Military Review

Grinel Flintlock Gun

31
That guns really flashed,
Rattles a ramrod hammer.

In the faceted trunk bullets leave,
And clicked the trigger for the first time.
(Eugene Onegin. A.S. Pushkin)


Not for the first time, thanks to the courtesy of my friend N, who collects firearms weapon of the past time (of course, rendered inoperable in accordance with the law of the Russian Federation), VO readers have the opportunity to get acquainted with those of his samples that I personally managed to hold in my hands. Today there seem to be a lot of any articles about weapons on the Internet, but ... some are clearly written by people who haven’t even seen their subject in their eyes. True, not all materials can be done in chronological order. What manages to get, about that and it turns out to write! Before that, there were mostly more or less modern designs, but the time has come for much more ancient, quite, one might say, rare firearms.


Here it is - Grinel's duel pistol. View from the castle.

And this, by the way, is an excellent occasion to refresh in memory history firearms in general. So first of all, what is it? In short, this weapon, in which the energy of the powder gases produced during ignition of the powder charge when fired, is used to accelerate the projectile in the barrel. This is an individual weapon, with the exception of a number of machine guns, intended for collective use. Other distinguishing features of this type of weapon are the possibility of convenient holding during firing, the presence of a firing mechanism with which the shot is fired, the rapid reloading of the weapon after the firing, and the presence of aiming devices that allow accurate firing. These signs are inherent in all models of small arms, but their implementation is different in each sample, since the designers of gunsmiths make improvements every time they develop a new weapon.


View from the opposite side. The heads of the two screws securing the lock inside the box are clearly visible.

The first explosive mixture, which began to be used in firearms, was gunpowder. Despite its military and historical significance, the origin of gunpowder still remains a mystery. It is known that the Chinese used gunpowder back in AD 1000. er The first mention of gunpowder in Western literature dates back to the mid-13th century. However, with regard to the firearm itself, in Europe it appeared much later. In the east, the ancient Chinese and Arabs for long time for military purposes for shooting at a distance used "Roman candles" (possibly made from bamboo tubes), filled with gunpowder and other flammable substances. However, their more precise design is unknown, as are references to the first use of this weapon for firing projectiles. It is believed that the Moors used this weapon in 1247 during the defense of Seville. Or, in 1301, a primitive cannon was created in the German city of Amberg. However, all this information, especially about the Moors, is hardly one hundred percent reliable. However, it is quite reliable and, in fact, the first documentary mention of the use of gunpowder is in the figure in the English manuscript, dated 1326 year. On it we see the barrel of a cannon in the form of a jug mounted on a four-foot carriage, moreover, a large feathered arrow is used as a projectile. There are other references to the fact that such guns were used in Ghent in the 1313 year, and in Metz in the 1324 year. Therefore, it can be assumed that in the first quarter of the XIV century the guns had already gained some distribution, and their supporters succeeded in overcoming the technological problems that arose when casting barrels and making gunpowder in the second half of the XIII century.


The so-called "Edward I cannon" is a miniature from a medieval manuscript.

What, however, cannot be denied is the fact that firearms at the time were used extremely limitedly. Then it was not of great interest because of the difficulties in the process of casting trunks. The tools were heavy, then there was no scientific way to calculate the strength of the material. To ease the weight, the trunks tried to do as thin as possible, but so that they could withstand a shot. It was possible to shoot only at short distances, since the caliber of the nucleus, often made of stone, did not coincide with the barrel. But in spite of everything, even such guns were effective, albeit mainly due to the psychological impact of the roar when fired and good results when firing at short distances. Gradually inspired by the success of the gunners began to work on improving the reliability of the guns, increasing the firing range and the speed of the nucleus.


And this is how it was reconstructed in the Royal Arsenal in the city of Leeds.

In the early muzzle-loading specimens of handguns, the so-called “gun lock” was used. The wick (glowing ember or red-hot iron) was brought to the pilot hole. The fire ignited gunpowder seed, which in turn ignited the charge of gunpowder that fell asleep in the breech behind the throwing projectile. Since the powder was a very finely ground powder, that is, it was of low quality and, moreover, with a low content of nitrate, at least a small air space was required so that it could ignite in the barrel. That is why, by the way, it was set on fire with a red-hot rod that was inserted into the barrel through a pilot hole. There is air there, no - from such a "fuse", he ignited necessarily. However, you just imagine the shooters who dragged on their brazier with hot coals and charcoal itself, as well as furs for its kindling.

Grinel Flintlock Gun

So in the era of the Burgundian Wars and the first primitive cannons calibrated stone cores. Fig. Garry Embleton

The barrel was cast in bronze or brass, although forged steel was occasionally used. The core or arrow were made somehow. To this was added a bad wad blockage. And all this led to the fact that the powder burned slowly and unevenly, the pressure was created insufficient, so the muzzle velocity of the core was low, the firing range was small, and the accuracy, as a rule, left much to be desired. But maybe that was all for the best. After all, if gunpowder appeared at a higher rate of combustion and the obturation was improved (sealing the bore when fired, preventing the breakthrough of powder gases), all the technical research of the gunners of that time would have led to the explosion of the gun, their destruction and ... discrediting all these weapons.

Such a cannon lock was used in both artillery guns and handguns. The latter, however, were essentially also small guns. The barrel was attached to a pole, the back of which, when fired, was under the right hand arrow, and the front part was held with the left hand. The right hand remained free to bring the wick to the fuse. The great similarity between artillery and hand weapons indicates that both weapons were both created and used in parallel.

A cannon-type lock was used for 50 years or a little more. And although the quality of gunpowder and the technology of casting barrels were improved during this period, so that the guns became of higher quality, the handgun remained unchanged.

And then at the end of the XIV - the beginning of the XV centuries in Germany there was an invention of a wick lock. Now the glowing wick — well, let's say, a piece of hemp rope, soaked in a mixture of saltpeter, so that it smolders slowly, but constantly, was fixed in the S-shaped trigger, which with its lower part was movably attached near the trunk. The shooter, pressing his fingers on the lower part of this lever, forced him to lower, and the wick, fastened in its upper part, touched the powder seed in the pilot hole. This meant that now the weapon could be held with two hands, the accuracy of shooting increased accordingly, and people began to think about equipping the weapon with a gun. Now began the creation of a weapon with a figured butt, so that when firing the weapon more firmly adjoined to the shoulder and increased the accuracy of shooting. Over the next half century, the wick lock completely changed the nature of handguns, as the effective trigger was further refined (the curved clip with the wick was controlled with a trigger, and the cover for the shelf with gunpowder prevented it from blowing off) and a characteristic curved wooden bed.


Japanese small-sized wick gun ("taju") of the Edo era.

Of course, the weapon remained rather heavy, very bulky and inconvenient to use, which limited its military use. However, it was thanks to the invention of the wick lock in the history of firearms that a completely new era in development began. So, in Japan, where the development of wick guns continued until the middle of the XIX century, even wick pistols were used, albeit limited, although you can imagine how many problems they delivered to their owners!

It should be noted here that the invention of weapons with a wick lock was the result of active research and experiments in various fields. In the period from the end of the 15th century, rifled barrels spread in Europe (spiral-shaped grooves on the inner surface of the barrel walls twisted the core, which increased its stabilization in flight and increased the accuracy of shooting), good aiming devices appeared, interchangeable barrels in order to mount barrels of various calibers on the same gun carriage, the trigger was invented. Appears and bureaucratic loading to increase the rate of fire, for this they begin to produce ready-made powder charges. Multi-charge guns were equipped with either cylindrical magazines, or were made multi-barreled. In many developments there were sound and technically sound decisions. However, most of these weapons were cast in conditions that did not allow for tightness between the barrel and the bolt when fired, which resulted in leakage of powder gases and a decrease in pressure in the barrel. This, in turn, led to a decrease in the firing range and penetration power of the core, not to mention the threat to the shooter’s life.


Turkish ornate flintlock gun. Walters Museum, USA.

The accumulation of experience, the development of design ideas and production skills have played a big role in the improvement of handguns in terms of reducing its size and weight. And as a consequence of this, the widespread use of pistols, the increased mobility of firearms, which negated the advantages of mounted knights in armor, which consisted precisely in security and mobility. It is not by chance that soon the infantrymen armed with firearms became one of the main types of troops on the battlefield, although the cavalry in lightweight armor (they still couldn’t protect against a bullet anyway, and continued to play a major role while reducing weight.


Swedish 1633 musket with wheel lock from the Skokloster Castle Museum.

Despite this success, the wick lock was not devoid of a number of drawbacks. The wick could burn to the end, fall out of the clamp or be poured with rain. As a result of a long search, a wheel lock appeared, which was probably invented in Germany or Austria in the first quarter of the 16th century. The design of this mechanism was also simple - instead of the wick and clamp, there was a rotating steel wheel with transverse notches in the lock. When the trigger was pressed, the spring set in advance by the key was released and the wheel rotated quickly and rubbed with notches on flint. This gave a sheaf of sparks falling on the powder seed. The wheel lock instantly spread throughout Europe, as it was clearly superior to the wick. True, it was used mainly in pistols and in cavalry, that is, the then elite, since such lock was too expensive for ordinary musketeers. It was created countless options. Well, an important consequence of the appearance of the wheel lock was the invention of such a mechanism as a fuse. Earlier, when a lot of effort was needed for a shot, such a mechanism was not required, but now a weapon has become necessary for the weapon to protect it from an accidental shot.


The castle of the snaphons and similar constructions were often found on oriental weapons. For example, here on this Caucasian rifle from the M.Yu. Lermontov in Pyatigorsk.

Despite its high efficiency, the problem of the wheel lock remained its high cost. After all, it had to be made of high-quality materials and with accuracy, hitherto unseen. This led to the invention of the snephons (schnaphan) lock, which was more perfect than the wick and cheaper than other samples. In this castle, the pyrite installed in the clamp on the trigger, at the moment of pressing the trigger, hit a steel fire located on the side of the powder seed, while a sufficient number of sparks were cut out to ignite the seed and charge. The flint and cap for powder in this lock were different parts. For the first time, locks of this type appeared around 1525 (they were even called Dutch locks with a hint of their Dutch origins), but it took over 100 years to turn them into a classic flint lock. Moreover, it was flint, and not flint, as for some reason some "experts of the weapon industry and its history" began to write. The fact is that silicon is an element of the periodic table. And flint is a stone, and treated, wrapped in leather and clamped with sponges of a shock trigger. He worked on the same principle as the snephons, but acted in such a way that when the trigger was lowered, the lid of the powder shelf opened at the same time, closed during the rest of the time, thereby preventing the deflation of the powder or its wetting. At the same time, the flint that hit the flint was the continuation of the powder shelf cover, and he not only opened it, but also cut out a sheaf of sparks falling on its curved surface onto the powder seed. Such a flintlock lock was universally recognized and soon became the main lock for the entire muzzle-loading handgun of the second half of the 17th century.


And this is a flint officer pistol from Tula production from the same museum.

Weapons developers and manufacturers, after creating such a successful model as a flintlock, sent major efforts to modernize it. Gunpowder became a better quality, improved production technology, and all this played a significant role in the fact that flint pistols and muskets rather quickly replaced the old arquebus. At the same time, the appearance of more advanced iron alloys made it possible to abandon bronze and brass in the manufacture of handguns. All these factors led to the fact that the weapon became much lighter, and at the same time stronger and firing provided greater accuracy of hitting. As in the case of the wick lock, the developers have created many variants of the silicon lock, with most of the new designs being designed to increase the rate of fire of the weapon. Similar experiments (although little was done on actual samples) or attempts to create breech-loading weapons were based on improving the obturation using the opening shutter for fast loading of weapons.


Duel flint pistol firm Grinel. The lid of the powder shelf is open.


Well visible brand manufacturer. However, similar pistols launched in England at that time by other firms were very similar to one another and differed only in trifles.

More complex attempts have been made to install a revolving type shop and a semi-automatic seed system for multiply charged samples. A lot of manpower and resources were spent for the implementation of such systems. However, at that time it was still impossible to achieve high precision in production, so that most of these samples were never put into service and remained in the form of experimental, museum samples.


The gun, of course, is old, and it is not surprising if it was released in the 1780 year, and its safety is not 100%, however, and not so bad. This photo clearly shows how it is held in the right hand.

At that time there were only two types of handguns: long-barreled shotguns, both for combat and for hunting, and short-barreled pistols, both for combat and civilians. The latter differed from the combat ones, however, not with the caliber or with some peculiarities of the mechanism, but mainly with a handle! The combatants had a metal frame and, often a massive metal top ("apple"). This was done to ensure that such a gun could be used in melee combat without fear of damaging your weapon.

But civilian pistols were very often used by travelers who traveled around Europe in carriages, to protect them from robbers. In general, it was not planned to fight with such weapons; more often, a shot from behind the carriage door was enough to scare them away, therefore their handles were solid wood and were one piece with the lodge.


In this photo, he is in his left hand and this is done specifically to show his mechanism in the position before the shot. In the lips of the trigger there is no flint, and it remains only to press the trigger and ... bang - a shot will sound!

And there were also dueling pistols, manufactured with great care. There were special companies that produced such pistols, in particular, they were made by the British firm Grinel. A special feature of the 1780 pistol of the year (namely, this gun we are considering today) was a descent with a schneller, facilitating the force when pressed and the trigger. Thanks to this device, the sight did not get off at the moment of the shot, or rather, it also got off, but less than that of ordinary pistols.

The barrel of this pistol is octahedral, 182 mm long and 17,5-mm caliber with a small front sight, since they were fired at relatively short distances. Duel pistol handles were made with special care so that they lay as comfortably as possible in your hand.

The following accessories were missing for pistols (usually they were let out in pairs in the form of a headset): in this case, a brush for cleaning the powder shelf, a screwdriver to remove the silicon lock from the box, an oiler, lubricate the mechanism, the powder flask, with a spout used as a measure for the powder, puleleyka, for self-production of bullets and leather pads (usually used suede) to secure flint in the jaws of the trigger.


The barrel inside is smooth, not rifled, and it looks just awful large caliber. The diameter is equal to the diameter of the index finger of an adult male 178 cm, not a bricklayer, it is clear, but nevertheless ... So if the lead ball released from it hit you in the stomach, then you would not have the slightest chance to digest it!

Personal impressions of the pistol: surprising, but the handle seemed small, as in the photos noticeably and not too comfortable. That is, you can hold on to it, but there is no question of a careful fit, as it is written in the books. Either the hands then the men were smaller! Schneller really makes it very easy to descend, but the pistol jerks anyway from the hammer strike. And then there should be a shot, so, reading about the duel in 15 steps, you can not be surprised, because on 25 you just can’t go anywhere, you shouldn’t even try!


In this photo you can clearly see the opening hole through which the fire from the powder shelf fell into the trunk.

P.S. The author expresses his gratitude to the company "Japanese Antiques" for providing a photo of a Japanese pistol.
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  1. kugelblitz
    kugelblitz 9 March 2017 15: 14
    +4
    Wheel locks at that time were the most advanced and gave a minimum of misfires.
  2. tanit
    tanit 9 March 2017 18: 08
    +2
    And now I remembered Mr. Andrzej Sapkowski and his trilogy (though fantasy, but if you discard it, it turned out "very and very evil") about the Hussite wars. There was a very interesting recipe for the preparation of gunpowder. Naturally - they did it in Poland. )))
  3. Mikado
    Mikado 9 March 2017 18: 40
    +3
    yes, a rare example. Sights are not expressed. It turns out, in those days, if it was possible to talk about targeted shooting, then "on the trunk." Here even with fifteen steps you have to be a sniper with a full hand to get there. Therefore, survived, as at all times, only professionals!
  4. Agent_017
    Agent_017 9 March 2017 19: 20
    0
    So he shot a shot or a bullet? If it’s a bullet, it’s not easy to hit, and the shot will be wider ... Of course, in those days the crossbow was more accurate and fired further ...
    1. kalibr
      9 March 2017 19: 57
      +1
      A round bullet, of course, shot shot (and not always!) At the robbers from the carriage! For this I used trambolons with a bell.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 10 March 2017 07: 59
        0
        if I’m not mistaken, the trombone (musketon) was practically the standard weapon of the sailors during boarding, and also was in service with the hussars during the Patriotic War of 1812.
  5. SASHA OLD
    SASHA OLD 9 March 2017 19: 34
    0
    Quote: kugelblitz
    Wheel locks at that time were the most advanced and gave a minimum of misfires.

    they were much more expensive
    1. kugelblitz
      kugelblitz 9 March 2017 20: 36
      +2
      Clear business, consider a spring inside with any mechanism. And even with the then level of metal processing. Plus start constantly like a clock.
      1. Grid
        Grid 9 March 2017 21: 04
        +1

        Very not a simple mechanism. It could consist of fifty parts (usually 35-40) and by that time was approximately like a combat robot now, the same hi-tech.
        1. kugelblitz
          kugelblitz 9 March 2017 21: 20
          +6
          In the Hermitage there is a multi-shot rifle from Lagatz with a wheeled lock, this is a real monster, a blaster from the old times. wassat

          1. Grid
            Grid 9 March 2017 21: 44
            +2
            It’s even scary to shoot from this smile
          2. SASHA OLD
            SASHA OLD April 9 2017 12: 04
            0
            a real work of art!
        2. Amurets
          Amurets 10 March 2017 00: 57
          +3
          Quote: Grille
          Very not a simple mechanism. It could consist of fifty parts (usually 35-40) and by that time was approximately like a combat robot now, the same hi-tech.

          With the quality of metallurgy and metalworking, it’s a very complex mechanism. This refers to a wheel lock. Quote from Beckert's book Iron: Facts and Legends.
          << Despite his youth, Benjamin was a fairly experienced watchmaker, and the master entrusted him with work that required great skill. But sometimes the work did not argue. As a rule, this was in cases where the material from which the tools and parts were made did not meet the necessary requirements. British steel was of poor quality, was very heterogeneous in composition, and contained a large amount of slag inclusions. In those days, watchmakers mostly made their own tools and watch parts, so good tool steel was especially appreciated. Many ordered steel on the continent, for example in Sweden or Germany, but it was expensive, since on the long route the metal passed through many hands and everyone wanted to make money. The method used at the time to produce a relatively uniform steel is known as refining. >> This quote illustrates the challenges that firearms manufacturers and watchmakers faced with frequently making or repairing wheel locks.
          1. Grid
            Grid 10 March 2017 03: 46
            +5
            And so it was. Metal in itself was very expensive, because the production technology was monstrous in modern terms. And what a howl the modern “green” would have howled if they had fallen in those days!
            The funny thing is that those who have never encountered metallurgy (I personally have an education just related to metallurgy and have worked in metallurgy for a dozen and a half years) usually think that in the 16-18 century the deal with metal was something like this but as it is today, it is a revelation for them that modern metallurgy began to become only from the middle of the 19th century.
            1. Amurets
              Amurets 10 March 2017 05: 16
              +3
              Quote: Grille
              The funny thing is that those who have never encountered metallurgy (I personally have an education just related to metallurgy and have worked in metallurgy for a dozen and a half years) usually think that in the 16-18 century the deal with metal was something like this but as it is today, it is a revelation for them that modern metallurgy began to become only from the middle of the 19th century.

              I completely agree. It was at this time that the Simmens-Open, Bessemer, and Thomas methods of smelting began to be used. I remember a fragment of Virolainen’s book, Green Street, how Turksib faced the problem of phosphorous steels in the furnaces of Eg locomotives, German-built. The details of the boilers began to burst on new steam locomotives, as he writes. Phosphorus makes steel cold-blooded, you know this, this is for those who are not familiar with metallurgy and metalworking.
              1. Grid
                Grid 10 March 2017 07: 22
                +2
                As for cold brittleness, there are closer examples.
                In the 70s, Tatra dump trucks were purchased for the development of diamond pipes in Yakutia. Everything was wonderful until winter. Already at 40 degrees below zero, when loading rocks from an excavator, bodies began to burst. When they started to understand, it turned out that in Europe there were much more liberal tolerances on phosphorus. just try to explain to the average Euro that there is frost at least 30 degrees below zero. I was swept around the world, including I was in Sweden (which they give us as an example of the "severity" of the climate). So, the town where I got 4 months is located north of my town at 25-30 degrees latitude, while sakura grows there in the open ground and chestnuts bloom ... And for local residents, a frost of -25 is already beyond.
        3. SASHA OLD
          SASHA OLD April 9 2017 11: 42
          0
          yes, as for reliability, it is also true, and the wheeled lock essentially gave a start to pistols in the world: this is a personal weapon of self-defense - you could always keep it loaded, use it and, if necessary, use a wick lock to set fire to the wick, which situations of an unexpected attack ... it would end in failure, plus an “unpredictable delay” (the gunpowder on the shelf doesn’t burn out instantly) left when the trigger was pulled (the delay took place but it was plus or minus the same when used repeatedly) ...
          but it wasn’t for the soldiers at the very beginning: the price of a wick gun and a gun with a wheel lock had a difference of 4-5 times
  6. alex-cn
    alex-cn 9 March 2017 20: 01
    +4
    Vyacheslav! This is for the soul, and not a reproach! You missed another type of ignition system (the soul does not turn to call the lock) - grater. It was not very widespread, but such a weapon took place and was, perhaps, the forerunner of the castle of the wheel ...
  7. Grid
    Grid 9 March 2017 20: 26
    +4
    Mdya ...
    Let's go!
    And this, by the way, is an excellent occasion to refresh the history of firearms in general. So, first of all, what is it? ... This is an individual weapon, with the exception of a number of machine guns, intended for collective use.

    Well, yes, very individual.

    You see, firearms are generally the whole variety of units that use the energy of combustion of a propellant to throw a projectile (by the way, gunpowder is far from necessary). An individual firearm is a weapon that can be fully used by one individual.
    In the east, the ancient Chinese and Arabs from ancient times used “Roman candles” (possibly made from bamboo tubes) filled with gunpowder and other flammable substances for firing at a distance. However, their exact device is not known,

    It is well known. It was exactly that "Roman candles."
    However, all this information, especially about the Moors, is hardly reliable at one hundred percent.

    And why? Most likely, it was the Arabs who first used firearms against the Europeans.
    However, a completely reliable and, in fact, the first documented mention of the use of gunpowder is available in the figure in the English manuscript dated 1326. On it we see the barrel of the gun in the form of a jug mounted on a four-legged carriage, and a large feathered arrow is used as a shell for it.

    But this, most likely, is fiction, because except for in this manuscript such tools are not found anywhere else. Neither in the form of images, nor in the form of material objects. Not only that, the very possibility of manufacturing such a barrel in the first quarter of the 90th century raises doubts. At the end of the XNUMXs, a replica of such a tool was made, though from the tenth attempt and a drilled bore, for it was impossible to cast this on the mandrel. Shooting an arrow was also difficult ...
    Link to a truly competent article on this topic:
    http://warspot.ru/4738-kogda-pushki-byli-malenkim
    i
    Therefore, we can assume that in the first quarter of the XIV century, guns were already somewhat spread, and their supporters managed to overcome the technological problems that arose when casting barrels

    Of course I did. After all, the vast majority of guns of that time had welded, iron barrels. Massively, guns began to be cast from bronze only by the first quarter of the XNUMXth century, and only by the end of the XNUMXth century were cast guns finally replaced by welded ones. The barrels of small arms were welded until the middle of the XIX century.
    and the manufacture of gunpowder in the second half of the XNUMXth century.

    Well then he just just learned how to do it. And his quality was disgusting.
    It was possible to shoot only at short distances, since the caliber of the core, often made of stone, did not coincide with the barrel.

    And how is the correspondence of the diameter of the core to the caliber of the guns interconnected with the firing range? No, of course I understand that if the core is larger than the caliber of the gun in diameter, then most likely it will not fly anywhere, but this is what a "small distance" eludes my understanding.
    Since the powder was a very finely ground powder, that is, it was of poor quality and also with a low content of nitrate, at least a small air space was required so that it could catch fire in the barrel.

    Well, horses, people, and a couple of mammoths that had jumped from somewhere mixed up in a heap.
    Smoke powder in the manufacturing process, at a certain stage, is always a finely ground powder, the so-called powder pulp. Moreover, regardless of its quality and content of nitrate. Another thing is that until about the middle of the XNUMXth century it existed and was used only in the form of powder pulp. This created quite comic problems when using artillery, and small-caliber firearms made it practically useless. This is due to the peculiarities of the combustion of gunpowder. It is burning, not detonation. Smoke powder does not detonate, but burns, and for its burning air is absolutely not needed. Theoretically, it can detonate, but in practice no one has yet succeeded in getting the detonation regime in smoke powder, but this is a separate issue. It burns in layers, starting from the outer surface of the grain. If we take the powder pulp and hammer it tightly into the gun, we will get one large grain with one surface. And there it makes no difference whatsoever to set fire to: even with a hot rod, even with a candle, even with a lamp. With a very high probability, this experiment will end simply by whistling and melting the trunk in the breech area. Naturally, the ancestors were not fools and this was perfectly understood. It was for the formation of the combustion surface that a certain space was left inside the charging chamber. But it was already art.
  8. Grid
    Grid 9 March 2017 20: 27
    +3
    The barrel was cast in bronze or brass, although forged steel was occasionally used.

    Everything is exactly the opposite. The main material was just wrought iron.

    And all this led to the fact that the gunpowder burned slowly and unevenly, the pressure was not enough, so the muzzle velocity of the core was low, the firing range was small,

    The pressure was sufficient to throw a projectile. Another thing is that the mechanical strength and design features of the guns of that time did not allow the use of large relative charges. And again: "short range", what does this term mean?
    After all, if gunpowder appeared with a higher combustion rate and obturation was improved (sealing of the bore during firing, preventing breakthrough of powder gases), then all technical research of the gunners of that time would lead to the explosion of the guns, their death and ... discrediting of all these weapons.

    What a fright? The guns of that time were bursting regularly. They tore it apart later, and also quite regularly. And that was considered normal.
    And gunpowder was constantly improved, as was the shell.
    And then at the end of the XIV - the beginning of the XV centuries in Germany, the invention of the wick lock occurred.

    Not in Germany. Most likely this happened either in the north of Italy or in the south of France.
    There is also state charging to increase the rate of fire,

    Not for that. Simply loading the powder pulp with a more or less long barrel was, to put it mildly, difficult.
    although the cavalry in lightweight armor (all the same, they could no longer protect against a bullet, and with decreasing weight their mobility increased) and continued to play a major role.

    It was completely defended. Here only such armor stood and weighed incredibly.
    The old knightly cavalry was ousted from the battlefield not so much by infantry with firearms as by a more efficient and cheaper Raitarian cavalry armed with pistols.
    The design of this mechanism was also simple - instead of a wick and a clamp, there was a rotating steel wheel with transverse notches in the lock.

    Well yes. 30-50 finely tuned parts is it easy for the end of the XNUMXth century? In those days, the wheel lock was high-tech and cost more than a whole wick musket.
    The wheel lock instantly spread throughout Europe, since it clearly exceeded the wick.

    Nowhere did he instantly spread. It was used - yes, but it’s never been really massive, like a flint percussion later.
    For the first time, castles of this type appeared around 1525 (they were even called Dutch castles with a hint of their Dutch origin),

    40-50 years earlier. Invented by the Arabs. Either on the territory of modern Spain, or on the Mauritanian coast of Africa. Well, the fact that weapons with a flintlock percussion lock beyond the Pyrenees began to spread through the Netherlands is also not surprising, if you remember who it belonged to.
    And flint is a stone, and it is processed, wrapped in leather and sandwiched with the lips of a hammer. He worked on the same principle as the “snaps”, but acted so that when the trigger was lowered, the lid of the powder shelf was opened at the same time,

    In fact, there were several dozen types of flintlock percussion locks. Battery locks are just one of the groups. The first of them, most likely was made in Holland at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, then was significantly improved in France, by the end of the same century, the French battery lock became the most common and actually remained unchanged until the very end of the era of flintlock weapons.
    At the same time, the emergence of more advanced iron alloys made it possible to abandon bronze and brass in the manufacture of handguns.

    What kind of "perfect" alloys then appeared? The manufacturing technology, as well as the quality of the materials, naturally improved, which, of course, led to an improvement in the quality of weapons and lowering their cost. But where does bronze and brass come from? If you do not take the earliest samples of the XIV century, the trunks of handguns were made almost exclusively from iron. And brass was used to make the device, and continued to be used. In some cases, the entire bed was made of brass:

    As with the wick lock, the developers created many flintlock options, and most of the new samples were designed to increase the rate of fire of the weapon. Such experiments (although there were few active samples) or attempts to create a state-of-the-art weapon were based on improving the obturation using an opening shutter to quickly load the weapon.

    The main direction in the improvement of flintlock percussion lock did not lie in the direction of increasing rate of fire, but in the direction of increasing its reliability. In the field, especially in the presence of precipitation, even in the form of thick fog, the likelihood of regular operation of the castle fell sharply.
    Well, breech-loading weapons were not such a curiosity. Another conversation is that its cost and complexity of operation made it little in demand.
    The combat men had a metal frame and, often, a massive metal top ("apple"). This was done so that such a pistol could be used in hand-to-hand combat without fear of damaging your weapon.

    Absolutely not. An army-style pistol differed only in caliber, which was usually equal to the caliber of a gun adopted in the army. They were no different. Moreover, it was absolutely forbidden, at least for officers, to carry any weapons with them.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 10 March 2017 07: 25
      +3
      And why? Most likely, it was the Arabs who first used firearms against the Europeans. Grandchildren. Artillery. "In 1342, the Spanish king besieged the city of Algeziras, occupied at that time by the Arabs. The Spanish troops were already preparing for an attack. Suddenly, an unprecedented car appeared on the city walls: this car did not have a winch or heavy levers. building dozens of carpenters. A long pipe, stand - that's the whole machine.
      They put something in the pipe. Then a man came up to the pipe - just one man! He did not pull any ropes; he just brought a red-hot iron rod to the pipe - and suddenly there was thunder, flame and smoke flew out of the pipe, and an iron core flew in the attackers. The Royal soldiers surged in horror from the walls of Algeziras.
      They tried to drive away “unclean power” with a prayer, waved a cross at the city walls and again went on the attack.
      But the "unclean power" was not afraid of prayer and the cross. Again the "sorcerer" came up to the car, raised a red-hot wand to the pipe, again smoke and fire burst out of the pipe, the core flew in the attackers again and even killed some of the worshipers. "
      "New guns - bombers rivaled the old throwing machines.
      They were clumsy, thick and heavy iron pipes, with iron strips chained to heavy wooden decks. The attached bottom of the pipe had a recess. This depression was filled with sticky powder pulp. Then they charged the bombard with a stone core and put the bottom to it. The gap between the pipe and its bottom was covered with clay. Behind the bottom they propped up the logs so that it would not vomit when fired. Finally, a long wick was inserted into the bottom hole and burned with a hot iron rod.
      Different troubles happened to the bombers: their iron walls were fragile. Either one or the other, the bombardment was torn; while she burned, wounded and killed others. "Once again, Vladimir Pavlovich Vnukov." Artillery ".http: //www.litmir.co/br/? B = 129963 & am
      p; p = 2 Link to the book.
      1. Grid
        Grid 10 March 2017 07: 38
        +1
        So I know this, but the author of this article is not.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 10 March 2017 08: 08
          +1
          Quote: Grille
          So I know this, but the author of this article is not.

          So this is not for you, I know that you know, I am for those who do not know.
    2. Grid
      Grid 10 March 2017 07: 36
      +1
      Damn, again sealed up:
      / Battery locks are just one of the groups. The first of them, most likely was made in Holland at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, /
      Read as:
      / Battery locks are just one of the groups. The first one, most likely was made in Holland at the beginning of the XVII century,
  9. BAI
    BAI 10 March 2017 14: 03
    0
    Actually, about Pushkin’s dueling pistols: "The Lepage trunks are fatal."
    1. alex-cn
      alex-cn 10 March 2017 16: 55
      0
      Yes, Pushkin wrote about the very well-known pistols in Russia of the Frenchman Jean Le Page (Jean Le Page).
      Foret Lepage, whose beautiful hunting rifles can be seen occasionally now, appeared much later and has nothing to do with Jean.
  10. Michael_Zverev
    Michael_Zverev 10 March 2017 14: 27
    0
    Something doesn’t look like a dueling gun. They were usually smaller, longer, better finishes. It is rather an ordinary "civilian" pistol, universal purpose, so to speak, for self-defense, and for a duel if necessary.
    1. Grid
      Grid 10 March 2017 16: 19
      0
      It all depended on the solvency of the client. And this instance is from the lower middle category.
  11. M0xHaTka
    M0xHaTka 11 March 2017 20: 09
    0
    And why do not they say "creamy"? Or "flint"?
    1. Grid
      Grid 13 March 2017 08: 01
      +1
      There is such a thing, the norms of the language are called, that's why they do not speak.
  12. KOMA
    KOMA 11 July 2017 02: 16
    0
    A chic collection in the Military History Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Communications Forces in St. Petersburg.
    There is even a virtual tour.