations, 13 thousand in the immediate rear and 31 thousand in the rear (including patients and the wounded).
    3. RUSS
      RUSS April 1 2017 16: 49
      +5
      Quote: Olgovich
      Therefore, it is worthy of monuments in Simferopol and Sevastopol.

      Kerch already installed
      1. RUSS
        RUSS April 1 2017 16: 53
        +6
        Quote: RUSS
        Kerch already installed

        Monument to Wrangel in Serbia
        1. avva2012
          avva2012 April 1 2017 19: 39
          +5
          Serbs, those little brothers too. Although, you need to see where the ears grow from this monument.
          1. RUSS
            RUSS April 2 2017 09: 59
            +2
            Quote: avva2012
            Although, you need to see where the ears grow from this monument.

            The bronze bust of P.N. Wrangel and the granite pedestal of the monument were made at the expense of a philanthropist from St. Petersburg. The monument was created by the St. Petersburg sculptor Vasily Azemsha. He is the author of the monument to the outstanding writer of the Russian Abroad Vladimir Nabokov, which is installed in St. Petersburg. The Wrangel monument was opened by the head of the department for the protection of cultural heritage of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation V.V. Petrakov. Among the organizers of the installation of the monument are the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, the Moscow Patriarchate and the leadership of Serbia.

            General Baron P.N. Wrangel arrived in Sremski Karlovtsy from Constantinople in 1922, his residence and headquarters were located here. His wife and children moved here from Paris to him, and his parents moved from Dresden. At the local cemetery, the father of General Baron N.E. Wrangel, who died in 1923, is buried. Founder of the Russian All-Military Union (ROVS) in 1924, transformed from the White Russian Army, General Baron P.N. Wrangel left Serbia in 1926, moving to Brussels, where he died suddenly two years later in his fiftieth year under suspicious circumstances. First P.N. Wrangel was buried in the Brussels cemetery, and a year later, according to his will, the remains of the Commander-in-Chief, the Chairman of the ROVS were transferred to Belgrade. Now they rest in the Orthodox Church in honor of the Holy Trinity in the city center.

            Sremskie Karlovtsy are memorable for the Russian Diaspora and parishioners of the ROCA in Russia and the fact that since July 1921 the Supreme Church Administration of the South of Russia, formed in the summer of 1919 in White Stavropol, has been in this city, its bishops laid the foundations of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia (ROCA) together with Wrangel. From November 21 to December 3, 1921 in Sremsky Karlovtsy, the All-Diaspora Russian Church Council was held under the chairmanship of Metropolitan Anthony (Khrapovitsky), who later became the first hierarch of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia.
        2. Alexander Greene
          Alexander Greene April 1 2017 22: 12
          +4
          Quote: RUSS
          Monument to Wrangel in Serbia


          Why is he there? I understand that the little brothers in Bulgaria honor Admiral Rozhdestvensky, he fought for their release in 1877, and what does Wrangel mean to the Serbs?
          1. RUSS
            RUSS April 2 2017 10: 00
            +1
            Quote: Alexander Green
            Quote: RUSS
            Monument to Wrangel in Serbia

            Why is he there? I understand that the little brothers in Bulgaria honor Admiral Rozhdestvensky, he fought for their release in 1877, and what does Wrangel mean to the Serbs?

            The inauguration of the monument to the General of the Russian Imperial Army, the first officer of the St. George cavalier in the Great War, the Commander-in-Chief of the White Russian Army, General Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel took place on September 14, 2007 in the Serbian city of Sremski Karlovtsy. The monument was erected in front of the city hospital, where refugees from Russia were accommodated in the early 1920s. In total, Serbia then received about 50 thousand Russian emigrants.
            Read more about the “Russian” fate of the Sremsky Karlovtsy and the stay of General Baron P.N. Wrangel here also in the MIT material with the photo report "September 14, 2007 in the Serbian city of Sremskie Karlovtsy a monument to General Baron P.N. Wrangel should be unveiled."
            1. Alexander Greene
              Alexander Greene April 2 2017 12: 15
              +6
              Quote: RUSS
              Read more about the “Russian” fate of the Sremsky Karlovtsy and the stay of General Baron P.N. Wrangel here also in the MIT material with the photo report "September 14, 2007 in the Serbian city of Sremskie Karlovtsy a monument to General Baron P.N. Wrangel should be unveiled."


              But why did the Baron deserve such love from the Serbs?
    4. murriou
      murriou April 2 2017 22: 15
      +5
      Quote: Olgovich
      Allies betrayed Wrangel, depriving him of supplies

      OU! Applause in the studio! good good good

      The baker acknowledges in plain text that Wrangel depended on foreign supplies, and without them he became incapable of anything - and was not supported by the Russian people, as they usually try to lie! laughing

      By the way, with what fright did the English and French owe something to Wrangel? It was he who owed them for already received and not worked out previous help. And for his salvation by flight from the Crimea - too.
    5. murriou
      murriou April 2 2017 22: 17
      +5
      Quote: Olgovich
      commander of the Russian Army

      Sure sure. The Russian Army, which fought against the Russian people lol
  8. Caretaker
    Caretaker April 1 2017 10: 56
    +4
    An interesting look at the events.

    But after the following lines
    ... But, as they say, they don’t wave their fists after the fight. But it's time to rewrite the history of the Civil War. It’s time, before they did it for us in Kiev and Paris!
    Author: Alexander Shirokorad

    it is not clear what the author wanted to say.
    Whoever rewrites the first is right, and if he does not rewrite, is he wrong?
    Moreover, everyone will rewrite "their" version.
  9. bandabas
    bandabas April 1 2017 13: 53
    +14
    The author speaks of "pseudo-histories." And it refers to them. Not good. Not a beautiful reference to "Two Comrades Served." "Seventeen Moments of Spring" was also not shot in Germany.
  10. Aviator_
    Aviator_ April 1 2017 14: 07
    +1
    As for the timing of the entry of the 1 Horse Army into Simferopol, there are different interpretations. I read in the memoirs of Budyonny’s daughter about the episode of how Semyon Mikhailovich personally went alone to the city for reconnaissance, was captured by a white patrol and with difficulty fled near the Salgir River. Unfortunately, I don’t remember the date.
  11. Caretaker
    Caretaker April 1 2017 16: 34
    +1
    Quote: Caretaker
    Quote: baudolino
    ... And the white and red again became just Russian in the fratricidal war ...

    You are trying to wishful thinking. Do not wait!

    The fratricidal war in Russia you baubolino imagined.
    You are the first to declare this. Do not expect.
  12. bober1982
    bober1982 April 1 2017 17: 57
    +1
    It is curious that the first to enter the city was a large armored car called "antichrist", ......... it is curious that the "antichrist" knocked out a white tank "Generalisimus Suvorov" - a quote from the article, but that's not all, further the author reports:
    The Reds had an armored car ........ with the name "devil"
    As for the fact that all this is curious, one can agree with the author.
  13. sergo1914
    sergo1914 April 1 2017 18: 21
    +4
    Quote: Olgovich
    Ridiculous article


    Surprisingly, this is the first time I agree with you. However, the author is Shirokorad. He does not know how otherwise.
  14. Roman 11
    Roman 11 April 1 2017 18: 41
    +3
    Author: Alexander Shirokorad
    Frunze was in no hurry to "throw into the fire" Budyonny's cavalry. She suffered heavy losses in Poland, especially near Komarov, not from the Poles, for me it’s from the Entente. So with Wrangel it is more of a strategic reserve.
  15. moskowit
    moskowit April 1 2017 22: 30
    +4
    Alas, neither one nor the other saw the Soviet closed publication History of the Patriotic Artillery, Volume III, Book 7.

    It should be more modest. Volume edition, 8 books. Published from 1959 to 1967 years. Until 1965, 4 books were released. The 1 and 2 books of the first volume and the third volume in the 7 and 8 books. Yes, on the books is the signature stamp "for interdepartmental sale." Circulation not specified. But judging by the fact that my father served "in the hole" as the start of a cropped motorized rifle division, I can judge that the books were distributed among artillery officers of the division level. Apparently in the army and district administrations, as well as in military institutes with artillery subjects, they spread much more widely. Plus artillery units and formations .... And to military historians they were always available .... These books look like this .... By the way an exciting, interesting reading, accompanied by many maps and diagrams, illustrations and applications of various documents described by the historical period ...
  16. mager1
    mager1 April 1 2017 23: 30
    +3
    It seems to me that this article is just an April Fool’s joke.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ April 2 2017 15: 51
      +4
      No, this is a piece from Shirokorad’s earlier book about the Civil War. He himself is seriously convinced that if any weapon is in stock, then putting it in a combat position is a matter of two or three hours and is very surprised if this was not done.
  17. Vitalson
    Vitalson April 2 2017 11: 13
    +8
    I’ll take a look at the VO full of bakers, who in Soviet times probably didn’t hesitate to wear party tickets, and now they are performing satanic dances on the bones of the Soviet government, which gave these vampires free education, housing, medical care, building industry (and therefore millions of jobs). It would be nice to delve into the past of these characters for sure there would be some kind of “grandfather”, “great-grandfather”, “dead in Stalin’s camps for a joke about Stalin” or “dispossessed for 1 chicken on the farm” and actually received 10 years of camps for robbery and robbery . Yes, the formation of Soviet power was difficult and bloody, the civil war and its consequences are a constantly bleeding wound on the body of our country. But we must be aware that the people followed the Bolsheviks, who, although they "spread rot the population of Russia" according to the bakers, but nevertheless made the country of Tsarist Russia no less, and even more powerful, to spite the curators from across the ocean, wishing to permanently destroy the Russian state as such. Judging by modern realities, some parallels can be drawn - as soon as Russia began to assert itself as an independent power, a georop led by the very same Anglo-Saxons immediately rebelled against us, just as then collaborationists of all stripes who wanted to stir up the water came out. We must try to prevent these tricks from repeating the civil war, otherwise our Western curators will not miss the second chance to get rid of our country once and for all, and the fate of Yugoslavia will seem like a fairy tale to us !.
    1. Looking for
      Looking for April 2 2017 16: 48
      0
      Great saying.
    2. murriou
      murriou April 2 2017 22: 20
      +1
      Vitalsonwell said!
    3. Gopnik
      Gopnik April 3 2017 13: 40
      0
      Yes, the people followed the Bolsheviks in such a way that they dispersed the popularly elected Constituent Assembly (which they lost in the elections) and then suppressed numerous popular uprisings against their power. After that they kept the people in check - without the absence of elementary civil liberties that existed even under the tsar-priest (freedom of conscience, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom of election, etc.). Naturally, this regime was enough only for 70 years. And they discarded the country's development for at least ten years - the industry level 1913-1916 reached only by the end of the 20s. And the standard of living of the times of the tsar-father is even later. It is no accident that even Khrushchev noted that under the tsar the workers lived better.
      Not to mention simply that the Bolshevik power was basically Russophobic in principle, the consequences of which we are now reaping in New Russia.
      A normal, sane Russian man, with brains unbiased by Bolshevik propaganda, cannot be sympathetic to these Ishilovites beginning. 20th century.
  18. Moore
    Moore April 2 2017 13: 21
    +6
    Still, these sick people are bunk crunches ...
    1. RUSS
      RUSS April 2 2017 15: 01
      +2
      Quote: Moore
      Still, these sick people are bunk crunches ...

      And what is this disease?
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ April 2 2017 15: 53
        +4
        Their brain is streaming.
        1. RUSS
          RUSS April 2 2017 16: 15
          +1
          Quote: Aviator_
          Their brain is streaming.

          nor what else did not expect to hear ....
          1. murriou
            murriou April 2 2017 22: 21
            +2
            Quote: RUSS
            nor what else did not expect to hear ....

            And what else could you hear besides the truth? lol
  19. murriou
    murriou April 2 2017 21: 33
    +4
    The mentality allowed the gentlemen in Paris and Istanbul to go to taxi drivers and sex in taverns, and the ladies to the panel. But pick up a shovel ... Fi!

    A very accurate diagnosis of the then, baked by the bakers, “elite of Russian society” with its “highest spirituality”, “an unprecedented sense of duty” and “firm moral principles”.

    Truly an unprecedented sense of duty - they never had it, such a feeling laughing
  20. murriou
    murriou April 2 2017 21: 44
    +2
    French heavy cruiser Waldeck Russo

    The author is unfamiliar with naval history and terminology.

    The concept of "heavy cruiser" was formed by the Washington Treaty of 1922, previously similar in characteristics of the cruiser were called armored. The Frenchman under discussion was built in 1905-1910 many years before the emergence of the class to which the author attributes it.
    Moreover, for heavy cruisers under the Washington Treaty, restrictions were placed on a displacement of 10 thousand tons. and 203mm artillery.
    The Frenchman met the second limitation with his 194mm main gun, but the first was not, having a displacement of 13+ thousand tons.
  21. murriou
    murriou April 2 2017 21: 51
    +3
    By the way, not only pigs, but also a herd of sheep were loaded onto the dreadnought General Alekseev

    But a lot of bipedal rams were left on the shore.

    Not that I felt sorry for those stupid animals. But it’s really amusing to read the crystal-bread myths, according to which, on the one hand, Wrangel carefully removed ALL of his comrades-in-arms to the last soldier, and on the other hand, the red villains brutally shot more white officers and Cossacks in Crimea than they did in the whole Wrangel army was even before the capture of Perekop.
    laughing laughing laughing
  22. Capellan23
    Capellan23 April 3 2017 11: 22
    +1
    “Of the two armies that fought in Russia, of course, the right to be called Russian belonged to the one in the ranks of which everyone who, in the midst of collapse and unrest, remained faithful to their native national banner, who gave everything for the happiness and honor of their homeland. That army could not be revered whose leaders replaced the three-color Russian banner with red and the word Russia with the word International ... "
    Wrangel. P. N
    1. Gopnik
      Gopnik April 3 2017 13: 41
      +1
      All is correct
    2. Alexander Greene
      Alexander Greene April 3 2017 19: 41
      +3
      Quote: Kapellan23
      “Of the two armies that fought in Russia, of course, the right to be called Russian belonged to the one in the ranks of which everyone who, in the midst of collapse and unrest, remained faithful to their native national banner, who gave everything for the happiness and honor of their homeland. That army could not be revered whose leaders replaced the three-color Russian banner with red and the word Russia with the word International ... "
      Wrangel. P. N


      So says the descendant of the Tolsburg-Ellistfer family, Baron P.N. Wrangel, but can it really be called RUSSIAN that the army that flogged, shot, hung and slaughtered the working Russian people together with INTERVENTS from 14 imperialist states?
      1. Gopnik
        Gopnik April 3 2017 19: 56
        +1
        Nah, RUSSIAN go, you need to call the army, which
        Quote: Alexander Green
        shot, hung and slaughtered the working Russian people together
        with foreign internationalists guessed?
        1. Alexander Greene
          Alexander Greene April 4 2017 17: 49
          +1
          Quote: Gopnik
          Nah, RUSSIAN go, you need to call the army, which
          Quote: Alexander Green
          shot, hung and slaughtered the working Russian people together
          with foreign internationalists guessed?


          The Red Army consisted of 99,9% of the working people, so it could not shoot and hang like that. But the friendship of your ancestors with the interventionists began with the rebellion of the Czechoslovak corps. You do not consider them internationalists?
  23. Laurus
    Laurus April 4 2017 15: 42
    +1
    Quote: Gopnik
    Yes, the people followed the Bolsheviks in such a way that they dispersed the popularly elected Constituent Assembly (which they lost in the elections)

    Are you not interested in the further fate of the members of the constituent assembly? The Bolsheviks did not touch their finger! What did they do? A mess and bloody mess! Read about KOMUCH. And if the Bolsheviks did not disperse this rabble, then these bloody clowns would rule all of Russia.
  24. Laurus
    Laurus April 4 2017 15: 43
    +1
    Quote: Kapellan23
    “Of the two armies that fought in Russia, of course, the right to be called Russian belonged to the one in the ranks of which everyone who, in the midst of collapse and unrest, remained faithful to their native national banner, who gave everything for the happiness and honor of their homeland. That army could not be revered whose leaders replaced the three-color Russian banner with red and the word Russia with the word International ... "
    Wrangel. P. N

    And then what about Vlasov? If your only criterion is flag color?
  25. Laurus
    Laurus April 4 2017 16: 01
    +1
    Quote: Gopnik
    with foreign internationalists guessed?

    Yeah, exactly the same as they are now fighting for LDNR.
  26. Helmet
    Helmet April 7 2017 11: 57
    +2
    I’m very interested in asking supporters of the tsarist regime:
    - Did the Bolsheviks overthrow him, not the citizens of the Russian Empire, among whom were senior RIA officers?
    - Wasn't General Alekseev (chief of the General Staff of the RIA incidentally) one of those who persuaded the tsar to sign the abdication?
    - it’s nothing that in that war it was the Bolsheviks who relied on the resources of their country, and Wrangel did not have support from his country, otherwise why did he need interventionists?
    - someone thinks that a handful, albeit fanatical and decisive, of the Bolsheviks, without the support of the people, so easily took power and was able to rule the country?
    - Why did the soldiers who refused to end the war in the Imperialist go to fight against the "whites"?
    - Etc.
    1. Evgenijus
      Evgenijus 8 February 2018 13: 05
      0
      Helmet:
      ... the Bolsheviks relied on the resources of their country

      I completely disagree with this wording. Russia at the time of the revolution and civil war was not a country of the Bolsheviks, its resources did not belong to the Bolsheviks, and the people of Russia were not a supporter of Bolshevism. If we talk about "our country", since how could Russia with its Orthodox culture, be a country of the Bolsheviks? The Bolsheviks destroyed the culture of Russia, having planted their pseudo culture instead, destroyed everywhere throughout Russia what it had saved for centuries. Monasteries and churches were destroyed (without need), the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow was blown up, like many churches in the center and on the outskirts of the country. Masterpieces of icon painting (Andrei Rublev and others) were handed over to museums (this is the best option, but insignificant in scale), the rest are destroyed or exported abroad.
      I agree that the tsarist generals betrayed the tsar, but it is still possible to say about them that Russia was their country, they did not destroy its culture.
      About a handful of Bolsheviks - in Germany there was also a handful of fans of Mr. Nietzsche's reading. After this reading, all of Europe and the Bolsheviks, including they wept bitterly, like millions in the concentration camps of Kazakhstan, Siberia, the North and the Far East (from this second handful) cried. So about the "handful" is not necessary to ask.
      The rest of your questions will be answered by others, it is impossible to arrange a monopoly on HE ... wink
      And you have the pluses from commentators that they would like to continue to blow up what is now being restored with great difficulty (not the Bolsheviks).
  27. Evgenijus
    Evgenijus 8 February 2018 09: 35
    0
    Much of the article is true, but it causes rejection of splashes of saliva from the author's mouth in the form of emotions and hostility to one of the opposing sides. The historian should speak in cold blood about past events, and not to fart in the direction of certain critics or supporters of any versions of the story. In war, people in many cases become bloodthirsty, and this can be attributed to the history of civil war. On both sides of the fronts of that war there was no "white and fluffy". The article did not like its bias. And this is already a minus the truthfulness of the author's version of the expulsion of Wrangel from the Crimea. I can also say the opposite - the Red Army occupied Crimea in those hard days. And what will the author say in response? Who invited the Red Army to the Crimea? Local population? And where are the facts? Does the author know what kind of massacre his "white and fluffy" arranged in the Crimea after Wrangel left?