Military Review

“Adam” project - “Man Very High”? Mission Impossible…

30

Cosmos is an amazing place full of mystery and risk, and ... uh ... cool!
[1]


Project “Adam”: American unsuccessful attempt to get a prize: “the first man in space is ours”.



The bad autumn 1957 of the year presented a painful lesson to President Eisenhower and the entire Republican administration.



October 4 The first artificial Earth satellite was launched in the Soviet Union on October 1957. The satellite code designation is PS-1 (Simplest Satellite-1). The launch was carried out from the 5 research site of the USSR Ministry of Defense "Tyura-Tam" (which later received the open name of the Baikonur cosmodrome) on a launch vehicle created on the basis of an intercontinental ballistic missile R-7




The Americans learned two important lessons:
  • - America is noticeably inferior to the Soviet Union in the field of rocketry and astronautics, because of which suffers the defenses of the Western world;

  • - In order to overcome America’s lag in this area, it is necessary to combine the efforts and resources of all interested departments in a single organization that will deal only with the space program.



2 April 1958 President sent a message to the 85 US Congress proposing to create a new structure based on the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA).



After several months of heated debates, the parliament approved the corresponding bill. 16 July 1958, the law on aeronautics and space was approved by the conciliation commission of the Senate and the House of Representatives. 29 July 1958 of the year Eisenhower signed the document, which entered it into force. The head of NASA was President of the Institute of Technology Case, Thomas Kate Glennan.



The Office was established on the basis of the National Aeronautics Advisory Council (NACA), and specialists of this respected organization (8 000 employees) formed the core of the emerging corporation. In addition to the aeronautics council, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology (about 2,5 thousand people) was integrated into NASA, the navy gave up its team working on the Avangard project (200 specialists), and in 1960, NASA transferred Werner von Braun (Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun) with his design department of the Army Ballistic Missile Directorate.



A small digression: my opinion in the failure of the "who's first" race is to blame for Eisenhower himself and his team. I will explain.

  1. In July, 1955-th, 34-th US President Dwight Eisenhower (Dwight David Eisenhower) officially announced that during the period 1 July 1957-th to 31 December 1958-th in the framework of the International Geophysical Year (IYY) program, when 67 countries have Earth will conduct geophysical observations and research on a single program and methodology, America intends to launch an artificial satellite of the Earth. A little later a similar statement was made by the Soviet Union, but few people paid attention to it. Although the USSR announced this not behind the scenes, but officially: in the sixth issue of Radio magazine for 1957, radio frequencies and the type of signals of the future satellite were published in the year.




  2. Eisenhower advisers believed that the developers of American long-range missiles could not be distracted by ephemeral civilian projects, since the benefits received by the military from a non-military space program would not justify the required expenses. The first ballistic missiles were in short supply, and the Administration did not want to waste them on such “trifles” as a peaceful space ...



    When 26 in May 1955 of the year, the National Security Council (US National Security Council) remembered and made a decision №1408, approving the national space program (provided that it would not interfere with the creation of combat ballistic missiles) and recommending the United States to launch a small scientific satellite the patronage of the IGY, emphasizing its peaceful purpose ... "it was too late: by the summer of 1955, there were no" non-military "missiles with the required characteristics in the United States.


  3. They themselves have become too clever by words: in words, Eisenhower rejected the proposals of the Air Force, Navy and the US Army to participate in the creation of a “satellite”: in his opinion, the American satellite officially prepared for launch “should be used exclusively for scientific purposes, and its existence is not determined by the aggressiveness of intentions”.



    In fact, the beautiful words covered the secret program WS-117, which was under implementation, and which was aimed at creating a spy satellite launched with the help of a powerful carrier based on a Thor ballistic missile.



    The White House, concerned about the possible acute reaction of the Russians to military vehicles crossing the space above the Soviet Union, suggested first to put into orbit a purely “civilian” and “scientific” satellite so that the Soviet military-political leadership had nothing to object to. in the IGY program), thus setting the precedent of “outer space” (the prevalence of outer space over state borders).

    Excerpt from the Rand historical report:

    The military significance of the withdrawal of apparatuses to near-earth orbits is primarily due to the fact that the means of defense against air attack are rapidly improving. Modern radar technology detects aircraft at a distance of several hundred miles and is able to provide accurate data on their movement. Anti-aircraft artillery and guided missiles are capable of striking air targets at a considerable distance, and the use of remote fuses increases the effectiveness of anti-aircraft weapons several times. In these conditions, much attention is paid to increasing the speed of missile systems, which will significantly complicate their interception. Given this circumstance, it can be assumed that in the future high-speed unmanned missile systems will be used to a large extent and almost exclusively for an air attack. <...> Consequently, the development of an artificial satellite of the Earth will be directly related to the creation of an intercontinental ballistic missile. It should also be noted that the artificial satellite of the Earth is an observation device that cannot be brought down by an adversary who does not have at his disposal such technical means.


    Chasing two hares, and even "working under cover", let both of them go.






The main political and technical challenge posed to NASA and the rocket baron, who deserved the trust of the highest circles, was to send a man into space.

After the launch of the PS-1 satellite, Werner von Braun, along with proposals for reanimation of the project "Orbit» put forward a new manned flight program, featured under the name “Project Adam” (“Project Adam”). This program included a two-year work plan for preparing a human suborbital flight, which was to take place before the end of 1960. As the carrier, it was supposed to use a modernized Redstone missile, a habitable capsule — an airtight nacelle from the stratostats used by the Air Force for high altitude research. At the same time, the gondola was located in the instrument compartment of the rocket, just as the return capsules of geophysical rockets are placed.

“Adam” project - “Man Very High”? Mission Impossible…


According to Werner von Braun’s calculations, Redstone was supposed to bring the gondola with a man to an altitude of about 240 km; after that, the gondola is separated from the carrier and at least 6 minutes moves along a ballistic trajectory, then the parachute is released, and the gondola submarines.



In the course of such a suborbital flight, it was planned to study the vital activity of the human body in conditions of overload and weightlessness, to check under natural conditions the efficiency of the manual control and communication systems, to develop criteria for designing habitable capsules for future spacecraft. In addition, as noted in the memorandum, the launches of the Adam project will make it possible to confirm the fact of technical superiority of the USA in the eyes of the world community.





To prepare and implement the first suborbital launch, the Army Ballistic Missile Directorate requested to allocate an amount of 11,5 million dollars, and 4,75 million should be transferred immediately.

The project “Man Very High” was considered in July - August 1958 of the year. However, in connection with the establishment of NASA and the reassignment of all agencies involved in the space program to the new agency, it was rejected. From the project in the future space program, only the suborbital flight scheme and the Redstone launch vehicle, a direct descendant of V-2, will remain.


In the photo: “The Martian Project” by Werner von Braun, suspiciously resembles the good old A-4b rocket of the Third Reich. In size only a bit more.

The Adam project was not the only option for manned flight, which was born after the start of the race for leadership in space. In addition to von Braun, both the US Navy and the US Air Force came up with proposals to send a man into space. The project of the latter - “Man in space in the shortest possible time” (Man in Space Soonest) or the 7969 project - was the most thoughtful. And from the organizational and technical points of view.

There were other projects.

But this is a completely different story.











Afterword:

At the end of June 1961, the Finland-Soviet Union Society invited the First Cosmonaut to its annual summer holiday, which was held in the north of Finland in the city of Kemi.



During his visit, Gagarin visited three Finnish cities: Helsinki, Tampere and Kemi. Finland was the first foreign country Gagarin visited.

During a stop at one of the stations, a Finnish retiree presented Gagarin with a pair of "dude", old shoes, made up of birch bark. In such shoes, the Finns in the old days traveled long distances along forest paths.


When you fly to the moon, - the old man of the little forest said jokingly to Gagarin, - take them with you. Reliable footwear, see for yourself!

<




Did not work out. A pity: the traces of lapte would look very impressive on the moon.



Gagarin Suomen television haastattelussa.Juri Gagarin saapui Suomeen junalla. 03.07.1961:



Having listened (and recommend you) to the entire report to Finnish television, I agree:

You know what kind of guy he was,
The one who opened the star trail? ..
There was fire and thunder
Measure the cosmodrome,
And he said quietly ...
He said, "Let's go!"
He waved his hand ...


Most of the text, of course not mine, but borrowed from the original sources listed below.

Original sources, photos, links and videos:
[1]
Ratchet and Clank: Galactic Rangers (Ratchet & Clank), 2016
“Pervushin A. Hitler's Astronauts”: Yauza, Eksmo; M .; Xnumx
The project "Adam" and the first man in space
lunarmodule5: Liberty Bell 7 - Full Mission
OCR Chernovol V.G. “The Road to Space”: Military Publishing House of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR; Moscow; Xnumx
"Constellation of Gagarin" (A. Pakhmutova - N. Dobronravov)
www.this-space-available.blogspot.ru
www.thehighfrontier.files.wordpress.com
www.spacerockethistory.com
www.epizodsspace.no-ip.org
www.epizodsspace.narod.ru
www.alamy.com
www.rulit.me
www.newsinphoto.ru
www.io9.gizmodo.com
www.planeta-zemla.info
www.astronautix.com
www.wikipedia.org
www.history.wikireading.ru
www.3dnews.ru
www.unotices.com
www.nasa.gov
www.ria.ru
www.mts.kg
www.inosmi.ru
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  1. Bastinda
    Bastinda 19 March 2017 06: 14 New
    +4
    And where are the bast shoes?
    Mindflow?
    1. Teberii
      Teberii 19 March 2017 06: 37 New
      +3
      Catch up and overtake is a term spied on by them.
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 19 March 2017 14: 19 New
        0
        catch up and ...
        ". Having thus established the precedent of" open space "(the prevalence of outer space over state borders)."
        For this reason, Eurasia + China makes the United States angry? —Do they close almost all of the land (geostatsinar orbits)?
    2. opus
      19 March 2017 13: 03 New
      +5
      Quote: Bastinda
      And where are the bast shoes?
      Mindflow?

      Kashchenko has been crying for the author for a long time, what did you not feel?
      I live:
      1.And why didn’t they ask the question: "and where does it (from left to right): Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper, John Glenn, Gus Grissom, Walter Shirra, Alan Shepard, .."?

      2. They wanted to be the first, we overtook, we wanted to be the first (Gaagrin in particular), they overtook, Gagarin died.
      The bast shoe episode was
      When fly to the moon, - Gagarin jokingly told the old forest man, - take them with you. Reliable shoes, you will see for yourself!


      Quote: Bastinda
      But links to the monograph on boots, in the list of used literature is not! I checked.


      1. This is a chatter. You did not check anything.
      2. The editor, the corrector for some reason "rework" my links and primary sources.
      I have active hyperlinks in the original:

      poked with a mouse and flew over.
      Therefore, not to me
      Quote: Bastinda
      Why spoil a good article "boots"

      chatting in your mouth with your tongue (in this case, tapping your fingers on the keyboard) - don’t turn over the bags (I rephrased so that you wouldn’t get on the ban, but you will understand).
      Therefore, take, tighten the muscles of the brain and write an article (or a lot) AS NECESSARY.
      I think they will appreciate it.
      -------------------------------------------
      After the flight of the Americans to the moon, Brezhnev
      summoning Soviet cosmonauts to him and orders them to fly to
      The sun. On the order of the Secretary General, the astronauts say: - we’ll burn Leonid Ilyich
      impossible. But Brezhnev categorically: - What do you think in the Politburo
      fools sit, fly at night ...
      So this joke I told my friend (A) at that time it was 20
      years, he laughed heartily and says-Brezhnev, the astronauts
      at night they will not find the sun ...
      After about a year and a half, a joke with Brezhnev and my friend (A) I
      told another friend of his (B) his age at that time 23 year.
      After listening to the story, he also laughed and concludes, Well, fools are Brezhnev
      and your friend A, if the astronauts fly out at night, then until they reach
      morning will be ...

      Here you are in the context of conformal mapping, in the story described by me above, who you position yourself: Brezhnev, friend A or friend B ?????????
      1. ohtandur
        ohtandur 21 March 2017 18: 42 New
        0
        Anton, do you believe that the Americans were on the moon?
  2. EvgNik
    EvgNik 19 March 2017 06: 49 New
    +5
    Thanks Anton, great article. As always.
    People without a sense of humor get in, these are their problems.
    1. Bastinda
      Bastinda 19 March 2017 08: 56 New
      +1
      But links to the monograph on boots, in the list of used literature is not! I checked.
      The same as yesterday. Why spoil a good article with “boots” and yesterday with “destroyers”?
  3. Amurets
    Amurets 19 March 2017 07: 10 New
    +2
    Chasing two hares, and even "working under cover", let both of them go.
    As always, the Russian saying is right.
    And according to the article? Interesting. I remembered my childhood and the first artificial earth satellites. And how these fast-flying stars in the sky were looking in the sky. Thanks, Anton. a magnificent article, especially not far off the 60th anniversary of the launch of the first satellite.
  4. Octopus
    Octopus 19 March 2017 10: 25 New
    +2
    Thank. Informatively.
  5. Old26
    Old26 19 March 2017 10: 53 New
    +3
    Thank you Anton! The race was certainly serious. The prize is "first." The Americans, on the other hand, have lost because of what you wrote. "Scattered." Performing a whole bunch of "routines" on the "Mercury" they IMHO have lost pace. The result - a month behind us. And the first was Yuri Alekseevich
    1. Octopus
      Octopus 19 March 2017 11: 23 New
      +1
      Quote: Old26
      The result - a month behind us.

      Almost a year, February 62nd, Glenn, orbital flight on a converted ICBM. Shepard is not quite what you need. Not even that. A suborbital flight on an economy-ersatz, if only to be lit up in newspapers. Now Blue Origin is doing the same, New Shepard, yes.
      But on a redstone it is impossible to launch a man into orbit, in principle, he is small.
  6. Kostya Andreev
    Kostya Andreev 19 March 2017 11: 30 New
    +1
    I look at Gagarin, and I understand that they knew who to choose. Photogenic man, especially a smile.
    1. opus
      19 March 2017 13: 16 New
      +5
      Quote: Kostya Andrei
      . Photogenic man, especially a smile.

      Have you watched the report on Finnish television (it’s in the article)?
      I’m personally, very impressed: what a simple, not arrogant, calm guy.
      Friendly and peaceful.
      He directly blows warmth to him (as from the spring sun).
      But he is a world celebrity.
      1. A1845
        A1845 20 March 2017 11: 28 New
        0
        Quote: opus
        I’m personally, very impressed: what a simple, not arrogant, calm guy.

        in the characteristic it was said about unlimited composure
        unique was a man
  7. Old26
    Old26 19 March 2017 11: 39 New
    +1
    Quote: Octopus
    Quote: Old26
    The result - a month behind us.

    Almost a year, February 62nd, Glenn, orbital flight on a converted ICBM. Shepard is not quite what you need. Not even that. A suborbital flight on an economy-ersatz, if only to be lit up in newspapers. Now Blue Origin is doing the same, New Shepard, yes.
    But on a redstone it is impossible to launch a man into orbit, in principle, he is small.

    If in orbital, then really for almost a year. But the "crowd" such details are sometimes of little significance. After all, it was not Glenn who made the first orbital flight, namely Shepard, who was “lit up” as the first American astronaut for the United States, although the flight was 15-minute and suborbital. In the same way, if something had happened and Gagarin didn’t fly on April 12, but in early May Shepard - it was him who the whole world would know as the first person to go up into space.
    If you didn’t create your "seven" in Korolev in 1957, we would have to fly according to the P-5 ligament variant and the flight would be "suborbital"
    The current work under the New Shepard and others programs is more likely a segment of space tourism, when for an incomparably smaller amount the "individual" wants to become a "cosmonaut"
    1. Octopus
      Octopus 19 March 2017 12: 08 New
      0
      Quote: Old26
      not flights on April 12 Gagarin, but in early May Shepard - it was him who the whole world would know as the first man to ascend into space.

      Here you are right. Oh, what, and in advertising, the Americans would have done any.
      Quote: Old26
      If you didn’t create your “seven” in Korolev in 1957, we would have to fly according to the variant of the P-5 ligament

      I think if you didn’t create the Korolev seven, there wouldn’t be a space race at all. The Americans would have launched their squeaker with a 58-ton rocket without extra pathos in the 59th or 10th, and would have fumbled with Crown for another five years. Kennedy’s speech at Rice University couldn’t be at this course of events.

      It seems to me that it was played by the fact that they were once again blown up by the next orcs.

      And the seven, just the epic fakap. Korolev didn’t order it, but R-16, approximately. Not even close is what he did.
      1. opus
        19 March 2017 13: 12 New
        +1
        Quote: Octopus
        And the seven, just the epic fakap. Korolev didn’t order it, but R-16, approximately.

        no no .
        P-16 is completely different!
        Yangel worked on it with 1959, and he did not like (and did not know how) S.P. work with poisonous high boilers

        Korolev had this:
        Before the development of the preliminary design of the 8K71 (P-7) rocket in the 1953 year began, research works were carried out: the first research work is NZ, the second research work is T1, and the third research work is T2. NI and T1 R&D were started in the 1951 year and completed in the 1953 year. And the T2 R&D went further from 1953 to 1955 year. NThe T2 IR was associated with an attempt to develop an ECR (experimental cruise missile), which also could provide an intercontinental range. The creation of the Seven would have been much more difficult and longer if there had been no R&D. So, we had to make a rocket, which was supposed to bring on a ballistic trajectory a payload of the order of 6 tons at the intercontinental range. Outline design began in the fall of 1953. And by the spring of 1954, work on creating the project was in full swing, precisely at the moment when I finally gave up and agreed to the position of deputy. Head of the test department.
        So, by August 1954, the conceptual design of the Seven was completed

        / OSTASHEV ARKADY ILYICH
        1. Octopus
          Octopus 19 March 2017 13: 18 New
          0
          Quote: opus
          P-16 is completely different!

          What are we talking about. This is a normal ICBM. And the seven is such an ICBM that even the peace-loving Soviet people, ready to give up their last shirt, if only to finish up the nuclear bourgeois, could afford no more than 3, it seems, pieces on alert duty.

          But here is how the launch vehicle was completely successful. RN can be prepared for two weeks to start, unlike. And the draft was not a match for any Redstone, and the decisions were all conservative, including the start of all engines on the ground. No Atlas inflatable tanks, no other extreme.
          1. opus
            19 March 2017 13: 29 New
            +1
            Quote: Octopus
            And the seven is such an ICBM that even the peace-loving Soviet people, ready to give up their last shirt, if only to finish up the nuclear bourgeois, could afford no more than 3

            six PU (there are many more rockets under 40 pieces)


            Only launches were 23


            The rocket is relatively cheap (we fly on it). Prelaunch training for combat work - hemorrhoids.
            + we did not have the required number of charges.

            Pencil without JAB - not needed
            explored the possibility of its placement in protected launchers. Then, a preliminary study of the underground starting position (mine version) and the underground starting position (retractable mountain version) was carried out. However, due to the bulkiness of these structures and structures, as well as the prerequisites for the creation of ICBMs of smaller mass-dimensional characteristics
            1. Octopus
              Octopus 19 March 2017 13: 37 New
              0
              I wrote
              Quote: Octopus
              no more than 3, it seems, pieces on combat duty.

              Launchers 6, but was there at least one case where everyone stood on a rocket in a two-hour, for example, readiness? SM-65, let me remind you, there have been more than a hundred on combat duty since the 62nd year.
              Quote: opus
              Prelaunch training for combat work - hemorrhoids.

              Quote: opus
              However, due to the bulkiness of these structures and structures

              I say this. The space launch vehicle and ICBMs have different requirements and limitations. How the pH seven still works. Like an ICBM, sticky horror.
    2. Operator
      Operator 19 March 2017 13: 36 New
      0
      There is no need to pull an owl on a globe - Americans in front of the whole world messed with Shepard and had the courage to admit it.

      All American monographs about space necessarily stipulate the surrogate nature of Shepard’s flight, and Glen’s orbital flight is also mandatory in conjunction with it.

      Thanks to our Nikita Sergeyevich, who fully paid his visas to Dwight Eisenhour in the intellectual confrontation between the heads of state.
      1. Octopus
        Octopus 19 March 2017 13: 51 New
        0
        Quote: Operator
        and also without fail in conjunction with it is mentioned the orbital flight of Glen.

        More importantly, Gagarin’s flight is mentioned.
        On April 12, 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person in space, and the first to orbit the Earth. [66] It was another body blow to American pride. [63] When Shepard heard the news he slammed his first down on a table so hard a NASA public relation officer feared he might have broken it. [67]
        On May 5, 1961, Shepard piloted the Mercury-Redstone 3 mission and became the second person, and the first American, to travel into space

        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Shepard
        Quote: Operator
        had the courage to admit it.

        Well, what is already there. But Stary26 is right - if the partners had done it a month earlier, Hollywood and the press would have done the rest.
        Quote: Operator
        Nikita Sergeevich, who fully paid his visas to Dwight Eisenhour in the intellectual confrontation between the heads of state

        winked
        You do not often find the words “intellectual” and “Nikita Sergeevich” in one sentence. I'm afraid his personal intellectual contribution was not particularly great.
        1. Operator
          Operator 19 March 2017 14: 09 New
          0
          Contribution compared to the American counterpart.
        2. yehat
          yehat 21 March 2017 14: 07 New
          0
          and in vain you are so, an intriguer, he was still that
    3. Octopus
      Octopus 19 March 2017 16: 57 New
      0
      Quote: Old26
      I would have to fly according to the variant of the R-5 ligament

      By the way, I didn’t understand this piece. For some reason, I thought that the first "package" was the Heavy 4 Delta, 2004. To carry this 40 years to the left is somehow strange. In those years, there were only schemes with accelerators (simpler) or multi-stage (more complicated). R-5 somehow doesn’t fit here.
  8. Old26
    Old26 19 March 2017 20: 45 New
    +1
    Quote: Octopus
    By the way, I didn’t understand this piece. For some reason, I thought that the first "package" was the Heavy 4 Delta, 2004. To carry this 40 years to the left is somehow strange. In those years, there were only schemes with accelerators (simpler) or multi-stage (more complicated). R-5 somehow doesn’t fit here.

    I don’t remember where, either Chertok’s or someone else’s mention of the considered version of the suborbital flight on the “P-5 bundle”. Most likely, the successful promotion of work on the topic R-7 led to the fact that the option of a bunch has ceased to be considered. But if it hadn’t gone, then HZ. I'm afraid to be misleading, but it seems to me that this option (P-5 ligaments) was developed by Tikhonravov

    In principle, there was at one time a number of publications (in German), which featured our development of the BP-180 type rockets with a capsule for astronauts. Moreover, one option is classic, with a parachute system, the second is generally fantastic - with blades and landing with the help of blades in a mode similar to autorotation of a helicopter. This project, of course, was “too abstruse”, and the BP-190 variant was quite realistic.
    1. Octopus
      Octopus 19 March 2017 21: 41 New
      0
      Quote: Old26
      there is a mention of the considered option

      Thank you
  9. Old26
    Old26 19 March 2017 23: 55 New
    0
    Quote: Octopus
    Quote: Old26
    I would have to fly according to the variant of the R-5 ligament

    By the way, I didn’t understand this piece. For some reason, I thought that the first "package" was the Heavy 4 Delta, 2004. To carry this 40 years to the left is somehow strange. In those years, there were only schemes with accelerators (simpler) or multi-stage (more complicated). R-5 somehow doesn’t fit here.

    Colleague. In order to speak the same language, it is still worthwhile to bring the terminology to a common denominator. I honestly don’t even imagine what was planned to be done when it came to the “bunch” of R-5 missiles. Perhaps it would be a bunch of 3 R-5 rockets, and above it a step with the astronaut.

    As for the package. What do you mean by this E Location of the lateral sides or options for replacing one block with another? If the first option, then there were a sufficient number of such missiles created by the batch scheme. Especially with them. With us, this is only the Seven and Proton. They have a sufficient number of missiles and the type of "Thor", and "Delta", and "Titan", and "Atlas".
    But if we consider the possibility of replacing the number of side blocks as a packet scheme, then the Americans had the first "test of the pen" on the Delta-M1971 rocket, which differed from the Delta-M rocket in the number of side blocks. This began to be used seriously already in the years 6-72 on their Delta missiles with a four-digit digital index ... Where the second figure indicated the number of side blocks. Well, "Delta-74" in various versions is the development of previous models, as well as the Atlas-4 with BB options
    1. Octopus
      Octopus 20 March 2017 02: 15 New
      0
      Quote: Old26
      it would be a bunch of 3 R-5 rockets, and above it a step with the astronaut.

      This is similar to what I call the “package” - Hangar A3-A5, Falcon Heavy, Delta 4 Heavy. And also unfulfilled Atlas Heavy, etc. Fashionable in recent years, the scheme. The first stage of relatively equivalent modules.
      Quote: Old26
      The location of the lateral sides or options for replacing one block with another?

      No. By "package" I meant exactly the option with full-fledged (one-dimensional) first stages, universal missile modules. I understood your words about the “R-5 bunch” in that way and, naturally, I was very surprised. I called the “Accelerator circuit” P-7 or Atlas, with the start of all the engines on the ground, the main and the starting ones, “multi-stage” - with the start of the second stage after the start: Jupiter, Titan (before the sidewalls appeared), Saturn, etc.
  10. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 17 December 2017 21: 56 New
    +1
    But now we’re in ... ne, but we are boasting about the presence of the RD-180, and the Americans are already driving the Dregon in all, the returning steps are “returning”, the capsules for space tourism are successfully “landing”, their rovers are crawling all over Mars, and planetary ships shock astronomers of all countries with their information about the moons of Jupiter, Saturn, asteroids, comets, etc. But like we- were the first, yeah .... but now, soon we will be the last ... sad