Military Review

Experimental and prototype weapons Izhevsk Mechanical Plant (pistols)

21
Izhevsk Mechanical Plant since its inception (in the 1942 year) and to date has been engaged in the production of combat and service pistols. The plant is the largest enterprise in Europe for the production of these products. From the war years, the factory produced the famous TT pistols (Tokarev's Tula) and Nagant's revolvers. Starting the production of the world famous Makarov pistol begins with 1952. Traditionally, research on finding new operational and combat capabilities of the basic design, as well as research on ways to improve the manufacturability of products, begin almost immediately with the launch of a product into production.


In the 1950-60, research and development was aimed at improving the combat effectiveness of the TT pistol with the development of its version with increased magazine capacity (from 8 to 15 cartridges), as well as extending the barrel of a regular Makarov pistol to increase the bullet energy and accuracy.

Experimental and prototype weapons Izhevsk Mechanical Plant (pistols)

7,62-mm TT pistol designed by RGSevryugin, prototype of the beginning of 1950-s. 15 magazine capacity, ammunition range, 50 m


9-mm pistol PM design LL Gorbunova, a prototype 1968, the capacity of the magazine 8 ammunition, target range 50 m

In the 90-s, with the advent of computer modeling, microelectronics and new polymeric materials, the company developed a model range of pistols based on PM with improved characteristics and special features.

The pistol MP-448 "Skif" was created at the end of 1990-s by the designer of Izhevsk Mechanical Plant, DA Bogdanov. The gun was designed to create weapons, having the smallest possible weight and dimensions with high reliability in all conditions of use. The task of increasing manufacturability was also raised. The sample was designed using computer technology: first, its model was built, then a blank for the mold was created. The basis of the development is a Makarov pistol (PM). In contrast to the PM, the Skif pistol uses a lighter frame of high-strength molded plastic, the shape of the handle and its inclination are changed. Due to this, the ergonomics of the pistol and its stability when shooting is improved. To facilitate the possibility of shooting with both the right and left hands, it is possible to install a double-sided safety lock button, a magazine latch on the right or left side of the handle. The gun is easy to maintain and operate - it contains all 35 parts from the magazine, an incomplete and complete disassembly is carried out without using tools with a ramrod. In addition to the basic version, the model MP-448С “Skif-mini” is released, which is distinguished by smaller dimensions.


9-mm pistol MP-448 "Skif" designed by DA Bogdanov, prototype 1999, magazine capacity 12 ammunition, target range 50 m, weight 0,64 kg

Pistol MP-443 "Leopard" - a small-sized pistol with high stopping power of ammunition. Differs in the reliability, technological effectiveness, the increased safety at the address. The sample was developed by the designer of the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant, DA Bogdanov, at the beginning of the 2000s. The closest analogue of this product is the PSM (self-loading small-sized pistol), which is considered the thinnest sample used in the Russian armed forces. In contrast, the MP-443, which also has a small size, uses more powerful cartridges - 9x18PM and 9x17К. The use of different ammunition is provided by replacing the barrel. The frame of the gun is steel, which allows you to combine a convenient, contributing to the instinctive aiming, the shape of the handle and sufficient strength when using the cartridge 9x18М. Due to the push-button magazine latch, the time for reloading the gun is reduced compared to the PSM pistol and the convenience of handling weapons is increased. MP-443 "Bars" was intended for arming the operational staff as a weapon for hidden permanent wear (or the so-called "second chance" weapon - a spare pistol), as well as for armament of women who are part of the above structures.


9-mm pistol MP-443 "Bars" designed by DA Bogdanov, prototype 2005, magazine capacity 6 ammunition, target range 50 m, weight 0,56 kg

The gun MP-447 is a unique model with an electronic system, conventionally referred to as "BEER" (a gun with the identification of the owner of the weapon). Its development by designers of the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant under the leadership of S.V. Gulyaev was launched in 1998 and completed in 2001. The design was carried out at the initiative of the enterprise. The main goal was to create a service weapon of law enforcement officers with minimal risk of its seizure and use by other persons. At the heart of the design is a Makarov pistol. Electronic blocking of the firing mechanism is released only if there is a ring on the middle finger of the firing hand with a correspondingly programmed chip. Receiving a signal from it allows you to fire a shot using an electromechanical actuator built into the pistol grip. MP-447 "BEER" was produced in a small amount as a premium weapon. Among the owners of an exclusive development is V.V. Putin, general director of Izhevsk mechanical plant V.S. Chuguevsky.


9-mm pistol MP-447 "BEER" (a gun with the identification of the owner of the weapon) designed by S.V. Gulyaev, prototype 2001. Magazine's 8 magazine capacity, target range 50 m

Development of a new army pistol

State Competition "Rook"
In 1991, the Ministry of Defense announced a R & D program (research and development) under the code name “Grach”. Its goal was to develop a new army pistol, which was supposed to provide penetration of protected and armored targets, as well as to surpass the Makarov pistol in capacity and capacity of the store. Initially, it was intended to create a modular sample, in which, due to the interchangeable set of barrel and magazine, it would be possible to use different cartridges - 9x18PM, 9x18PMM and 7,62x25TT.


Pistol “Grach-1” designed by AI Zarochintsev, prototype 1992 g. Modular design for chucks 7,62x25TT, 9x18PM, 9X18PMM

TsNIITOCHMASH (Klimovsk), TsKIB SOO (Tula) and Izhevsk Mechanical Plant took part in the competition for the development of a promising army pistol. In Izhevsk, at the initial stages, three versions of the design were worked out: “Grach-1” (designer A.I. Zarochintsev), “Grach-2” (designer V.A. Yarygin), “Grach-3” (designers B.M. Pletsky , R.G.Shigapov).

Pistol "Grach-1" is the first version of the model "Grach", presented by the designer of Izhevsk Mechanical Plant A.I. Zarochintsev at the first stage of the competition. The sample is a modular design that allows the use of cartridges caliber 7,62x25TT, 9x18PM, 9x18PMM. To do this, it is enough to replace the barrel and the magazine. MI ammunition is fired from a free gate, and PMM and TT ammunition is fired from a semi-free gate, with powder gases being braked, discharged through a side opening in the barrel bore. The trigger mechanism of the sample - a double action, which allows firing as a self-cocked and with a preliminary cocking of the trigger. In tests of the 1993 of the year at the Rzhevka test site, a strong gas-braked circuit sensitivity was detected to powder carbon pollution: through the 60 shots, the gas brake stopped working, the shutter speed increased sharply. As a result, the load on the hand increased, and the survivability of the pistol was low. Through 1300 shots the frame was destroyed. After this work on the gun "Grach-1" were discontinued.


The gun “Grach-2” designed by V.Yarygin, prototype 1992 g. Modular design for chucks 7,62х25ТТ, 9х18ПМ, 9х18ПММ

Pistol "Grach-2" - a model developed by the designer of Izhevsk Mechanical Plant V.A. Yarygin. In the early stages, the pistols were also a modular design for 9X18PM, 9x18PMM and 7,62X25TT cartridges, but subsequently it was decided to develop a design for an 919 and 9 Para Para enhanced penetration cartridge. Most of the design solutions of the pistol are traditional in order to achieve high reliability. The principle of operation of the automation is based on the recoil energy with a short recoil of the barrel and its rigid locking. The sample has a trigger mechanism with an openly located trigger, which allows firing only single shots as self-cocking, and with a preliminary cocking of the trigger, unregulated aiming devices. The safe handling of the gun is ensured by the presence of a two-sided safety lever and a safety trigger. On both sides, the trigger is covered by the protrusions of the shutter-casing, which excludes its engagement with clothing or ammunition items, keeps the trigger mechanism when the weapon falls and ensures the safety of the shooter. The frame of the gun is steel, there is a version of the gun in a lightweight version with a frame of high-strength plastic. In 2003, the decision of the Government of the Russian Federation "9-mm pistol Yarygin" (PJ) was officially adopted by the Russian army. October 9 The 2008 of the Year of the Russian Ministry of the Interior announced the switch from a Makarov pistol to a Yarygin pistol as a regular weapon. Today, the PJs enter into service with army units, internal troops, special units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation and other power structures, are premium weapons.


9-mm pistol "Grach-3" designed by BMPletsky and R.G. Shigapov, prototype 1992. Magazine's 12 magazine capacity, target range 50 m, weight 0,92 kg

Pistol "Grach-3" (PMM) is a modernized version of the famous Makarov pistol (PM). The new model was developed by the designers of Izhevsk Mechanical Plant B.M. Pletsky and R. G. Shigapov at the beginning of 1990 for participation in the competition. They were faced with the task of creating a pistol for a specially designed for him high-pulse cartridge 9х18PMM. It has the dimensions of a standard 9x18PM ammunition, but at the same time it has a great punching effect. From the Makarov pistol sample 1951, PMM differs redesigned chamber chamber. Three additional helical grooves are made on its surface, slowing the rollback and smoothing the difference between standard and high-impulse ammunition firing. This made it possible to use both the cartridge 9х18PMM and 9x18PM in the new sample. Another difference of the PMM from the base model is the increased capacity of the store. The shutter delay button has become more convenient than in the PM. PMM was adopted by the army in 1994 year as a temporary measure until the completion of the development of a more promising "Grach-2" scheme.

Research and development work on the creation of weapons for various purposes

At present, the PU is a fairly promising structure, which has potential in various directions for all kinds of requirements, both of domestic militarized structures and of a foreign customer. The “Vintuk” pistol based on the Yarygin pistol under the cartridge 10х23Т with a traumatic rubber bullet was developed by the order of the FSB as a weapon of limited destruction. Unlike civilian traumatic weapons, this pistol has an increased muzzle energy of up to 120 J and an aimed range of 10 meters.


The pistol of limited damage MP-472 "Vintuk" designed by A.I.Lozhkin and A.B. Ushakov, the prototype 2009-10. The used cartridge 10Х23Т, the capacity of the magazine 16 cartridges, the targeting range 10 m, weight 0,81 kg


PYL pistol designed by V.Yarygin, prototype chambered for 9x21, 2008 g. Cartridges 18 magazine capacity, target range 50 m, weight 0,81 kg

The version of the Yarygin pistol for the powerful cartridge 9x21 was developed at the request of the Ministry of Defense in order to increase the kinetic energy of the bullet for penetrating personal protective equipment.

In 1990-2000-ies. Izhevsk Mechanical Plant developed a concept for the development of pistol production. In accordance with it, the practical experience gained in developing original designs of pistols with the possibility of supplying not only by domestic orders (for domestic cartridges and requirements), but with the advent of a more flexible system for the supply of weapons for export (for foreign cartridges and requirements) was actively used. There were lines of light and heavy pistols for various purposes.


9-mm pistol MP-444 "Bagira" designed by RG Shigapov, a prototype of the end of 1990-s. 10 magazine capacity of cartridges, sighting range 50 m, weight 0,76 kg

The gun MP-444 "Bagheera" is one of the models of the family of weapons created by the designer of the Izhevsk mechanical plant, RG Shigapov, parallel to the development of the line of the Yarygin pistol. It was conceived as a basic model of a series of light pistols with high manufacturability for the manufacture of ammunition of several calibers. One of the design features of the gun is the presence of a buffer that significantly reduces the recoil momentum. The sight is constant, with three white dots. The frame of the sample is provided with slots for installing the illuminator or laser designator, made of high-strength polymer plastic to reduce the mass. MP-444 "Bagira" is easy to maintain and operate, incomplete and complete disassembly carried out without the use of tools with a ramrod.



Pistol MP-445 "Varyag" designed by V.A. Yarygin and D.P. Varlamov, prototype chambered for .40S & W, 2000s. Magazine capacity 15 rounds, sighting range 50 m, weight 0,88 kg

The MP-445 Varyag pistol is a model that became the basis for a series of so-called “heavy” pistols chambered for high-power cartridges. Work on its creation began in 1997 by the designers of the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant V.A. Yarygin and D.N. Varlamov. The novelty of the development consisted in the design of a series of both compact and full-size pistols, made on the same base with the ability to change the caliber, its orientation for export sales. The sample was developed in several modifications chambered for .40S & W (10x22 mm). These models, which have the same design, differ in external design. The design of the MP-445 is based on a schematic diagram of the operation of the Yarygin pistol. On the body of the pistol, in front of it, there are grooves for installing laser designators and tactical lights. To reduce the weight of the pistol and improve manufacturability, a frame made of high-strength plastic is used. The tests of the samples were carried out in conjunction with specialists from the FSB special unit. The MP-445 series pistols were created as a weapon with the possibility of using in practical shooting competitions (IPSC), but so far they remain experienced.


9-mm pistol MP-446P “Viking” designed by V.A. Yarygin and D.Varlamov, prototype 2000. Magazine's 15 magazine capacity, target range 50 m, weight 0,81 kg

The pistol MP-446 "Viking" is a model created for delivery abroad under the popular abroad cartridge caliber 9 mm Para. It was developed at Izhevsk Mechanical Plant in the period from 1998 to 2000 year by designers D. Varlamov and A. Kozin under the supervision of designer B. .A.Yarygin. The design of the MP-446 is based on the concept of operation of the Yarygin pistol. Magazine latch can be installed both on the right and on the left. The sample frame is made of high-strength thermoplastic molding. In 2001, the gun was put on mass production with the possibility of selling only for export. With the development of the sport movement of practical shooting in Russia (1PSC competition), the sports version of the MP-2004С pistol for sale in the domestic market was developed in 446. In the sports model, it is possible to complete the pistol with an elongated barrel, a sports sight and a steel frame. In 2006, the police version of the pistol MP-446P was developed with the possibility of changing special pads on the handle for specific anthropometric data of the arrow. Currently, the pistol MP-446 is produced and exported to Canada, Australia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Peru and other countries.

Summing up, I would like to note that these specimens are only a small part of the weapons that reflect the research and development work of Izhevsk gunsmiths of the second half of the 20th century, are just some of the directions in the development of small arms combat weapons.
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  1. Igor
    Igor 11 February 2012 10: 03
    0
    Interesting specimens, "Rook" is similar to "Desert Eagle".

    9-mm pistol MP-447 "BEER" laughing

    I always like what our designers call weapons.
  2. Old prdun
    Old prdun 11 February 2012 11: 32
    +6
    But I felt sad ... sad
    1. wasjasibirjac
      wasjasibirjac 11 February 2012 14: 43
      +7
      Yes it's sad. our authorities do not want to give people the opportunity to purchase such cool toys, and factories to continue their development
      1. kostiknet
        kostiknet 11 February 2012 15: 49
        +8
        our authorities are terribly afraid of their people, so the normal "law on weapons" is hampering. Everyone is waiting - one day the country will wake up "morally ripe" and so "philanthropic" that the purchased melee weapon (bought for self-defense) will shoot only in shooting ranges bully In the meantime, the people are not "ripe" - gunsmiths will fast on small government orders (that's why in Russia everything is through .. ope? All over the world gunsmiths are one of the richest people, and here Izhmash is starving?) If citizens could buy such barrels - factories could produce more advanced weapons.
        1. Born in USSR
          Born in USSR 13 February 2012 04: 10
          -2
          With our adequacy and corruption in the police, only free-selling firearms aren’t enough ... I myself saw 2 people at a gas station because of the sequence of firefights with traumas. And there are a lot of such examples - and those who come from the South have almost without exception injuries. Now firearms are allowed and they will be packed by them all ... And then they will shoot someone, then them, and the vendetta will start with access to the Manege ...
          Bulk of this, even in erotic dreams do not dream ...
      2. Krilion
        Krilion 12 February 2012 09: 17
        0
        I would support you, but among the samples presented in the article, I don’t see anything outstanding or really worthwhile ... those who have been dealing with service weapons (pistols) for a long time will understand me ... you could still talk about Sevryugin’s gun, and the rest samples are just rubbish ...

        I think that only because of the topic of the article about the products of the Izhevsk plant nothing is said about the GSh-18 pistol ...
        http://topwar.ru/5182-pistolet-gsh-18-detische-tulskih-oruzheynikov.html
        1. TiRex
          TiRex April 20 2012 04: 08
          0
          gsh 18 not on izhmash do
  3. mox
    mox 11 February 2012 15: 05
    0
    A device with a modular design with interchangeable barrels for different cartridges in the civilian market would be a success. But we do not have a civilian market and a gun either.
  4. VORON
    VORON 11 February 2012 17: 27
    +1
    Pistol “Grach-1” designed by AI Zarochintsev, prototype 1992 g. Modular design for chucks 7,62x25TT, 9x18PM, 9X18PMM
    If it were not for the collapse of the USSR, then this brought to mind pistol created under the strong influence of Steyr GB and could for many years become a mass full-time pistol in law enforcement agencies.
  5. Tyumen
    Tyumen 11 February 2012 20: 24
    -2
    TT Sevryugin apparently heavier, interesting sensations. And the Varangian is handsome!
    1. alexey garbuz
      alexey garbuz 14 February 2012 22: 15
      0
      This "Varyag" could have been built by a designer with the imagination of a woodpecker. As a child, I cut out beautifully from a board.
      1. Basarev
        Basarev 24 August 2014 17: 27
        0
        I was more interested in Bagheera. Indeed, contrary to all the tales, even the standard PM-ovsky cartridge is not so weak at all. Yes, he breaks through not so powerfully, but the stopping effect at altitude. After all, no one scolds .45 ACP, although he punches even worse.
  6. older
    older 11 February 2012 21: 44
    +4
    But there is no beauty of the weapon, it seems that outwardly they were all made with a hangover ... I foresee: "it was made in order to shoot!", But guys, there must be an external component too .. The army Colt, taken out of service, has not lost until now their fans like TT or Stechkin. IMHO As for the modular design, it's not for sale with us, we are considering the pistol from the point of view of our army, so excuse me, why do we need a variety of calibers?
    1. woland05
      woland05 12 February 2012 16: 51
      +1
      Yes, a dog with her with beauty ... Vaughn, GSh-18, ugly as hell, which, in principle, does not prevent him from shooting through bulletproof vests of protection class 6 ...
      1. alexey garbuz
        alexey garbuz 12 February 2012 20: 31
        0
        I’m not a minus, but still you are wrong. The weapon — by and large — even produced in large quantities — is a work of art. Compared to the PCA, the American Thompson is incomparably more beautiful. Our AK-47 is more beautiful than the MP-40. Beretta -92 is more beautiful than the TT . Nagan is beautiful in comparison with Colt or SW of the same years of manufacture. I agree, the characteristics are of no small importance, but beauty should be one of the points in the development of performance characteristics.
        1. Black Colonel
          Black Colonel 14 February 2012 10: 09
          0
          Yeah, and that powder box with a mirror were built-in!
          1. alexey garbuz
            alexey garbuz 14 February 2012 22: 29
            0
            The female version of the weapon, no doubt, should have the appropriate color — for example, a pink frame with a blue shutter, pink plump lips on the front sight, flirty eyes on the whole and so that they burn unquenchable fire at night. I propose to place the handles on the spring-loaded cheeks of the handle - left- mirror, right-powder box. It is better to promote revolvers taking into account the placement of lipsticks in the chambers of the drum for different occasions: 5-6 options and shades are quite enough. Modern ladies' cigarettes have a small diameter (caliber) They have a place in the barrel. what other proposals? Rather, offer, otherwise the patent office will be closed!
    2. alexey garbuz
      alexey garbuz 12 February 2012 20: 21
      0
      According to the principle of production of Kalash, we do not have it. It turns out that weapons produced under our licenses and sold abroad can eventually be turned against us. The fantasy film "Fog" of 10th year of publication comes to mind. Even the directors realized that the secret of the weapon, under no circumstances can be given to either the enemy or the potential enemy. And we are ready to sell everything, including the Motherland. The Golden Calf has eclipsed our minds.
      1. Black Colonel
        Black Colonel 14 February 2012 10: 13
        0
        And it is sad. Take at least the Yak-141. After all, using his technologies, which were sold in the 90s, amers created the F-35
  7. mib1982
    mib1982 12 February 2012 22: 37
    0
    Informative.
  8. Makhalych
    Makhalych 13 February 2012 16: 39
    0
    The article has a slight inaccuracy.
    TT with a large store volume was not developed in the years 50-60.
    In 1942, a small batch of TTs with 15 rounds of magazines was released, they also removed the magazine's latch button from the frame by making it on the handle, like Peemovsky. Accordingly, the handle lengthened and received a more ergonomic, comfortable shape.
    The entire batch was sent to the front for testing. There she disappeared.
    They never returned to the project. Maybe because it wasn’t before, the war, you need something simpler and faster. But in vain, the machine would be a THING !!!
    After the war 15, charging TTs from that party, no, no, and yes, they popped up somewhere. To disappear again ...