Military Review

From the ship to orbit - light floating cosmodrome "Selena"

35



“... What seemed unrealizable for centuries, what yesterday was only a bold dream, today is becoming a real task, and tomorrow - an accomplishment.
There are no barriers of human thought! ”

S.P. Korolev

In continuation of the topic how to get into orbit (or into space) in a non-trivial way, voiced in articles:
Underwater launch systems: how to get out of water into orbit or into space?
Underwater launch systems: how to get out of the water into orbit or into space? /EndingUnderwater launch systems: how to get out of the water into orbit? Ending

The idea of ​​launching a BR or PH from an offshore platform or ship (aircraft carrier) into space is, of course, not “Russian” know-how. The first were most likely the Americans. V2 rocket launch from USS Midway Aircraft Carrier (1947)


This is understandable: a large stock of expropriated FAU-2 (Vergeltungswaffe-2) and a large number of aircraft carriers.

Advantage: logistics, any latitude of start, large spaces for falling of rockets and their steps. There are disadvantages.

Other significant American projects:
Sea Dragon (“Sea Dragon”) by Aerojet is the 1962 project of the year to create a fully reusable sea-based two-stage launch vehicle. One of the designs created by Robert Truax was a rocket launched from a free-floating position in the ocean.



Truax’s main idea was to create a cheap heavy carrier, now called "Big silly carrier".
Before the dragon, Robert experimented with Sea bee и Sea horse.


From the “latest” US proposals, this is probably the PH Aquarius (Aquarius), developed by Space Systems / Loral, Aerojet, Microcosm in 2000's. Purpose: The cost of outputting the payload (for supplying the ISS) per kg 1000 NOU (2200 lbs) is not more than $ 1 000 000,00. Disposable media.
Low-cost launch and orbital depots: the Aquarius system.

The preface is over, I return to Selene.




Very little information and good quality photos. More likely to turn out about the ships and about the PH.

It will be about one use case fleet Space Research Services of the Department of Marine Expeditionary Works of the USSR Academy of Sciences (SKI OMER AN USSR)


"Sea space fleet", ships of the Star Flotilla, floating measuring points, space service vessels. What is this fleet? What kind of trial?
[1]


Questions and answers here.[1]

The ships with the significant names "Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin", "Academician Sergey Korolev", "Cosmonaut Georgy Dobrovolsky" and the others were once subordinate to the Ministry of Defense, although they went "under the roof" of the Academy of Sciences:
[3]


In addition to communication with manned spacecraft, they also performed other tasks, including the provision of flight tests of rocket and space technology products.



After the collapse of the USSR, three large ships, the Gagarin, Korolev and Mosquitoes, were sold for scrap. At about the same time, the Ministry of Defense handed over the remaining four ships of the “Selena” type to the NPO measuring equipment of the Russian Space Agency.

"Cosmonaut George Dobrovolsky" and "Cosmonaut Viktor Patsayev" were equipped with TM measurement and communication equipment, and two ships - "Cosmonaut Vladislav Volkov" and "Cosmonaut Pavel Belyaev" - without scientific equipment, since Former owners managed to remove special equipment and some equipment.



In the second half of the 1990-x "Cosmonaut George Dobrovolsky" was prepared for use in the project Sea Launch as a ship measuring complex. According to the original scheme, it should receive telemetry from a rocket in the most critical areas: separation of stages, separation of the upper stage, launching the object into orbit.

Until October 1998, everything was moving according to plan. Additional equipment of the vessel was held for Russian money, taking into account that the Americans will sign a contract. Indeed, they even allocated a bit of finance in advance. But at the last moment they unexpectedly changed their mind and offered to abandon his services, equipping the rocket with the American satellite relay unit and use their TDRS satellite for transmitting telemetry.



Perhaps, this is also true, from the point of view of a business solution: the day of operation of the telemetric vessel was only $ 10 000.
These included the cost of fuel, water, food, navigation services, and only a small proportion of the salaries of Russian personnel.

However, the savings of Americans did not take into account that the launch of the Zenit launch vehicle from the Sea Launch platform has a number of features:
- for the first time, a land-based PH starts from an ocean platform;
- for the first time refueling and storage of fuel components will be carried out in the ocean on the platform from which the launch vehicle starts;
- for the first time, the volume of telemetry adopted for normal operation on the tested RN will be reduced for transmission via the TDRS radio link;
- for the first time on the tested complex in the first launch an experimental telemetry measurement system based on the use of TDRS will be used.

The savings offered by the Americans cannot be compared with the possible losses. Telemetry information is vital for commercial launches. Its absence “hits the pocket”: in case of an unsuccessful launch, insurers do not pay compensation until they unequivocally determine the cause of the accident.
[2]

Russian partners advocated the use of Selena, at least in the first launches. The negotiations ended in nothing. In March, 1998, the Zenit launch vehicle, launched a spacecraft from the platform without recourse to the telemetry vessel Selena-M. To prevent the ships from disappearing, their crew, at every opportunity, took the ships to sea, carrying out many tasks, including working with the Mir station.

A possible way out of the impasse was outlined, as always, “at the junction of two elements” - the sea and space, the ship and the rocket.



The project of the FSUE “Scientific and Production Association of Measuring Equipment” (NPO IT) was very simple and low-cost. In the docks of Kaliningrad and St. Petersburg there were two of the three remaining in Russia (in Soviet times there were 11) vessels of the “Selena-M” series intended for space communications - Cosmonaut Viktor Patsayev and Cosmonaut Georgy Dobrovolsky.



NPO IT specialists suggested that one of them be re-equipped to launch launch vehicles of the “Start” and “Start-1” types. During launch, the second vessel was to provide telemetric tracking of the process of launching spacecraft into orbit. The ships could be based anywhere from the Baltic to the Canary Islands - as more convenient for the customer.



The difference is only in the speed of reaching the starting point (closer to the equator): in the first case it is two or three weeks, in the second - up to 10 days.



More benefits:
- in the geographical breadth of the launch.
Starting from the equator, in the vicinity of which the floating cosmodrome can easily be located, allows you to increase the mass of the satellite being put into orbit and the lower the orbit, the greater the difference in mass: for example, two hundred-kilometer height can be sent from the Plesetsk 535 kg, and from the equator - 742.
- some specific-purpose satellites cannot be launched from the territory of the Russian Federation:
- - The law of high-tech export conditions from 1979;
- - Military items controlled by the US Munitions List
- - Dual-use goods, the list of which is determined by the US Commercial Control List.

-the great difficulty in carrying out commercial launches from Baikonur or Plesetsk is represented by customs procedures (duties on the import of foreign satellites for launches by Russian missiles constitute a significant fraction of the cost of the launch itself).
EEU HS: 10% duty and 18% percent VAT.
I do not understand this nonsense. Well, exactly in the government we have some barges, with a minor mistake.
To a foreign satellite (when running on our own PH from our territory) tear off the 10% duty from the customer of the launch (Israel’s admissible) and 18% VAT from the satellite cost (with delivery to the RF / TS border) + TP (10%), and then return (Israel 18%) if the satellite crosses the Karman line. And if it does not cross and crash down - then do not return, respectively! And VAT returns will be at least 3 a month, or even all 6.
Capitalism
Ps. in the USA, by the way, there is no VAT, duty - I don’t know, but it’s hardly more than 5-7%. So we lived, and we live, but we tell fairy tales about trampolines.

The mobile complex, which independently arrives at the customer’s port, plunges aboard the spacecraft together with an escort team and, under its own power, goes to the launch point Offshore survey vessel exempt from such Mitney and all taxes. Is that the port fees.

Comfortable conditions on board (single and double cabins) make it possible to accommodate representatives of customers, even the most demanding ones (such as "Russian" Ilona Mask-Misha Prokhorov).


There are, of course, and cons.


Main: the sea launch was losing (at that time), and it is losing now (Space x again) in price to the earth’s cosmodrome. A sea launch is more expensive by about 2-4 million $ (12-14 million $ against $ 10 million from the spaceport). Partial “difference” was paid by extra satellite kilograms launched from the equator. Start-class launch vehicles are solid, not requiring refueling on site, which simplified the launch and maintenance team.



The carriers (conversion version RT-2PM / 15Ж58 (SS-25 SICKLE)) are compact in size and have an acceptable mass, which made it possible to place two missiles on the ship at once.



The degree of automation of prelaunch preparation is very high (under 100%).


The total cost of the project "easy" sea launch (in 2005 prices): 20-25 million dollars (almost the price of one space tour), which includes a complete re-equipment of the spacecraft, the launch of two ships at sea and their work. For the year, according to the designers, you can make up to 10 starts.

From the ship to orbit - light floating cosmodrome "Selena"


There is also a security problem: the ship is the land site of the cosmodrome. The designers used the mortar launch principle laid down in the ICBM:
the first will be the charge in the TPC, in which the rocket is located, and “shoot” it into the air, then the cruise engines of the rocket carrier turn on at a safe height.


For complete safety, the option of a remote launch without the presence of the crew was also provided for: the legacy of the combat ICBM.

The marine launch complex, called Selena, includes a transportable rocket-space complex with a solid launch rocket of the Start family, a Selena-M project transport and launch vessel, a complex of rocket launch process measurement systems and a ground-based technical base for preparation and assembly of RKK in the port of registry.



The current measuring points are completely different. Places on the ships of this class will be a lot. The trouble ships almost gone. Mobile measuring points (MIPs) are developed and exist. Since not every country allows them to be brought into their own territory, they are made in the mobile version on a gyro-stabilized platform and can be placed on almost any ship.



In August, the sea-based MIP 2015 (MIP MB), produced by NPOIT, was tested in the Sea of ​​Japan video aboard the icebreaker Admiral Makarov.

The infrastructure of the complex is largely ready. The reliability of the RSC is confirmed during the operation of the original missiles and launch vehicles from Svobodny and Plesetsk.
All starts The Topol ICBM (PC-12M Topol, the RT-2PM / 15Ж58 rocket - SS-25 SICKLE) and the Start-1,2 PH

There were two modifications of the start media:

the four-speed Start-1 and the five-speed Start.

The latter had only one launch from Plesetsk - emergency - 28 March 1995 (the dimensional-weight EKA-2 mockup and Gurwin Techsat 1A and UNAMSat A. satellites were not launched into the orbit. Start-1 ”from Plesetsk had only one launch - 25 March 1993 of the year - with the introduction of the satellite into orbit (or, according to other data, the overall weight model) of the ECA-1.


The remaining five launches of the Start-1 were performed from the Svobodny space center:
4 March 1997 of the year (satellite Zeya), 24 December 1997 of the year (EarlyBird), 5 December 2000 of the year (EROS A), 20 February 2001 of the year (Odin) and 25 April 2006 of the year (EROS B).



Already at that time, and now even more so, there is a boom of interest in low-orbit satellite communication systems based on small satellites and ultra-small satellites.


In 2016 space launched the first in the world satellite, made by students of the American primary school:


In November, SpaceX made another sensation by submitting a request to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for permission to launch 2016 satellites. If you read the document carefully, it says “4425 satellites (plus up to two spare satellites per orbital plane),” that is, on the 4425 orbital planes, the satellite constellation will have to be maximum xnumx satellite.


Devices are launched on large carriers in “bundles” and wait for their turn when the “elder brothers” are ready. But the life of such dwarfs is very limited. Starts are required to maintain the orbital constellation. Probably, small rocket carriers based on conversion marine or land ICBMs will be especially effective here.

Launch of NROL-55 spysat:


And we have removed and will be removed from combat duty of the ICBM "Topol" and "Topol-M" to be replaced by "Yarsy".
....

“Cosmonaut George Dobrovolsky" (project 1929 (Selena-2)), IMO number: 6910245) sold in 2005 year scrapped. Under the name “Cosmos” in March 2006 of the year came to Alang (India), where it was dismantled.


He 10 years survived his older friend:


What is it, do not keep it; lose cry

/ Big Explanatory Phraseological Dictionary of Michelson (1825 - 1908)

Instead of an afterword I quote Vladimir Proshchenko:
Do I need a "Marine Space Fleet"? What in return?


A little boy was playing in the field; he was digging a hole with a scoop.
The satellite is gone! No signals from GLONASare!
Laughed for a long time at the NA DirectorateSA!

[2]

Telemetry, launched by the PH and SC, again:
The rocket flew - it fell into the marsh ... and who is to blame for Rogozin



Why did she fall and on the basis of what did Rogozin decide to appoint scapegoats? Telemetry is not! And most importantly: "What to do?" And "How to fix?" The data is zero, but on the basis of fortune-telling guesses, managers of the face make smart face faces and give breathtaking conclusions. This is called "I am promoting."

Memory cosmonaut Georgy Dobrovolsky film: died together with other crew members of the Soyuz-11 spacecraft when returning to Earth due to depressurization of the descent module. / Roskosmos television studio.

-> Primary Sources, Links, and Borrowed Photos / Videos
[1]V.Proschenko Report to the Korolev readings, January 2016. Section 10. "Cosmonautics and Culture"
KIK USSR website Alexander Neom 2009-2016
[2]Forum NIS "Cosmonaut George Dobrovolsky"
Appendix to NIS CGD website
The television studio of Roskosmos
RV "Georgiy Dobrovolsky" Vladimir Proshchenko
[3]COSMODROMES
Starting place - the ocean / V.M. Filin. - 2000
Children's drawing competition
Launch of the 15Ж65 rocket from the converted P-36М2 "Voyevoda" mine. Polygon Plesetsk. / Research and Development "Universal" / OCR "Topol-M", rocket 15Ж55 / 15Ж65 - SS-X-27 SICKLE-B /
www.nnm.me
www.dimmi-tomsk.livejournal.com
www.militaryrussia.ru
www.novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru
www.wikipedia.org
www.itogi.ru
www.ski-omer.ru
www.space.hobby.ru
www.sslmda.com
www.americaspace.com
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  1. ImPerts
    ImPerts 17 March 2017 20: 39 New
    +2
    Either something is amiss in the kingdom, or such a text, or a confusion of welds ...
    I’ll read it again tomorrow.
    What do research vessels need? Yes, they are.
    1. opus
      18 March 2017 11: 50 New
      +2
      Quote: ImPerts
      either confusion

      Everything is simple:
      1. Out of business there are many ships of the 1929 project.
      Chubais and Co. shoved them into "private hands"
      - they rusted, the content of the money is worth
      -new owners dreamed of pushing them into scrap metal (80% of their karma revenue)
      2. According to the START Treaty and because of the expiration of the warranty storage period, there were many unclaimed
      RS-12M Poplar, rocket RT-2ПМ / 15Ж58 - SS-25 SICKLE)
      -you need to destroy the bulo
      -or shoot
      It required money (which the Russian Federation did not have, or rather they were, but they were stolen)
      3. 1 + 2 = surface launch, withdrawal to the NOO PN for other people's money (see paragraph 2) + ships and crew are saved (see paragraph 1)
      4. Result: the ships were sold on needles to India, we do not have a NIS fleet, there is practically no LV "stat" either.
      The budget didn’t replenish, but it went bankrupt, we lost specialists, all interested parties are satisfied (pockets are still swollen)
      And the court: Let us recall the Syrian operation: they bought junk and galoshes from Turkey at exorbitant prices, before that they sold their largest infantry fighting vehicles in Europe in the 90's for a penny.
  2. corporal
    corporal 17 March 2017 21: 10 New
    +3
    1- Greetings and thanks for the interesting article. good
    2-
    What is it, do not keep it; lose cry
    -vultu, qui prodest request

    3- purely technical question:
    permission to launch 4425 satellites
    - who then will clean up all this garbage? They have already dirtied the orbit.
    1. opus
      17 March 2017 22: 01 New
      +3
      Quote: Corporal
      - who then will clean up all this garbage?

      1. Switzerland:

      The Clean Space One satellite is designed to clear near-Earth space.
      Specialists from eSpace, the Space Engineering Center of the Lausanne Federal Polytechnic School, the LTS 5 laboratory and their colleagues at HES-SO hope to solve the problem of space debris with CleanSpace One




      2. Cube are platforms: 10 x 10 x 10 see they burn
      3. Introduce a recycling fee
      https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A3%D1%82%D0%B8%
      D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B8%D0%BE%D0%BD%D
      0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9_%D1%81%D0%B1%D0%BE%D1%80
      1. corporal
        corporal 17 March 2017 22: 20 New
        +1
        This is how many such satellites will be needed? And how many full-fledged rocket launches with these interceptors? And how to clean bulky waste? And a trifle, like fragments from pyro-bolts?
        So far more questions. what
        1. Blackmokona
          Blackmokona 18 March 2017 09: 27 New
          0
          These satellites have their own system for getting out of orbit. The second stage of Falcon-9 also leaves the orbit, and the first one lands. Ie there should not be garbage.
        2. opus
          18 March 2017 11: 51 New
          +2
          Quote: Corporal
          This is how many such satellites will be needed?

          It is Switzerland that will utilize its satellites in this way.
          I wrote:
          Introduce a recycling fee

          In general, there are many methods and ideas: if I am interested, I can unsubscribe.
          1. corporal
            corporal 18 March 2017 14: 11 New
            +1
            Quote: opus
            There are many methods and ideas: if interested, I can unsubscribe.

            Make an article. good
  3. Barakuda
    Barakuda 17 March 2017 23: 48 New
    +1
    This article is probably for the interested super-specialists of space technology.
    Would fall into a sinful orbit.
    I had a teacher - a professor, using his methods, they found out why NOBBLE NOBBINs didn’t work and the stations were turned off, found out and poher. He left for America in 1998. He died a millionaire. Surname would have been announced, but it’s not good ..
    1. opus
      18 March 2017 00: 37 New
      +7
      Quote: Barracuda
      This article is probably for the interested super-specialists of space technology.

      little girl, my teachers, they would have dug me
      Quote: Barracuda
      Would fall into a sinful orbit.

      not understood? I had to write about Ukraine or about Obama?
      wink
      Threat. A great film is on NTV, about aviation. Best Russian TV movie in 15 years
      Quote: Barracuda
      He left for America in the 1998 year. He died a millionaire.

      My grandmother raised me, and I VERY respect her: "where he was born, there he fit!
      This is an axiom ...
      1. Mordvin 3
        Mordvin 3 18 March 2017 00: 53 New
        +5
        Quote: opus
        Quote: Barracuda
        This article is probably for the interested super-specialists of space technology.

        little girl, my teachers, they would have dug me
        Quote: Barracuda
        Would fall into a sinful orbit.

        not understood? I had to write about Ukraine or about Obama?
        wink
        Threat. A great film is on NTV, about aviation. Best Russian TV movie in 15 years
        Quote: Barracuda
        He left for America in the 1998 year. He died a millionaire.

        My grandmother raised me, and I VERY respect her: "where he was born, there he fit!
        This is an axiom ...

        Respect to your grandmother. Well, and you accordingly.
        1. opus
          18 March 2017 11: 52 New
          +1
          Quote: mordvin xnumx
          Well, you respectively.

          Grandmother.
          She was a very serious lady. Authority
          1. Mordvin 3
            Mordvin 3 18 March 2017 11: 55 New
            +3
            Quote: opus
            Quote: mordvin xnumx
            Well, you respectively.

            Grandmother.
            She was a very serious lady. Authority

            Me too. And here I am, a bad guy. Grandfather must be to blame. wink
      2. Amurets
        Amurets 18 March 2017 04: 22 New
        +1
        Quote: opus
        little girl, my teachers, they would have dug me

        Not the teachers have digged you, but the teachers. In the days of the USSR, all kinds of societies operated, such as
        society "Knowledge", all kinds of lectures. And they would make you, as your teachers, give lectures on a voluntary basis. Do not be offended by the possible rudeness, I apologize in advance if I wrote something wrong, but such was the reality. Once again, I thank you for the clear, reasoned article. All your articles, as if they were sometimes saturated with technical data, I read with interest.
        1. opus
          18 March 2017 11: 55 New
          +2
          Quote: Amurets
          and teachers.

          Yes....
          From correspondence (2 days ago) with a teacher at the department of rocket engines at one of Ukraine's universities
          I understand perfectly well that on the TV (more precisely on the Internet, it is impossible to watch a local TV), the achievements of the domestic military-industrial complex and space look quite rosy, and if you land and dig up some specific development, then the problems will begin to emerge as an appropriate substance. But, believe me, from here we look at all this with great envy.

          To understand the situation - I regularly have 2 people who make up 50% of the group in my lecture on the theory of RD Initially, the group was larger, but the rest fell into our specialty according to the residual principle, as having one of the lowest passing points, and naturally gradually left the group. Moreover, through the fault of the departments of physics, mathematics, theorem, etc. Smile Those. here the cosmos and all its attendant do not interest anyone from the word at all. Neither officials, nor laymen, nor a new generation. When asked what you are doing, you feel like the last mammoth from the famous American cartoon.


          I precipitated ... 50% goes to class and these 50% = 2 people?
          And IT IS ALMOST THAT IT HAPPENED AT US IN 90!
          1. Amurets
            Amurets 18 March 2017 13: 12 New
            0
            Quote: opus
            I precipitated ... 50% goes to class and these 50% = 2 people?
            And IT IS ALMOST THAT IT HAPPENED AT US IN 90!

            Alas and unfortunately. I will not switch to politics. The 90s were given by two prestigious professions: lawyers and financiers, who were so trained that there was simply nowhere to put them. And the quality of training of young engineers is such that they have to be trained in a new way in a new place. I will not say about Moscow universities, I am talking about the province.
          2. Falcon5555
            Falcon5555 18 March 2017 15: 59 New
            +1
            the achievements of the domestic military-industrial complex and space look quite rosy, and if you land and dig up some specific development, then the problems will begin to emerge as an appropriate substance. But, believe me, from here we look at all this with great envy.

            I don’t understand what he is looking at with envy? Which "domestic"? In Russian? On the joint (old)? And what exactly?
            If reusable media developed, then yes, that would be a reason for envy. And the interest of the young, and others like them and of everyone else, would be excited. And so, what to talk about? About how, with military rackets, which either worked out a resource, or did not work out (and then it is not clear why the military gives them away), they are trying to launch half an kilo from an old vessel? Nonsense! It is necessary to develop normal REUSABLE (and environmentally friendly) carriers. Then students would have an interest. And so, torment yourself with education, and then, if you are in Russia, go to the factory and collect vintage Gagarin rockets for the rest of your life - who needs this? .. It's simply NOT INTERESTING!
      3. Catherine II
        Catherine II 18 March 2017 14: 09 New
        +2
        Quote: opus
        not understood? I had to write about Ukraine or about Obama

        no, no, no, it was nice to read without it.
  4. Amurets
    Amurets 18 March 2017 00: 26 New
    +2
    Why did she fall and on the basis of what did Rogozin decide to appoint scapegoats? Telemetry is not! And most importantly: "What to do?" And "How to fix?" The data is zero, but on the basis of fortune-telling guesses, managers of the face make smart face faces and give breathtaking conclusions. This is called "I am promoting."

    Anton! Interesting and informative. For some, it will be interesting, for some not, I first came across this organization when I read N. Cherkashin, "The Secret of Point" K "about K-129 and about this ship KIK" Chazhma "
    .
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 18 March 2017 00: 33 New
      +1
      And read about the TOGE and its ships, possible on these sites. For someone, this will be a surprise.http: //www.38brrzk.ru/public/ship-
      kikgl3 /
      http://www.38brrzk.ru/public/ship-kikgl5/
      http://mywebs.su/blog/army/10550/
      Anton, maybe, most likely it is, but I just wanted to add about telemetry ships in the Pacific Ocean. Otherwise, thanks, I want to remind you that this year October 4 will be the 60th anniversary of the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite PS-1.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 18 March 2017 00: 43 New
        0
        Quote: Amurets
        Otherwise, thanks, I want to remind you that this year October 4 will be the 60th anniversary of the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite PS-1.

        1. Amurets
          Amurets 18 March 2017 00: 47 New
          0
          Quote: Amurets
          This year, October 4 will be the 60th anniversary of the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite PS-1.

          And here he is. Let it be an animation, but beautiful for that.
          1. opus
            18 March 2017 12: 01 New
            +2
            Quote: Amurets
            And here he is

            Read "The Adam Project -" Man Very High "? Mission Impossible ..."
            soon they will print.
            There is about the satellite
      2. opus
        18 March 2017 11: 59 New
        +2
        Quote: Amurets
        but just wanted to add about telemetry ships in the Pacific

        Hey. I know
        http://www.toge.ru/

        But I was interested in just the surface start

        Everything will not fit into the article.
        Voyaka uh, the corporal said SHARE articles ... here I share


        I'm already with
        KIK USSR website Alexander Neom 2009-2016
        [2] NIS Forum "Cosmonaut George Dobrovolsky"
        Appendix to NIS CGD website
        RV "Georgiy Dobrovolsky" Vladimir Proshchenko
        ground

        A little boy was playing in the field; he was digging a hole with a scoop.
        The satellite is gone! There are no signals from GLONASS!
        Laughing at NASA for a long time!
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 18 March 2017 13: 21 New
          +1
          Quote: opus
          But I was interested in just the surface start

          Clear! And this is interesting. But as you write, launches should be provided by telemetry. It is right. There should be a complex not only on telemetry of launch and flight, but also a check of the LV and spacecraft before launch.
          Yes, and about the teachers in my time: in order to "settle down", it was not only necessary to really conduct some research, write a dissertation, publish in scientific journals, but also conduct public work. That is why I wrote that they would not only condemn, but would envy such activities.
          1. opus
            18 March 2017 14: 17 New
            +2
            Quote: Amurets
            There should be a complex not only on telemetry of launch and flight, but also a check of the LV and spacecraft before launch.

            Yes.
            Other tracking and control ships

            http://niskgd.ru/fleet/i2.htm

            "Keeping memory, keeping memory is our moral duty
            to ourselves and to descendants. Memory is our wealth. "
            "Culture is a huge holistic phenomenon,
            which makes people inhabiting a certain space,
            from a mere population - a people, a nation "

            D.S. Likhachev

            CFC "Chumikan" and "Chazhma"
            http://niskgd.ru/forum/viewtopic.php?f=23&t=5
            23


            Articles and videos on how to destroy the QGD
            http://niskgd.ru/articles/index.htm
            ======================
            our "elite"



            Quote: Amurets
            but also to conduct community work.

            Comrade ...
            1.I don’t have any lecture abilities (children lead or ... the truth is not in their homeland)
            2.We have a slightly different social work now in fashion:
            1. Amurets
              Amurets 18 March 2017 15: 57 New
              +1
              Quote: opus
              .We have a slightly different social work now in fashion:

              I agree. I meant the Soviet time.
              1. opus
                18 March 2017 17: 30 New
                +2
                Quote: Amurets
                I agree. I meant the Soviet time.

                dont spoil spirit

                And not everything was right and right ....
                But so prossp ** b
                Quote: Referent
                were also

                everything was..
                as it turned out, there was not enough Coca-Cola, gamma gamma and jeans for complete happiness
      3. Referent
        Referent 18 March 2017 17: 24 New
        +1
        In addition to Chazhma, there was also Chumikan, the flagship was Marshal Nedelin ..... there were also Sakhalin, Siberia, Spassk, Chukotka. He served in the military service 85-88 ...
  5. Falcon5555
    Falcon5555 18 March 2017 01: 22 New
    +2
    Five steps - this is strong!
    And what is there for the non-military yellow containers on the military-green conveyors, it is not clear. Start? "Free"?
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 18 March 2017 01: 52 New
      +2
      Quote: Falcon5555
      And what is there for the non-military yellow containers on the military-green conveyors, it is not clear. Start? "Free"?

      What surprises you? Here is information about him: http: //ru.rfwiki.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%B2%D0%BE%
      D0%B1%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9_(%D0%BA%D0%BE
      %D1%81%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%B4%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BC)
      Here is the plan of the spaceport.
      Now in this area the Vostochny spaceport is under construction.
  6. Catherine II
    Catherine II 18 March 2017 14: 21 New
    +3
    "Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin" is amazing even in photographs. It was twice as large as the Titanic. Displacement of the ship 45 thousand tons (for comparison: the Titanic had a displacement of 28 thousand tons).
    Today, in many countries of the world there are ships built to track space. Somewhat in the USA and France, China is constantly expanding its space fleet: our eastern neighbors already have 5 specialized vessels equipped with telemetry reception and spacecraft control systems.
    The article caused some emotions .. and admiration and loss (especially the photo of Gagarin in Alanga)
  7. kig
    kig April 22 2017 15: 06 New
    0
    When various projects "from ship to orbit" were listed, for some reason they missed Seal Launch, which works quite successfully, despite a series of bankruptcy scandals.
  8. kunstkammer
    kunstkammer 10 June 2017 13: 42 New
    0
    Until October 1998, everything was moving ... The additional equipment of the ship took place for Russian money, taking into account the fact that the Americans would sign a contract (?) ... But at the last moment they unexpectedly changed their minds and offered to refuse his services

    Now I understand how you can ruin another country without spending a dime: I have to offer them to build a staircase to the moon, promising that I’ll surely pay for everything later and climb on to the moon myself, I will invite my friends, colleagues and mistresses.
    Well, about the same, to do the same - if not to expand NATO east to promise another moron.
    in the joys of such a gesheft they will spend billions of budget money ... and then tell them that I changed my mind and climb up the other stairs.
    Boobies from the state do not care what and how much to cut ... the main thing is in your pocket.
  9. valpro24
    valpro24 5 February 2019 10: 51 New
    0
    Quote: Catherine II
    "Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin" ... was twice as large as the "Titanic" Displacement of the ship was 45 thousand tons (for comparison: the "Titanic" had a displacement of 28 thousand tons).
    Nonsense
    See here: http://niskgd.ru/mix/p48/Titanic_vs_Gagarin.png