Military Review

Rocket Fuel Saga - The Other Side


At the cosmodrome grass is not growing. No, not because of the fierce flames of engines that journalists like to write about. Too much poison is spilled on the ground during refueling of carriers and during emergency dumping of fuel, during rocket blasts on the launching pad and small, inevitable leaks in worn-out pipelines.

/ thoughts of the pilot Peter Khrumov-Nika Riemer in the novel “Star Shadow” by S. Lukyanenko

When discussing the article The Saga of Rocket Fuels A rather painful question was raised about the safety of liquid rocket fuels, as well as products of their combustion, and a little about refueling PH. Definitely I am not an expert in this field, but “for the ecology” is insulting.

Instead of the preface I propose to read the publication «Access fee into outer space ".

Symbols (not all are used in this article, but they will be useful in life. Greek letters are difficult to write in HTML - therefore the screenshot) /
Glossary (not all are used in this article).

Environmental Safety rocket launches, testing and testing of propulsion systems (DU) of aircraft (LA) are mainly determined by the used components of rocket fuel (КРТ). Many КРТ are distinguished by high chemical activity, toxicity, explosion and fire hazard.

Taking into account the toxicity, КРТ are divided into four hazard classes (as the hazard decreases):
- first class: combustible hydrazine series (hydrazine, UDMH and the product Luminale-A);
- the second class: some hydrocarbon combustible (modifications of kerosene and synthetic combustible) and the oxidizer hydrogen peroxide;
- the third class: oxidizers nitric tetroxide (AT) and AK-27I (mixture HNO3 - 69,8%, N2O4 - 28%, J - 0,12 ... 0,16%);
- fourth class: hydrocarbon fuel RG-1 (kerosene), ethyl alcohol and gasoline aviation.

Liquid hydrogen, LNG (methane CH4) and liquid oxygen are not toxic, but when operating systems with these MCTs, it is necessary to take into account their fire and explosion hazards (especially hydrogen in mixtures with oxygen and air).

The sanitary and hygienic norms of КРТ are given in the table:
Rocket Fuel Saga - The Other Side

Most flammable explosive and GOST 12.1.011 they are classified as Explosive IIA.

Products of complete and partial oxidation of КРТ in engine elements and products of their combustion, as a rule, contain harmful compounds: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), etc.

In the engines and power plants of the missiles, most of the heat supplied to the working fluid (60 ... 70%) is released into the environment with the RD jet stream or cooler (in cases of RD operation on test benches water is used). Emission of heated exhaust gases into the atmosphere can affect the local microclimate.

RD-170 film, its production and testing.
A recent report from NPO Energomash: you can see two huge chimneys of test benches, associated buildings and the neighborhood of Khimki:

On the other side of the roof: You can see spherical tanks for oxygen, cylindrical - for nitrogen, kerosene tanks just to the right, did not get into the frame. In Soviet times, at these stands tested engines for "Proton".

Very close to Moscow.

Currently, many "civilian" LREs use hydrocarbon combustible. Their products of complete combustion (water vapor HNUMXO and carbon dioxide CO2) are conventionally not considered to be chemical pollutants of the environment.

All other components are either smoke-generating or toxic substances that have a harmful effect on humans and the environment.

sulfur compounds (S02, S03, etc.); products of incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels - carbon black (C), carbon monoxide (CO), various hydrocarbons, including oxygenated (aldehydes, ketones, etc.), conventionally referred to as CmHn, CmHnOp or simply CH; nitrogen oxides with the general designation NОx; solid (ash) particles formed from mineral impurities in the fuel; compounds of lead, barium and other elements that make up fuel additives.

Compared to other types of heat engines, the toxicity of rocket engines has its own characteristics due to the specific conditions of their operation, the fuels used and the level of their mass flow rates, higher temperatures in the reaction zone, effects of combustion of exhaust gases in the atmosphere, and specific engine designs.

The spent stages of launch vehicles (RN), falling to the ground, are destroyed and the guaranteed reserves of stable components of fuel remaining in the tanks pollute and poison the plot of land or reservoir adjacent to the place of fall.

Chinese peasants at the site of the fall of the first stage of the rocket "The Great March": a step on the "stinker" (UDMH + AT). The orange cloud in the picture - amyl vapor - a very sad thing in terms of toxicity and carcinogenicity. In vain there these people crowd, oh in vain ...

In order to increase the energy characteristics of the liquid-propellant rocket engine, the fuel components are fed into the combustion chamber at a ratio corresponding to the oxidizer excess coefficient αdv <1.

In addition, methods of thermal protection of the combustion chambers include ways to create near the fire wall of the layer of combustion products with a reduced temperature level by supplying excess fuel. Many modern designs of combustion chambers have curtain belts through which additional fuel is fed into the wall layer. This initially creates a liquid film evenly around the perimeter of the chamber, and then the gas layer of the evaporated fuel. Significantly enriched with fuel, the near-wall layer of combustion products is maintained until the nozzle exit section.

In the photo: single-component peripheral (fuel) nozzles RD-107 / 108 for creating a wall layer (for cooling the walls of the combustion chamber)

Combustion of exhaust combustion products occurs during turbulent mixing with air. The temperature level developed in this case may in some cases be sufficiently high for the intensive formation of nitrogen oxides NOx from nitrogen and oxygen. Calculations show that nitrogen-free O2x + H2zh and O2zh + kerosene fuels form, upon burning, respectively, 1,7 and 1,4 times as much nitrous oxide NO as the nitrogen tetroxide + NDMG.

The formation of nitric oxide during burnout is particularly intense at low altitudes.

When analyzing the formation of nitric oxide in the exhaust plume, it is still necessary to take into account the presence in technical liquid oxygen up to 0,5 ... 0,8% by weight of liquid nitrogen.

"The law of transition of quantitative changes into qualitative" (Hegel) and here plays a cruel joke with us, namely the second mass flow of TC: here and now.

Example: the cost of propellant components at the time of launch of the Proton LV is 3800 kg / s, the Space Shuttle is more than 10000 kg / s, and the Saturn-5 PH is 13000 kg / s. Such costs cause accumulation in the launch area of ​​a large number of products of combustion, pollution of clouds, acid rain and changes in weather conditions on the territory of 100 — 200 km2.

Photo: the consequences of acid rain in the Bavarian Forest, Germany.

For a long time, NASA studied the effects of the Space Shuttle launches on the environment, especially since the Kennedy Space Center is located in a nature reserve and almost on the beach.

Pictured: Launch of the PH Delta IV (mission NROL-37) - view from the beach

In the process of launch, three sustainer engines of the orbital ship burn liquid hydrogen, and solid propellant accelerators — ammonium perchlorate with aluminum. According to NASA estimates, the ground cloud at the launch site contains about 65 tonnes of water, 72 tonnes of carbon dioxide, 38 tonnes of aluminum oxide, 35 tonnes of hydrogen chloride, 4 tonnes of other chlorine derivatives, 240 kg of carbon monoxide and 2,3 tonnes of nitrogen. Tons of brothers! Tens of tons.

Here, of course, the fact that the “space shuttle” has not only environmental fuel rocket engines, but also the most powerful in the world “partially poisonous” solid propellant solid fuel cells plays a significant role. In general, still, the cracking cocktail is obtained at the exit.

Hydrogen chloride in water is converted to hydrochloric acid and causes major environmental disturbances around the starting complex. Near the launch site there are extensive pools of cooling water in which fish is found. Increased acidity on the surface after the start leads to the death of the fry. Larger juveniles that live deeper survive. Oddly enough, no disease was detected in the birds eating the dead fish. Probably for now. Moreover, the birds adapted to fly for easy prey after each launch. Some species of plants die after starting, but crops of useful plants survive. Under unfavorable wind, the acid falls outside the three-mile zone around the launch complex and destroys the paint on cars. Therefore, NASA issues special covers to owners whose cars are in a dangerous area on launch day. Aluminum oxide is inert and, although it can cause lung disease, it is believed that its concentration at the time of launch is not dangerous.

Okay, this “Space Shuttle” - at least H2O (H2 + O2) is connected with the oxidation products NH4ClO4 and Al ... And figs with them, with these Americans who are overweight and eat GMOs ....
And here is an example for the 5B21A SAM system C-200B:
1. Marching LRE 5D12: AT + NDMH
2. RTDT boosters 5C25 (5C28) four pieces of a charge of mixed TT 5В28 type RAM-10к
Video Clip on Starts With 200;
Combat work of the technical division ZRK С200.
Invigorating breathing mixture in the area of ​​combat and training launches. That after the fighting "pleasant flexibility in the body was formed and in the nose the tonsils itched."

Let us return to the LRE, and on the specifics of solid propellant solid propellant engines, their ecology and components for them, in another article (voyaka uh - I remember the order).

The performance of the propulsion system can be assessed. only based on test results. So, to confirm the lower limit of the probability of no-failure operation (FBR) Рн> 0,99 with a confidence probability of 0,95, it is necessary to carry out n = 300 fail-safe tests, and for Рн> 0,999 - n = 1000 fail-safe tests.

If we consider the LRE, the process of mining is carried out in the following sequence:
- testing of elements, assemblies (pumping units and pump supports, pump, gas generator, combustion chamber, valve, etc.);
- testing systems (THA, THA with GG, GG with KS, etc.);
- tests of the engine simulator;
- engine tests;
- engine tests as part of the control;
- flight tests of the aircraft.

In the practice of creating engines, the 2 bench method is well known: sequential (conservative) and parallel (accelerated).

The test bench is a technical device for installing the test object in a predetermined position, creating impacts, retrieving information and managing the test process and test object.

Test benches for various purposes usually consist of two parts connected by communications:
- Executive, consisting of the test object and systems that ensure the impact of various operational factors;
- command in the form of a control panel and information systems (transformation, analysis and display of information about the parameters of the test object).

Schemes and photos will give more understanding than my verbal constructions:

Testers and those who worked with UDMH / heptyl / were granted in the USSR: 6-hour working day, vacation 36 working days, seniority, retirement in 55 years under the condition of working in hazardous conditions for 12,5 years, free food, preferential trips to the sanatorium and d / o. They were attached by medical care to the 3-th GU of the Ministry of Health, as well as the enterprises of Sredmash, with the obligatory regular medical examination. Mortality in the departments was much higher than the average for the enterprises of the industry, mainly for cancer, although they were not classified as professional.

At present, the Proton carrier rocket using highly toxic components of the UDMH and AT fuels is used for the withdrawal of heavy loads (orbital stations with a mass up to 20 tons) in the Russian Federation. To reduce the harmful effects of the LV on the environment, the stages and the rocket engines (“Proton-M”) were modernized to significantly reduce component residues in the tanks and supply lines of the remote control:
new bcwk
- system of simultaneous emptying of missile tanks (CSR)

More for the withdrawal of payloads in Russia are used (or used) relatively cheap conversion missile systems “Dnepr”, “Strela”, “Rokot”, “Cyclone” and “Cosmos-3М” working on toxic fuels.

There was an idea (I will tell you separately about OCD) to transfer these engines from AT + UDMG fuel components to environmentally friendly ones. For example, on oxygen and kerosene. Many have dealt with this issue in KBKHA. The task was far from simple. Together with the KMZ / Krasnoyarsk / over 10 years, work continues on the transfer of the 3D-37 engine. In fact, it turns out almost a new engine, although there remained an “acidic” scheme and there were no questions about the cooling capacity of the CS. This engine received an RD-0155 index and RKK Makeyev is considering its possible use in the “Air start”.

To launch manned spacecraft with astronauts, they are used only (and in our country and in the world, except China), the Soyuz carrier rockets on oxygen-kerosene fuel. The most ecological TCs are Н2 + О2, then kerosene + О2, or УГГ + О2 follow. “Stinkers” are the most toxic and complete the ecological list (fluorine and other exotic things I don’t consider).

Note: stoichiometric flow rate is given for air and internal combustion engines, but essentially it does not change much.

Hydrogen and LRE test benches for such fuels have their own “gadgets”. At the initial stage of work with hydrogen, due to its significant explosion and fire hazard in the United States, there was no consensus about the advisability of post-burning all types of hydrogen emissions. Thus, Pratt-Whitney (USA) was of the opinion that burning the entire amount of hydrogen emitted guarantees complete safety tests, therefore, a flame of gaseous propane is supported over all ventilation pipes for hydrogen discharge of test benches.

Douglas-Erkraft (USA) considered it sufficient to release gaseous hydrogen in small quantities through a vertical pipe located at a considerable distance from the test sites, without post-combustion.

In the Russian stands, in the process of preparing and conducting tests, hydrogen emissions are burned at a cost of more than 0,5 kg / s. At lower costs, hydrogen does not burn out, but is removed from the technological systems of the test bench and is discharged into the atmosphere through drainage outlets with nitrogen blowers.

The situation with toxic components of RT (“stinky”) is much worse. As with the test LRE:

So with the start-up (and emergency, and partly with successful):

The question of damage to the environment in case of possible accidents at the withdrawal site and in the fall of separating parts of the missiles is very important, since these accidents are practically unpredictable.

Note: I ogigivayu from the Chinese. Maybe a population oversupply is decided by the CCP members?

"Back to our sheep". Let the Chinese themselves understand, especially since there are too many of them.

In the western part of the Altai-Sayan region there are six areas (fields) of the fall of the second stages of the launch vehicle launching from the Baikonur cosmodrome. Four of them belonging to the Yu-30 zone (No. 306, 307, 309, 310) are located in the extreme western part of the region, on the border of the Altai Territory and the East Kazakhstan region. The falling areas No. 32, 326 falling into the Yu-327 zone are located in the eastern part of the republic, in close proximity to the lake. Teletskoye.

Fall areas No. 306, 307, 309 have been used since the middle of the 60-ies (according to official data) for landing the second stages of the Soyuz launch vehicle and its modifications (on hydrocarbon fuels); the remaining areas - from the beginning of the 70-ies for landing the fragments of the second stages of the Proton launch vehicle (hydrazine fuel).

In the case of the use of rockets with environmentally friendly components of fuel, measures to eliminate the consequences in the places of falling of the separating parts are reduced to mechanical methods of collecting residual metal structures.

Special measures should be taken to eliminate the consequences of falling steps, which contain tons of undeveloped UDMH, which penetrates the soil and, being well dissolved in water, can spread over long distances. Nitrogen tetroxide is rapidly dissipated in the atmosphere and is not a determining factor for contamination of the area. According to estimates, it takes at least 40 years for the complete recultivation of land used as a zone of falling steps from UDMH for 10 years. In this case, work should be carried out on the excavation and transportation of a significant amount of soil from the places of fall. Studies in the places where the first steps of the Proton LV have fallen showed that the zone of soil contamination with a fall of one step covers an area of ​​~ 50 thousand m2 with a surface concentration at the center 320-1150 mg / kg, which is thousands of times higher than the maximum permissible concentration.

Currently, there are no effective ways to neutralize the contaminated areas with combustible UDMH.

World Health Organization UDMH is listed as a highly hazardous chemical compound. Help: Heptyl is 6 times more toxic than hydrocyanic acid! And where did you see 100 prussic acid IMMEDIATELY?

Products of heptyl and amyl combustion (oxidation) when testing rocket engines or launching carrier rockets.
In the "wiki" everything is simple and harmless:

On the "exhaust": water, nitrogen and carbon dioxide.

But in real life all the more difficult: Km and alpha, respectively, the weight ratio of the oxidant / fuel 1,6: 1 or 2,6: 1 = totally wild excess oxidizer (example: N2O4: NDMG = 2.6: 1 (260 and 100 g.- city as an example ):

When this bunch is found with another dough — our air + organic matter (pollen) + dust + sulfur oxides + methane + propane +, etc., the results of oxidation / burning look like this:

Nitrosodimethylamine (chemical name: N-methyl-N-nitrosomethanamine). Formed during the oxidation of heptyl amyl. Well soluble in water. Enters into the reaction of oxidation and reduction, with the formation of heptyl, dimethylhydrazine, dimethylamine, ammonia, formaldehyde and other substances. It is a highly toxic substance of the 1 hazard class. Carcinogenic, has cumulative properties. MPC: in the air of the working area - 0,01 mg / m3, that is, 10 times more dangerous compared to heptyl, in the ambient air of the settlements - 0,0001 mg / m3 (daily average), in the water of ponds-0,01 mg / l.

Tetramethyltetrazene (4,4,4,4-tetramethyl-2-tetrazene) is a decomposition product of heptyl. Boundedly soluble in water. Stable in abiotic environment, very stable in water. Decomposes to form dimethylamine and a number of unidentified substances. The toxicity is 3-th class of danger. MPC: in the atmospheric air of settlements - 0,005 mg / m3, in the water of reservoirs –0,1 mg / l.

Nitrogen dioxide NO2 is a strong oxidant, organic compounds ignite in a mixture with it. Under normal conditions, nitrogen dioxide exists in equilibrium with amyl (tetra-nitrogen oxide). Irritating to the pharynx, it may be shortness of breath, swelling of the lungs, mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, degeneration and tissue necrosis in the liver, kidneys, and the human brain. MPC: in the air of the working area-2 mg / m3, in the atmospheric air of populated areas-0,085 mg / m3 (maximum one-time) and 0,04 mg / m3 (daily average), hazard class-2.

Carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide)-product of incomplete combustion of organic (carbon-containing) fuels. Carbon monoxide can last for a long time (up to 2 months) in the air without change. Carbon monoxide poison. Binds blood hemoglobin to carboxyhemoglobin, impairing the ability to transport oxygen to human organs and tissues. MPC: in the atmospheric air of populated areas - 5,0 mg / m3 (maximum one-time) and 3,0 mg / m3 (daily average). In the presence of carbon monoxide and nitrogen compounds in the air at the same time, the toxic effect of carbon monoxide on people is enhanced.

Hydrocyanic acid (hydrogen cyanide)is a strong poison. Prussic acid is extremely toxic. It is absorbed by intact skin, has a general toxic effect: headache, nausea, vomiting, breathing disorder, asphyxia, convulsions, death may occur. In acute poisoning, hydrocyanic acid causes rapid asphyxiation, increased pressure, oxygen starvation of tissues. At low concentrations, there is a feeling of scratching in the throat, burning bitter taste in the mouth, salivation, damage to the conjunctiva of the eyes, muscle weakness, staggering, difficulty speaking, dizziness, acute headache, nausea, vomiting, urge to have a bowel movement, rush of blood to the head, increased heartbeat and other symptoms.

Formaldehyde (formic aldehyde)-toxin. Formaldehyde has a strong odor, it is very irritating to the mucous membranes of the eyes and nasopharynx even at low concentrations. It has a general toxic effect (damage to the central nervous system, organs of vision, liver, kidneys), irritating, allergenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic effects. Maximum allowable concentration in atmospheric air: average daily - 0,012 mg / m3, maximum one-time - 0,035 mg / m3.

Intensive rocket and space activity in Russia in recent years has given rise to a huge number of problems: environmental pollution by separating parts of launch vehicles, toxic components of rocket fuel (heptyl and its derivatives, nitrogen tetraoxide, etc.) Someone ("partners") is quiet snorting and giggling at the economist-journalist and the mythical trampolines, calmly and without straining, replaced all the first (and second) steps (Delta-IV, Arian-IV, Atlas-V) on high-boiling components with safe ones, and launches of Proton, Rokot, Cosmos, etc. ruining myself and nature. At the same time, for the works of the righteous, paid neatly cut paper from the printing house of the US Federal Reserve, and the papers remained "there."

All история the relationship between our country and heptyl is a chemical war, only a chemical war, not just an undeclared one, but simply an unidentified one.

Briefly about the military use of heptyl:
Steps of missile defense systems missile defense systems, sea submarine ballistic missiles (SLBMs), space missiles, of course, air defense missiles, as well as operational-tactical missiles (medium-range).

The Army and Navy left a “heptyl” mark in Vladivostok and in the Far East, Severodvinsk, the Kirov Region and a number of neighborhoods, Plesetsk, Kapustin Yar, Baikonur, Perm, Bashkiria, etc. We must not forget that the missiles were transported, repaired, re-equipped, etc., and all this on land, near industrial facilities, where this heptyl was produced. About the accident with these highly toxic components and about informing the civil authorities, civil defense (EMERCOM) and the public - who knows, he will tell more.

It is necessary to remember the places of production and testing of engines are not in the desert: Voronezh, Moscow (Tushino), the Nefteorgsintez plant in Salavat (Bashkiria), etc.

Several dozen P-36M, UTTH / P-36М2 ICBMs are on combat duty in the Russian Federation.

And a lot more UR-100Н УТТХ with heptyl dressing.

In the photo: “Rokot” (14А05), designed in the Khrunichev Center on the basis of the ICBM RS-18 (UR-100Н УТТХ).

The results of the activities of the air defense forces that operated on the C-75, C-100, C-200 missiles are very difficult to analyze.
Once every few years, heptyl has been drained off and will be drained from missiles, transported in refrigeration across the country for processing, brought back, refilled, and so on. Not to avoid rail and road accidents (it happened and such). The army will work with heptyl, and everyone will suffer - not just the rocket men themselves.

Another problem is our low average annual temperatures. Americans are easier.

According to experts from the World Health Organization, the period of neutralization of heptyl, which is a toxic substance of hazard class I, at our latitudes is: in soil - more than 20 years, in water bodies - 2-3 of the year, in vegetation - 15-20 years.

And if the country's defenses are our sacred, and in 50's for 90, we just had to put up with it (either heptyl, or making one of the of many US assault programs on the USSR), today there is a sense and logic, using launch vehicles on UDMH and AT to launch foreign spacecraft, to receive money for the service and at the same time slack off oneself and friends? Again "Swan, cancer and pike"?

On the one hand: no cost for utilization of combat launchers (ICBMs, SLBMs, SAM, OTR), and even profit and savings on the cost of launching PNs into orbit;
On the other hand: harmful effects on the environment, the population in the launch area and the fall of the spent steps of conversion PH;
And from the third party: without PH on high-boiling components of the Russian Federation now can not do.

PLCN-36М2 / PC-20В Voyevoda (SS-18 mod.5-6 SATAN) on some political aspects (Southern Machine-Building Plant (Dnepropetrovsk), and simply cannot be extended due to temporary degradation.

Perspective heavy intercontinental ballistic missile RS-28 / OCD Sarmat, 15A28 missile - SS-X-30 (draft) will be on high-boiling toxic components.

We are lagging behind somewhat in the solid-propellant rocket motors and especially in the SLBM:
Chronicle of torment "Bulava" to 2010.

Therefore, the best in the world (in terms of energy perfection, and generally a masterpiece) submarine-launched submarine-launched submarine-launched ballistic missile submarine R-29RMU2.1 / OCR Liner: at AT + UDMH.

Yes, it can be argued that ampulization has been used in the Strategic Missile Forces and the Navy for a long time and many problems have been solved: storage, operation, personnel security and combat crews.
But using conversion ICBMs for commercial launches is “again the same rake”.

Old (expired guaranteed storage) ICBMs, SLBMs, TRs and OTRs cannot be stored forever, either. Where is this consensus and how to catch it - I do not know for sure, but also to MS Gorbachev do not recommend contact.

Briefly: filling systems for launch complexes of PH using toxic components.

At the UK for the Proton launch vehicle, the safety of operations during the preparation and conduct of the launch of the rocket and the maintenance personnel when performing operations with sources of increased danger was achieved by using remote control and maximally automating the processes of preparing and conducting the launch of the launch vehicle, as well as operations carried out on the rocket and technological equipment of the IC in case of cancellation of the launch of the rocket and its evacuation from the SC. A design feature of the starting and filling units and systems of the complex, which provide preparation for the launch and launch, is that the docking of the filling, drainage, electric and pneumatic communications is performed remotely, and the undocking of all communications is carried out automatically. At the launch site there are no cable and cable refueling masts, their role is played by the docking mechanism of the starting device.

The launch complexes of the Cosmos-1 and Cosmos-3М were created on the basis of the P-12 and P-14 ballistic missile complexes without significant modifications to its connections with the ground equipment. This led to the presence on the launch complex of many manual operations, including on the fuel-charged PH component. Subsequently, many operations were automated and the level of automation of work on the complex Kosmos-3M is already more than 70%.

However, some operations, including the reconnection of refueling communications to drain the fuel in case of cancellation of the start, are performed manually. The main systems of the IC are systems for refueling with components of the fuel, compressed gases and a remote control system for refueling. In addition, as part of the SC there are units that destroy the consequences of working with toxic components of fuel (drained CMT vapors, aqueous solutions formed during various types of washes, equipment leaching).
The main equipment of the refueling systems - tanks, pumps, pneumatic-hydraulic systems - are located in reinforced concrete structures buried in the ground. KRT storage facilities, a facility for compressed gases, and a remote control system for refueling are located at considerable distances from each other and starting devices in order to ensure their safety in emergency situations.

At the launch site of the Cyclone LV, all the main and many auxiliary operations are automated.

The level of automation for the cycle of pre-launch preparation and launch of a PH is 100%.

Heptyl detoxification:

The essence of the method of reducing the toxicity of UDMH is to feed 20% formalin solution into the fuel tanks:
(CH3) 2NNH2 + CH2O = (CH3) 2NN = CH2 + H2O + Q
This operation in excess of formalin results in the complete (100%) destruction of UDMH by converting it to dimethyl hydrazone formaldehyde in one treatment cycle in a time of 1-5 seconds. This prevents the formation of dimethylnitrosamine (CH3) 2NN = O.

The next phase of the process is the destruction of dimethylhydrazone formaldehyde (DMHF) by adding acetic acid to the tanks, which causes the dimerization of DMHF to glyoxal bis-dimethylhydrazone and the polymer mass. The reaction time is about 1 minutes:
(CH3)2NN=CH2+Н+ → (CH3)2NN=CHНС=NN(CH3)2+полимеры+Q
The resulting mass is moderately toxic, well soluble in water.

It is time to wrap up, I will not restrain myself in the afterword, and again I will quote S. Lukyanenko:
- And the people they call cab drivers.
- Reptiloid pointing to me short paw. "
- Are you an astronaut, granddaughters? - asked grandma. More approving than questioning. My jacket was too characteristic.
We were always told about the great future. About the happiness of mankind. After all, I built communism ... then capitalism ... tried ... We all endured for this. For the sake of the future, for the sake of happiness ... Now you are building a stellar future. Boy, do you believe that this is not in vain?
Do these people believe in the stellar future of mankind? Do they need it, shook up by transportation problems and intermittent heat in the apartments, planned power outages and high cost of products? What gave them space - except for fear of other worlds and forced pride for the planet Earth, for its spaceships - the fastest in the Galaxy ...

The tragedy of 24 October 1960 of the year on the 41 site of Baikonur:

Flames burst from the burning torches of people. They run ... They fall ... They crawl on all fours ... They are frozen by smoking hillocks.

The rescue group works. Not all the rescuers had enough protection. In the deadly poisonous fire environment, some worked even without gas masks, in ordinary gray overcoats.

We will not punish anyone, all the guilty are already punished

/ Chairman of the government commission L.I. Brezhnev

Primary Sources:
Methodology of experimental testing of rocket engine and remote control, the basics of testing and device test benches: monograph [Electronic resource] /AG. Galeev, V.N. Ivanov, A.V. Katenin, V.A. Liseikin, V.P. Pikalov, A.D. Polyakhov, G.G. Sidov, A.A. Shibanov
Kolesnikov, S.V. "Oxidation of asymmetric dimethyl hydrazine (heptyl)
and identification of products of its transformation at the straits »Novosibirsk: Izd. SibAK, 2014
Dilogiya “Stars - cold toys” S.V. Lukyanenko
Rocket fuel as an environmental hazard, from the 1995 State Report, Report UCS-INFO.97, December 17 1996 (Vitaly Egorov @ Zelenyikot)

Used data, photos and videos:
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  1. Bongo
    Bongo 11 March 2017 15: 41
    I have been waiting for this article for a long time and finally I wait! good Anton, today I’m watching in “shock” two cool publications at once! A lot of free time was formed? I looked with nostalgia this: Combat work of the technical division of the S-200 air defense system
    And appreciated:
    Invigorating breathing mixture in the area of ​​combat and training launches. That after the fighting "pleasant flexibility in the body was formed and in the nose the tonsils itched."
    However, the film shows not a real refueling missiles, but an imitation. There is no characteristic cloud over the technical position. wassat

    1. opus
      11 March 2017 17: 39
      Quote: Bongo
      However, the film shows not a real refueling missiles

      There were no iPhones at that time, even among officers.
      Well, you count, I would take the camera began to take off the clouds .... where would I be?
      It’s definitely not an oligarch (though I’m not him now either). The article is different than that of comrades

      However, somewhere I have a realk: I have to look. Gave it when the bar is removed
  2. Operator
    Operator 11 March 2017 16: 13
    What is luminal (see the first table) - if phenobarbital, then it has a melting point of 279 degrees Celsius.

    The toxicity of rocket fuel UDMH is currently a fake, since the fuel tanks of modern and even more promising ICBMs and SLBMs have been completely amputated, there have been no leaks from hundreds of missiles for several decades. Training or test launches of ICBMs can be carried out at coastal ranges with the first stages falling into the sea. All launches of SLBMs and so are carried out at sea. In the case of TMB, everyone will not be up to the toxicity of UDMH.

    It’s another matter that Proton rockets have long been sent to salvage, but only domestic rocket launchers who have never been able to make the first stage rocket engines on environmentally friendly and efficient methane-oxygen fuel are guilty of continued operation. Private-owned BE-4 engine - a pillory for Energomash.

    PS Quoting the opinion of the psychiatrist Lukyanenko in this topic will be stronger than Goethe's Faust.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 11 March 2017 17: 16
      Quote: Operator
      What is luminal (see the first table) - if phenobarbital, so it has a melting point of 279 degrees Celsius

      Luminal-A - metallized fuel, which is a thixotropic suspension of 1 aluminum in hydrazine. Under normal conditions, luminal-A is a viscous gray-colored liquid (jelly). It has a characteristic odor. Moderately boiling. Soluble in water. Low volatility. Smokes in the air. Vapors are heavier than air. Corrosive to most metals. It is easily ignited by sparks and flames. May self-ignite when heated in the presence of oxidizing agents. The particle size of aluminum is 20-40 microns, special additives are introduced to maintain particles in suspension when stored in the tank and when fuel is supplied to the power plant. As an additive to hydrazine, beryllium, lithium, bromine, aluminum, and magnesium can be used. Beryllium additives give the best energy characteristics, however, the products of fuel combustion based on it are very toxic. Aluminum is somewhat inferior in energy terms to beryllium, but allows to obtain the highest fuel density compared to other metals. In addition, of all the listed metals, aluminum is the most affordable and cheapest. Link to the source of information.
      1. Cat
        Cat 11 March 2017 17: 25
        I read the article and comments to everyone plus!
        Myself put a fat minus, I did not understand everything to the end! But interestingly .....!
      2. Operator
        Operator 11 March 2017 17: 45
        Thank you (the letter A in this case matters).
    2. opus
      11 March 2017 17: 51
      Quote: Operator
      What is luminal (see the first table) - if phenobarbital, then it has a melting point of 279 degrees Celsius.

      all questions to the doctor tech. sciences, professor, registry office of the Federal State-Funded Scientific Center "Scientific Research Center of the RCP". WITH
      The main scientific works:
      • Environmental safety when testing and testing rocket engines. - M .: Izd-
      in MAI. Study Guide, 2006
      • Operation of test complexes of space rocket systems. - M.: Publishing House
      MAI. Monograph, 2007
      • Operation of launch complexes of rocket and space systems, M .: Publishing house Mai.
      Monograph, 2008

      and in alma mater (MAI)

      we found a mistake by the way (the lowest heat was in kJ) - already unsubscribed

      Quote: Operator
      this is currently a fake

      it's not about fake gas stations you are our ...
      and about the products of combustion, the fall of the steps, accidents (and oh they are not uncommon), reclamation of the past, hemorrhoids during testing.
      amplification here doesn’t help either
      Quote: Operator
      Quoting the opinion of a psychiatrist Lukyanenko

      The most powerful writer to date is the new, already post-Soviet generation. And in the world they know him.
      I like it - he is lazy only, even blacks, as Koretsky does not use.
      Dried up or snacked
      1. Operator
        Operator 11 March 2017 18: 05
        I have given a safe method for training and test launches of ICBMs and SLBMs (including emergency ones) - over the sea, which avoids contamination of the soil and groundwater of UDMH. The combustion products of UDMH + AT will scatter downwind to a non-hazardous concentration.

        By the way, phenobarbital (Luminal trademark), on the one hand, is, of course, a narcotic substance, but on the other, a very energetic material with the chemical formula C12H12N2O3.
        So the doctor of technical sciences, quite possibly, got to the point laughing

        PS I don’t know how fake I am, but here my comment was originally the first under the article, but now it’s not.
        1. opus
          11 March 2017 18: 20
          Quote: Operator
          PS I don't know how fake I am

          I'm about
          Quote: Operator
          UXMG rocket fuel toxicity - currently it's fakebecause fuel tanks

          such a joke
      2. astepanov
        astepanov 5 February 2018 17: 24
        There is another trickle of the inevitable leak of NDMA - this is its production. There, by the way, a lot of collateral rubbish is formed and used.
        Quote: opus
        The most powerful writer to date is the new, already post-Soviet generation. And in the world they know him.
        In terms of the number of foreign publications, he cannot be compared with Pelevin. And the quality of writing (on
        my opinion) too.
    3. marshes
      marshes 11 March 2017 19: 23
      Quote: Operator
      The toxicity of rocket fuel UDMH is currently a fake,

      You can tell the people of Baikonur and our Chs. Chlorka to neutralize spills.
    4. avt
      avt 11 March 2017 19: 37
      Quote: Operator
      The toxicity of UDMG rocket fuel is currently a fake, since the fuel tanks of modern and even more promising ICBMs and SLBMs have been completely amputated, there have been no leaks from hundreds of missiles for several decades.

      Well, if you determine the toxicity of the same heptyl by the tightness of the tanks ........ Then you can temperature in degrees GMT, or time in Celsius. Actually in all the above cases it’s real
      Quote: Operator
      opinions of a psychiatrist Lukyanenko

      It is very valuable in his first specialty.
      1. Operator
        Operator 11 March 2017 19: 42
        Did you finish school in Kazakhstan as Lukyanenko (ICBMs and SLBMs are not distinguishable from LV)? laughing
        1. marshes
          marshes 11 March 2017 20: 48
          Quote: Operator
          You finished school in Kazakhstan,

          And what is so not neglecting, our students did your physics and mathematics schools, not counting others at international olympiads. laughingKasym witness.
          School in Kazakhstan is an excellent education in the cities.
          Yes, your teachers at military universities were surprised and the Russian language is classical. laughing
          1. Operator
            Operator 11 March 2017 21: 07
            There are only questions to AVT, for which the Russian language is native.

            Especially for you - intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and ballistic missiles of submarines (SLBMs) ​​from the territory of Kazakhstan will not start. And the expediency of decommissioning the Proton rocket launcher (LV) I myself said in my earlier comment.
            1. marshes
              marshes 11 March 2017 21: 16
              Quote: Operator
              Especially for you - intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and ballistic missiles of submarines (SLBMs) ​​from the territory of Kazakhstan will not start. And the expediency of decommissioning the Proton rocket launcher (LV) I myself said in my earlier comment.

              The elder brother in 90 volume with honors graduated from Perm, 3 faculty. in 92 in Svobodny they told him to star on your Baikonur, then he was a member of the security guard depot. Although he calculated that he might become a mole.
            2. avt
              avt 12 March 2017 08: 57
              Quote: Operator
              There are only questions to AVT, for which the Russian language is native.

              To the nasalnik, mana, as a inhabitant of the Russian language, mana, I strongly recommend that you check the cause-effect relationship in your own reasoning, for
              (from the Greek. toxikon-poison), the ability to cause the disturbance of fiziol. body functions, resulting in symptoms of intoxication (disease), and with severe lesions, its death.
              The degree of T. in-va is characterized by the value of toxic. dose-count in-va (attributed, as a rule, to a unit mass of an animal or person), causing a certain toxicity. the effect.
              Well, in any case, we have native speakers of the Russian language, it is not determined by the tightness of the tanks
              Quote: Operator
              ICBMs and SLBMs
              and other
              Quote: Operator

              Quote: Operator

              who was called among the common people by the Soviet government, annexed to the space program of the USSR - “five hundred.” But of course, you can become like carriers of knowledge about flying vimanas and create your own reality.
        2. opus
          11 March 2017 21: 00
          Quote: Operator
          (Do not distinguish ICBMs and SLBMs from launchers)?

          But is there a difference? and there and there the remains of the TC in the tanks of the steps. 1 is especially dangerous, then the second.
          Yes, and the accident ...

          The first emergency launch of the P-29 rocket (shooting under water).
          A rocket flies out of the water; falls into the sea - a failed test.
          1. Operator
            Operator 11 March 2017 21: 09
            It is possible to drop into the sea that individual steps, that whole missiles fueled by UDMH - the water will neutralize and dispel everything bully
            1. opus
              11 March 2017 21: 42
              Quote: Operator
              water neutralizes everything

              Well ka:
              C2H8N2 + H2O ->
              and give a hint
              H2NN (CH3) 2 + H2O -> (how much and what should be reported here and attached)
              And a hint: the temperatures there are not in the Gulf of Mexico at all
              1. Operator
                Operator 11 March 2017 22: 03
                Nizhny Novgorod State University
                Khmeleva Marina Vasilievna
                03.02.08 specialty - ecology (chemical sciences)
                The dissertation for the degree of candidate of chemical sciences

                "UDMH is easily oxidized by various oxidizing agents: KMnO4, H2O2, HNO3, O2, Cl2, etc. Reactions are accompanied by the release of a large amount of heat. With air, UDMH forms explosive mixtures in a wide concentration range from 2 to 99 volume% [X].
                As mentioned above, UDMH has little stability, the latter due to the negative enthalpy of its formation. Therefore, it decomposes easily [4]. "

                Hint: UDMH is a strong reducing agent, and sea water contains salt and oxygen (in the upper layer of water).
                1. Operator
                  Operator 11 March 2017 22: 30
                  “If there is water vapor in the air, UDMH interacts with them to form hydrates and leaves the gas phase. The main product of conversion in moist air, as in dry air, is formaldehyde dimethylhydrazone (DMHF). But at the same time, dimethylnitrosoamine (DMNA) and tetramethyltetrazene (TMT) accumulate ) Studies have shown that in the greatest amount (up to 60%), DMHF is accumulated, which is sufficiently resistant to oxidation, does not interact with water vapor, and may be for a long time (several weeks) among products ok Islations, gradually turning into other substances.
                  The second most important conversion product in humid air is TMT. It was revealed that this substance accumulates in the first few hours after fuel spillage, then quickly oxidizes to elementary compounds: nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water. The accumulation of DMNA occurs in small quantities (not more than 5% of the initial mass UDMH). However, this substance is extremely persistent and has been in the environment for a very long time. The composition of the subsequent products is very diverse and, depending on the oxidation time from 2 to 30 days, about two dozen compounds were identified in the spilled fuel mass (formaldehyde, formic acid, 1,1 dimethyl-4-methylene tetrazene, acetaldehyde, dimethylhydrazone acetaldehyde, dimethylamine, bimethylformam dimethylaminomethane, tetramethylhydrazine, tetramethyltriazane, trimethylamine, 1,1 dimethyltriazene, bis-dimethylhydrazone glyoxal, dimethylhydrazone dimethylaminoacetal, dimethylhydrazone dimethylaminoformaldehyde, bis di di methylhydrazone methylglyoxal, bis-dimethylaminoazetidine, hydrazine, formaldehyde hydrazone, etc.). However, during the first few days, in addition to UDMH, DMHF is present in the air in the most significant quantities, which is currently determined only by laboratory analytical methods. "
                2. opus
                  12 March 2017 02: 52
                  Quote: Operator
                  "UDMH is easily oxidized

                  one question ... WHERE IN SEA WATER:
                  Quote: Operator
                  oxidizing agents: KMnO4, H2O2, HNO3, O2, Cl2, etc. The reactions are accompanied by the release of a large amount of heat.

                  1. Operator
                    Operator 12 March 2017 03: 46
                    "WHERE IN SEA WATER" - "and others." laughing

                    But seriously: see my message from 22: 30, the main product of the chemical reaction of UDMH with H2O and O2 is DMHF (dimethylhydrazone formaldehyde), which is several orders of magnitude less reactive than UDMH and, therefore, equally less toxic. The decomposition of DMHF itself occurs within a few weeks to non-toxic components.
                    1. opus
                      12 March 2017 18: 30
                      Quote: Operator
                      But seriously:

                      (CH3) 2NNH2 + CH2O = (CH3) 2NN = CH2 + H2O + Q
                      (CH3)2NN=CH2+Н+ → (CH3)2NN=CHНС=NN(CH3)2+полимеры+Q
                      the only way.
                      Still (on the ground) is collected by shungite
                      “The victory of shungite over heptyl”

                      C2H8N2+Н2O <--2Н2+ONN(CH3)2
                      Not coming
                      1. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 12 March 2017 18: 35
                        Quote: opus
                        C2H8N2+Н2O <--2Н2+ONN(CH3)2
                        Not coming

                        Wow Besides 2, I didn’t understand anything. I'm stupid. crying
                      2. Operator
                        Operator 12 March 2017 20: 10

                        The reaction proceeds between UDMH and oxygen dissolved in water. Water plays the role of a catalyst.

                        Plus adverse reactions between UDMH and salts dissolved in water.

                        As a reagent, UDMH behaves as a mixture of two different substances because of the asymmetry in the structure of its molecule, so the composition of the reaction products is wider than you mentioned in your comment.
    5. Cannonball
      Cannonball 4 June 2017 10: 36
      Before blaspheming the rocket launchers, they would ask: "Was such a task before them?" Not in words, not in discussions on the Internet, but really, with appropriate R&D and financing for the development of not only engines, but also CRC with such engines. Sitting on the couch is much easier and much cheaper to be indignant at the lack of something than to do something.
  3. mvg
    mvg 11 March 2017 16: 49
    Too chic articles for the site. Not every candidate will master. And tell me, what is this S-100 complex? In context with 75 and 200
    1. opus
      11 March 2017 17: 21
      Quote: mvg
      t. And tell me, what is this complex C-100? In context with 75 and 200

      ZRS-100 "Dahl" SA-5 GRIFFON, SAM product "400", Antenna post P-90 "Pamir"

      There is a vile story with OKB-301 S.A. Lavochkin and the "confusion" of the roll and pitch channels at the SAM.
      Bongo wrote about her
      1. mvg
        mvg 11 March 2017 20: 33
        Never heard of him. Anton, to be honest, I hoped that you described on s-125. Bongo expert, but with - 100 MYTH ....
        1. opus
          11 March 2017 21: 10
          Quote: mvg
          but with - 100 MYTH ...

          "Never say never"
          So my eyes and my hands are deceiving me (hold)?

          I can put everything.
          But first, Almaz-Antey 1947-1977.

          Is C-50 the same "myth"?
          I can even lay out the prices, how much
          this is not a myth, there is a lot of meanness, and it stands at the FSBI Military History Museum of Artillery, Engineering and Signal Corps of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation in St. Petersburg.
          Well, it was exactly (had not been for a long time)
  4. rubin6286
    rubin6286 11 March 2017 17: 23
    The article is true, informative and interesting especially for "couch strategists" who think in global categories. Of course there is harm to the environment from launches of military and space rockets, but it is insignificant, since there are relatively few combat launches. I met people. who served in the units from lieutenant to colonel, who did not participate in any start-up, but who were on combat duty. Space rockets are simpler: most of them are on kerosene and liquid oxygen, although there is harm. If in Soviet times only my unit performed an average of 2-3 launches per month, and there were several of these units, now they all make 2-3 launches per year.
    1. Cannonball
      Cannonball 4 June 2017 10: 40
      There is certainly harm from toxic fuel, but it is nothing compared to the destruction and radioactive contamination of the area as a result of a nuclear strike. The presence of ICBMs in service, even with toxic fuel, is a payment for preventing a nuclear strike on its territory. Ecologists should know this, because in the radioactive desert it’s no longer necessary to talk about ecology.
  5. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 11 March 2017 17: 27
    A good article, information in abundance, but interesting.
  6. Vadim237
    Vadim237 11 March 2017 17: 30
    We are waiting for the publication of the mixtures for the turbojet engine
    1. avt
      avt 11 March 2017 19: 41
      Quote: Vadim237
      We are waiting for the publication of the mixtures for the turbojet engine

      Come on anamezon! Give-yo-yo-eat anamone! bully
      Quote: Amurets
      Great, the Orange Cloud photographs of the fuel components and the Chinese breathing this rubbish are particularly impressive.

      In Abkhazia, after the Russians left, the shepherds found some warm containers with some Russian letters, somewhere near a military unit, or a seismic laboratory. They warmed up at night, lying on them. And there was cesium ....
      1. opus
        11 March 2017 21: 11
        Quote: avt
        And there was cesium ..

        and detail.
        This is such money.
        Petrik would have fled.
        1. avt
          avt 12 March 2017 09: 05
          Quote: opus
          and detail.

          I don’t mention the details, it was that even before the war it seemed the first in Abkhazia, but the fact that the two shepherds actually got warm there even in the media, but only once and never repeated. As well as the fact that in the “seismic laboratory”, which Comrade Beria was still doing after the war, our security guard called the “platoon of paratroopers” sat. So a lot of things are scattered and this time in the open spaces of the USSR, and sometimes in an orphan state.
          1. Operator
            Operator 12 March 2017 12: 39
            The monarch, about commas and the meaning of the text has heard, not? laughing
          2. opus
            12 March 2017 18: 31
            Quote: avt
            So a lot of things are scattered and this time in the open spaces of the USSR, and sometimes in an orphan state.

            Previously, the LV and units were equipped with a radioisotope source, and not frail.
            What would be better in the desert, forest, water.
            I’ve participated in such a search 1 ...
  7. Amurets
    Amurets 11 March 2017 17: 45
    Thank! I waited for this article. Great, the Orange Cloud photographs of the fuel components and the Chinese breathing this rubbish are particularly impressive.
    1. opus
      11 March 2017 18: 05
      Quote: Amurets
      the Chinese are breathing this rubbish.

      cordon: through a gauze bandage!
      It pinned
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 11 March 2017 18: 10
        Quote: opus
        cordon: through a gauze bandage!
        It pinned

        Not that word. Guaranteed corpses.
  8. Evgenijus
    Evgenijus 11 March 2017 17: 58
    Basically, rockets and their poisonous fuel components were intended for the massacre of the enemy. Talking about this assignment of rockets and crying about the toxicity of КРТ - which is not entirely clear. Another question is that we poison people and nature in order to gaze above the Earth’s atmosphere and beyond. So there is a cartoon where an inquisitive student looks into the closet in the school classroom. And from the closet skeleton - do not look! And we look.
    In the operation of missiles in the troops, the toxicity of КРТ manifested itself mainly in violation of security measures. In the position of my starting battery in the summer I always picked mushrooms, my wife was pleased with my crops. But near the platform where the 8Г112 tanks with TM-185 were standing, few people walked, the forbidden zone itself was determined by the smell.
    During my entire stay at the Strategic Missile Forces, I received a “harmful dose” only once, and not from CMT, but when checking my gas mask in a tent with chloropicrin. My torments were almost 2 weeks. All the thin-skinned surfaces of the body swelled in 2 minutes, starting from the neck, face, internal surfaces of the hands (those that are pressed to the body, to its sides) and further down (to the heels). Seduxen helped, but only for a few hours. Then again the whole body is blistered, the skin lagged behind the meat. So for me, CTD is a child's toy.
    The article is good, I liked it.
    1. opus
      11 March 2017 18: 18
      Quote: Evgenijus
      and when checking his gas mask in a tent with chloropicrin

      Is it CCl3NO2? This is BOV!
      OC, CR, CS, pelargonic acid morpholide and CN were used in gp.
      My dad taught me her little ones: never pick a conversation membrane or valve on a throw march or other work, do not unscrew the corrugation - get it in rp = you get a high, they see, you get a high you get a little less for health, but more for personal business
      THEREFORE I used special quick-release tubular constructions made of cardboard wink
      1. Evgenijus
        Evgenijus 11 March 2017 19: 00
        Addition to his comment - I did not look into the tent itself, because I knew the state of my gas mask to the subtleties. Just walked past, and the next starting battery was preparing to refuel the MCT rocket (the chemist checked gas masks with soldiers and sergeants). I clearly felt the smell from the tent (the wind blew), immediately sped up the step and left the zone of infection. How much was I in it? According to the memoirs - seconds 7-10, and besides, he held his breath when he felt the smell of chloropicrin. Maybe the chemist brought the concentration to the military in a tent? But the consequences for me were hard ...
        1. opus
          11 March 2017 20: 10
          pelargonic acid morpholide
          Chloropicrin just did not give "on hand".
          The thing is: the court
        2. Dzafdet
          Dzafdet 11 March 2017 21: 26
          We stood in a tent in a cloud of chloropicrin and performed the exercise “Gas mask tube is broken”, then a chemist came up and checked the fit of the gas mask by wiggling it. Everything was fine. Chemists were upset, especially Lieutenant Colonel Fedko, because the first platoon cheated and took gas masks one size larger, so they vomited after smoking and lay on the grass ... drinks
          1. opus
            12 March 2017 18: 32
            [quote = Dzafdet] We stood in a tent in a cloud of chloropicrin [/ quote]
            not exactly chloropicrin. His so-called Prapora was mistakenly called.
            [quote] [OC, CR, CS, pelargonic acid morpholide and CN / quote]
  9. marshes
    marshes 11 March 2017 19: 20
    Well, Sergey Lukyanenko, in principle, knows well.
    At spaceports, grass does not grow. No, not because of the fierce flame of engines, which journalists like to write about. Too much poison spills onto the ground when refueling carriers and during emergency discharges of fuel, during rocket explosions on the launch pad and small, inevitable leaks in worn-out pipelines

    The doctor is a psychiatrist, a fellow countryman, his uncle in Taraz was headed by the psycho-nerve of the dispensary laughing
    At the expense of spilled fuel, generally interesting.
    Kerosene has high properties of "penetration", even gets to groundwater.
    Asymmetric dimethylhydrazine (UDMH, also known as heptyl) is neutralized with bleach, lime chloride.
    This kind of cripple exists and poisons the people of Kazakhstan; you have to live with it.
  10. Old26
    Old26 12 March 2017 01: 01
    Anton, thanks for the article. There is a slight inaccuracy in the text.
    Several dozen P-36M, UTTH / P-36М2 ICBMs are on combat duty in the Russian Federation.

    Only R-36M2 remained on combat duty. The R-36Ms were mostly removed from combat duty in 1982, although one regiment survived until 1995. ICBM R-36M UTTH were removed from duty (last) in 2009
    1. opus
      12 March 2017 02: 53
      Quote: Old26
      BR R-36M UTX were removed from duty (last) in the 2009 year

      check, but it seems to me, or stand
  11. spech
    spech 12 March 2017 09: 18
    Photo: the consequences of acid rain in the Bavarian Forest, Germany.

    Is there a spaceport nearby?
    PS environmentalists damn, in the Stone Age, life expectancy was about 30 years, but with the environment it was just 3a ..... laughing
    1. opus
      12 March 2017 18: 35
      Quote: spech
      Is there a spaceport nearby?

      Just a good photo.
      There are many industries in Germany. There still has not flown out. Better now
      Quote: spech
      in the stone age, life expectancy was about 30 years,

      that is another question.
      Now 30 is still a child, and 40 is disabled. And women cannot give birth and in children 80% allergy.
      And in my childhood I did not know such a word
      1. spech
        spech 13 March 2017 16: 00
        80% allergy in children.
        And in my childhood I did not know such a word

        My opinion is from the "feed" that we are being fed hi
  12. Old26
    Old26 12 March 2017 09: 28
    Quote: opus
    check, but it seems to me, or stand

    No problem. I can give a list of regiments even when they were withdrawn from service (according to R-36M UTTH) if necessary
    1. opus
      12 March 2017 18: 35
      Quote: Old26
      I can give

      Throw off what not to look for
  13. gagauz36
    gagauz36 13 March 2017 02: 07
    Respected !!!!! ...
  14. Gorbatiy
    Gorbatiy 13 March 2017 07: 11
    Everything useful for business, harmful to nature.
    1. opus
      14 March 2017 00: 03
      Quote: Gorbatiy
      Everything useful for business, harmful to nature.

  15. KCA
    KCA 15 March 2017 15: 29
    I do not deny the poisonous effect on the nature of the launches of LV, BUT - but how many billions of tons of the same sulfur compounds are emitted by the average volcano during the day of the eruption? Is there any comparison with all the launches of the launch vehicle since the advent of the first rocket? At least one thousandth of the volcano release per day is typed?