Military Review

Rocket Fuel Saga


"... And there is nothing new under the sun"
(Eccliaste 1: 9).

About fuels, missiles, rocket engines was written, written and will write.

One of the first works on fuel rocket engines can be considered the book of V.P. Glushko "Liquid jet fuel", published in 1936

Rocket Fuel Saga

For me, the topic seemed interesting, related to my former specialty and study at the university, much less the “trailing” of my younger offspring: “Chef, let's knead it and run the thread, but if it's too lazy, then ourselves let's figure it out. Apparently Lavra Extremes from "Lin Industrial" do not give rest.

So you want to properly blow up your rocket engine.

"Consider" will be together under strict parental control. Hands feet must be intact, strangers all the more.

"The key to start" ... "Go"! (Yu.A. Gagarin & S.P. Korolev)

Whatever type of RD (scheme, nature of the process) is not used in rocket technology, its intended purpose: the creation of thrust (force) by converting the initial energy stored in the RT to the kinetic energy (Ec) of the jet stream of the working fluid.
Ek jet of the jet in the RD will convert different types of energy (chemical, nuclear, electric).

For chemical engines, fuel can be divided by phase state: gaseous, liquid, solid, mixed.

Part №1 - fuel for rocket engine or liquid rocket fuel

Classification of chemical fuels for rocket engines (common):

->Terms and abbreviations.
Additionally (HTML tags on TopWar of the wrong system, therefore spoilers and katas have to be organized like this):
Specific impulse (Iud).
Jet thrust (P or Fp).
The stoichiometric ratio of fuel components (Km0)(more-click-the ratio of the mass of the oxidizer to the mass of fuel during stoichiometric reactions.
The composition of the fuel is combustible and non-combustible parts (in general).
Types of fuels(in general).

The chemical source of thermal energy for RD in general can be considered the chemical reaction of the components of the RT.

I'll start broadcasting with Km0. This is a very important correlation for RD: fuel can burn differently in RD (a chemical reaction in RD is not normal firewood burning in the fireplacewhere air is used as an oxidizing agent). Combustion (more precisely, oxidation) of fuel in the chamber of a rocket engine is, first of all, a chemical oxidation reaction with the release of heat. And the course of chemical reactions essentially depends on how many substances (their ratio) reacts.

How to fall asleep on the protection of the course project, exam or test. / Dmitry Zavistovsky

The value of Km0 depends on the valence that chemical elements may exhibit in the theoretical form of a chemical reaction equation. Example for ЖРТ: АТ + НДМГ.

An important parameter is the coefficient of excess oxidant (symbolized Greek "α" with the index "approx.") And the mass ratio of the components of the Km.

Km = (dm. / Dt) / (dmg ../ dt), i.e. the ratio of the mass flow rate of the oxidizer to the mass flow of fuel. It is specific to each fuel. In the ideal case, is the stoichiometric ratio of oxidant and fuel, i.e. indicates how much kg of oxidizer is needed to oxidize 1 kg of fuel. However, the real values ​​are different from the ideal. The ratio of real Km to the ideal is the coefficient of excess oxidant.

Typically, αoc. <= 1. And that's why. The dependences Tk (αo.) And IUd. (Αo.) are non-linear and for many fuels the latter has a maximum at αок. not at stoichiometric ratio of components, i.e. max. Iud values are obtained with a slight decrease in the amount of oxidizing agent with respect to the stoichiometric one.
A little more patience, because I can not get around the concept: enthalpy. It is useful in the article, and in everyday life.

Briefly, enthalpy is energy. For the article are important her two "incarnation":
Thermodynamic enthalpy- the amount of energy expended on the formation of a substance from the original chemical elements. For substances consisting of identical molecules (H2, O2 and so forth), it is zero.
Enthalpy of combustion- makes sense only under the condition of a chemical reaction. In reference books one can find the values ​​experimentally obtained under normal conditions. Most often for combustible it is full oxidation in the environment of oxygen, for oxidizing agents - oxidation of hydrogen by a given oxidizing agent. Moreover, the values ​​can be both positive and negative, depending on the type of reaction.

"The sum of the thermodynamic enthalpy and enthalpy of combustion is called the total enthalpy of the substance. Actually, this value is used in the thermal calculation of the LRE chambers."
Requirements for ЖРТ:
-as a power source;
-as to the substance that has to be (at this level of technology development) used to cool RD and THA, sometimes to pressurize tanks with RT, to provide it with volume (RN tanks), etc .;
-as to a substance outside the LRE, i.e. during storage, transportation, refueling, testing, environmental safety, etc.

Such gradation is relative conditional, but in principle reflects the essence. I will name these requirements as follows: №1, №2, №3. Someone can add to the list in the comments.
These requirements are a classic example. "Swan cancer and pike"that "pull" the creators of RD in different directions:

# From the point of view of the source of energy LRE (№1)

Those. need to get max. Id. I will not continue to hammer heads with everything, in general:

With other important parameters for №1 we are interested in R and T (with all indices).
Need to: the molecular mass of the combustion products was minimal, the maximum was the specific heat content.

# From the point of view of the PH designer (№2):

TCs should have a maximum density, especially in the first stages of rockets, since they are the most voluminous and have the most powerful taxiways, with a large second consumption. Obviously, this is inconsistent with the requirement under No. XXUMX.

# With operational tasks important (#3):

- chemical stability of TC;
-easy refueling, storage, transportation and manufacturing;
-ecological safety (in the whole "field" of application), namely toxicity, cost of production and transportation, etc. and safety when operating the taxiway (explosive).

For details, see "Saga of rocket fuels, the reverse side of the coin."

I hope no one has fallen asleep yet? I have a feeling that I am talking to myself. Soon there will be alcohol, do not disconnect!

Of course, this is only the tip of the iceberg. Additional requirements are also getting in here, because of which CONSENSUSES and COMPROMISES should be sought. One of the components must have satisfactory (better excellent) properties of the cooler, since at this level of technology, it is necessary to cool the CS and the nozzle, as well as to protect the critical section of the taxiway:

In the photo, the LRE XLR-99 nozzle: the characteristic feature of the American 50-60 LRE design is clearly visible - a tubular chamber:

It is also required (as a rule) to use one of the components as a working fluid for a THA turbine:

For fuel components, "saturated vapor pressure is of great importance (this is roughly the pressure at which a liquid starts to boil at a given temperature). This parameter greatly influences the design of pumps and the weight of tanks." / S.S. Fakas /

An important factor is the aggressiveness of the TC to materials (KM) LRE and tanks for their storage.
If TCs are very "harmful" (like some people), then engineers have to spend money on a number of special measures to protect their structures from fuel.

-self-igniting fuel components like two-faced Janus: sometimes necessary, and sometimes it hurts. There is another nasty property: explosiveness
For many industries using missiles (military or deep space)

the fuel is required to be chemically stable, and its storage, refueling (in general, everything that is called: logistics) and recycling do not cause a "headache" among operators and the environment.

An important parameter is the toxicity of combustion products. Now it is very relevant.

The cost of production of both the TC and the tanks and CM, which satisfy the properties (sometimes aggressive) of these components: the load on the economy of the country, claiming the role of "space cab".

There are many of these requirements and, as a rule, they are antagonistic to each other.

Conclusion: the fuel or its components must have (or possess):

1. Greatest heat output, for maximum Iud.
2. The greatest density, minimal toxicity, stability and low cost (in production, logistics and disposal).
3. The highest value of the gas constant or the lowest molecular weight of the combustion products, which will give Vmax flow and excellent specific thrust impulse.
4. Moderate combustion temperature (no more than 4500K), otherwise everything will burn or burn. Do not be explosive. Self-ignite under certain conditions.
5. Maximum rate of combustion. This will provide the minimum weight and volume of the COP.
6. Minimum ignition delay period smooth and reliable launch of the taxiway plays a significant role.

A whole heap of problems and requirements: viscosity, melting and solidification, boiling temperature, evaporation, vapor pressure and latent heat of vaporization, etc. etc.

Compromises vividly manifest themselves in Iud .: TK high density (kerosene + LOX), as a rule, are used on the lower stages of the PH, although they lose to the same LH2 and LOX, which in turn are used in the upper stages of the PH ("Energy" 11-25).

And again, a beautiful couple LH2+ LOX can not be used for deep space or for long-term stay in orbit (Voyager-2, Briz-M upper stage, ISS, etc.)

Awesome moment of undocking the GOES-R meteorological satellite from the Centaur upper stage of the Atlas V 541 launch vehicle (GOES-R Spacecraft Separation)

LCT classification - most often by saturated vapor pressure or triple point temperatureand, more simply, boiling point at normal pressure.

High-boiling components ЖРТ.

Chemical substance having a maximum operating temperature at which saturated steam pressure (I will refer to Pnp) in the tanks of the rocket is significantly lower than the permissible level of pressure in the tanks because of their structural strength.
kerosene, UDMH, nitric acid.

Accordingly, they are stored without any special manipulations with cooling tanks.

I personally like the term “container” more. Although it is not entirely correct, but it is close to the everyday value. This is the so-called. long-life TC.

Low boiling components ЖРТ.

Here, the RNP is close to the maximum allowable pressure in the tanks (by the criterion of their strength). Storage in sealed tanks without special measures for cooling (and / or cooling) and returning the condensate is impossible. The same requirements (and problems) with the LRE fittings and refueling / discharge pipelines.

ammonia, propane, nitrogen tetroxide.

The Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (MO of the Russian Federation) considers low-boiling components allwhose boiling point below 298K under standard conditions.
In the range of operating temperatures of rocket technology, low-boiling components are usually in a gaseous state. For the content of low-boiling components in the liquid state, special technological equipment is used.

Cryogenic components ЖРТ.

In fact, it is a subclass of low-boiling components. Those. substances having a boiling point below 120K. The cryogenic components include liquefied gases: oxygen, hydrogen, fluorine, etc. To reduce evaporation losses and increase the density, it is possible to use a cryogenic component in the bulk state, as a mixture of the solid and liquid phases of this component.

Special measures are required during transportation, refueling (cooling down of tanks and highways, heat-insulation of LRE valves, etc.) and discharge.

The temperature of their critical point is much lower than operational. Storage in sealed tanks PH is impossible or very difficult. Typical representatives of oxygen and hydrogen in the liquid phase state.
Further I will use the American style of their designations LOX and LН2 respectively. Or so LCD and LW.
Our "handsome" RD-0120 (hydrogen-oxygen):

It can be seen that it is outside (valves, highways) completely filled with insulating material.

According to some experts, the RD-0120 production technology has now been completely lost in the Russian Federation. However, on the basis of its technologies, an oxygen-hydrogen engine RD-0146 is created at the same enterprise.

When the components of the RT are found in the COP LRE (intelligently react), they should be divided into:
self-igniting (STK), limited self-igniting (OSTK) and non-self-igniting TK (NTK).

STK: upon contact of the oxidizer and the fuel in the liquid state they ignite (in the whole range of operating pressures and temperatures).
This greatly simplifies the RD ignition system, however, if the components meet outside the combustion chamber (leaks, accidents), there will be a fire, or a big woman. Quenching difficult.

Example:N204 (nitrogen tetraxide) + MMG (monomethylhydrazine), N204 + N2H4 (hydrazine), N2О4+ UDMH and all fluorine based fuels.

OSTK: special measures must be taken to ignite. Non-flammable fuels require an ignition system.

Example:kerosene + LOX or LH2+ Lox.

NTK: I think there are no comments here. It requires either a catalyst, or a constant ignition (or temperature and / or pressure, etc.), or a third component.

Ideal for transportation, storage and leak-proof.
Another separation option is based on the level of energy characteristics of the LRT:
* low-energy (with a relatively low specific impulse - one-component, etc.);
* average energy (with average specific impulse— (0Xnumx) + kerosene, N204 + MMG and others.);
* high energy (high specific impulse: (02) W + (N2) F, (F2) W + (N2) OK and others.).

On toxicity and corrosivity of components distinguish ЖРТ:

* on non-toxic and non-corrosive fuel components - (02g) hydrocarbon fuels, etc .;
* on toxic and corrosion-active components of the fuel - MMG, UDMH and especially (F2) g.

According to the number of fuel components used, one-, two-, and three-component control systems are distinguished.
In one-component remote control, which most often use pressure feed.

At the initial stage of development of auxiliary one-component remote control systems for satellites, spacecraft and spacecraft, high-concentration (80 ... 95%) hydrogen peroxide was used as a single-component fuel.

At present, such auxiliary propulsion systems are used only in the stage orientation systems of some Japanese PH.

For the remaining auxiliary one-component DUs, hydrogen peroxide is “displaced” by hydrazine, while an increase in the specific impulse by about 30% is ensured.
The widespread use of hydrazine in the LRE has been greatly facilitated by the creation of highly reliable catalysts with a long resource, in particular the Shell-405 catalyst.

The most widely mankind uses two-component TCs, which possess higher energy characteristics as compared to single-component ones. But two-component fuel rocket engines are more complex in design than single-component ones. Due to the presence of oxidizer tanks and fuel, more complex piping system and the need to ensure the required ratio of fuel components (coefficient Kto). In the remote control of the satellite, KK and KA often use not one but several tanks of oxidizer and fuel, which further complicates the system of pipelines of two-component remote control.

Three component RT in development. This is a real exotic.
RF patent for a three-component rocket engine.
The scheme of this LRE .

Such LRE can be classified as multi-fuel.
LRE on a three-component fuel (fluorine + hydrogen + lithium) was developed in OKB-456.

Two-component fuels consist of an oxidizer and fuel.
LRE Bristol Siddeley BSSt.1 Stentor: two-component LRE (H2O2 + kerosene)

Oxidizing agents


Chemical formula-O2 (oxygen, American designation Oxygen-OX).
Liquid, rather than gaseous oxygen-liquid oxygen (LOX-briefly and everything is clear) is used in the LRE.
Molecular mass (for the molecule) is 32g / mol. For lovers of accuracy: atomic mass (molar mass) = 15,99903;
Density = 1,141 g / cm³
Boiling point = 90,188K (−182,96 ° C)

In terms of chemistry, the ideal oxidant. It was used in the first ballistic missiles of the FAA, its American and Soviet copies. But his boiling point did not suit the military. The required operating temperature range is –55 ° C to + 55 ° C (long preparation time for launch, short time on alert).

Very low corrosivity. Production has long been mastered, the cost is small: less than $ 0,1 (in my opinion, cheaper than a liter of milk at times).

Cryogenic - necessary cooling and constant refueling to compensate for losses before the start. Also can spoil other TK (kerosene):

In the photo: shutters of kerosene refueling devices (ZU-2), for 2 minutes before the end of the cyclogram when performing the operation CLOSE due to icing not fully closed. At the same time, due to icing, the signal about the TUA exit from the launcher did not pass. Start held the next day.

The unit-tanker RB liquid oxygen removed from the wheels and installed on the foundation.

Difficult to use as a coolant and the COP nozzle rocket engine.


Now everyone is studying the possibility of using supercooled oxygen or oxygen in the slug-shaped state, in the form of a mixture of solid and liquid phases of this component. The view will be about the same as this beautiful ice slush in the cove to the right of Shamora:

Dream up: instead of H2About imagine LCD (LOX).

Scrooping will increase the overall density of the oxidizer.

Example of cooling down (hypothermia) BR P-9А: for the first time, it was decided to use supercooled liquid oxygen as an oxidizer in a rocket, which reduced the total preparation time of the rocket for launch and increased its combat readiness.

Note: for some reason, for the same procedure, he bent (almost "chmoril") Ilona Mask famous writer Dmitry Konanykhin.
In defense of the pasta monster Ilona Mask put in a word. Part of 1
In defense of the pasta monster Ilona Mask put in a word. Part of 2


Molecular mass = 48 Amu, molar mass = 47,998 g / mol
Fluid density at -188 ° C (85,2 K) is 1,59 (7) g / cm³
Density of solid ozone at −195,7 ° С (77,4 К) is equal to 1,73 (2) g / cm³
Melting point −197,2 (2) ° С (75,9 К)

For a long time, engineers suffered with him, trying to use as a high-energy and at the same time environmentally friendly oxidant in rocket technology.

The total chemical energy released by the combustion reaction involving ozone is greater than for simple oxygen, by about one quarter (719 kcal / kg). More will be, respectively, and Jud. Liquid ozone has a higher density than liquid oxygen (1,35 versus 1,14 g / cm³, respectively), and its boiling temperature is higher (−112 ° C and −183 ° C, respectively).

So far, an insurmountable obstacle is the chemical instability and explosion hazard of liquid ozone, decomposing it into O and O2, in which a detonation wave moving at a speed of about 2 km / s and destructive detonation pressure develops more than 3 · 107 dyn / cm2 (3 MPa) making the use of liquid ozone is impossible with the current level of technology, with the exception of the use of stable oxygen-ozone mixtures (up to 24% ozone). The advantage of this mixture is also a greater specific impulse for hydrogen engines, compared with ozone-hydrogen. To date, such high-performance engines as the RD-170, RD-180, RD-191, as well as booster vacuum engines have reached IU on parameters close to the limiting values, and to increase the UI, there is only one possibility associated with the transition to new fuels .

Nitric acid-HNO3

Condition - liquid at n.
The molar mass of 63.012 g / mol (no matter what I use molar mass or molecular weight is not changing the essence)
Density = 1,513 g / cm³
T. melt = - 41,59 ° C, T. kip. = 82,6 ° C

HNO3 has a high density, low cost, is produced in large quantities, is quite stable, including at high temperatures, fire and explosion proof. Its main advantage over liquid oxygen in high boiling point, and, consequently, in the possibility of being stored indefinitely without any thermal insulation. HNO nitric acid molecule3 - almost perfect oxidizer. It contains as a “ballast” a nitrogen atom and a “half” of a water molecule, and two and a half oxygen atoms can be used to oxidize fuel. But it was not there! Nitric acid is so aggressive that it continuously reacts with itself — hydrogen atoms split off from one acid molecule and join adjacent ones, forming fragile, but extremely chemically active aggregates. Even the most resistant grades of stainless steel are slowly destroyed by concentrated nitric acid (as a result, a thick greenish jelly, a mixture of metal salts, was formed at the bottom of the tank). To reduce the corrosivity of steel, various substances are added to nitric acid; in total, 0,5% hydrofluoric (hydrofluoric) acid reduces the corrosion rate of stainless steel by a factor of ten.

To increase the pulse rate, nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The addition of nitrogen dioxide to the acid binds the water entering the oxidant, which reduces the corrosive activity of the acid, increases the density of the solution, reaching a maximum at 14% dissolved NO2. The Americans used this concentration for their combat missiles.

For almost 20 years we have been looking for a suitable container for nitric acid. It is very difficult to select construction materials for tanks, pipes, and LRE combustion chambers.

An option of an oxidizing agent that was chosen in the USA, with 14% nitrogen dioxide. And our missilemen acted differently. It was necessary to catch up with the United States at all costs, so the oxidizers of the Soviet brands - AK-20 and AK-27 - contained 20 and 27% tetroxide.

Interesting fact: In the first Soviet rocket fighter BI-1, nitric acid and kerosene were used for flights.

Tanks and pipes had to be made from monel metal: an alloy of nickel and copper, it became a very popular construction material among the rocket men. Soviet rubles were almost 95% made of this alloy.

Disadvantages: tolerant "disgusting." Corrosive active. The specific impulse is not high enough. Currently in its pure form is almost never used.

Nitrogen tetroxide-AT (N2O4)
Molar mass = 92,011 g / mol
Density = 1,443 g / cm³

"Took the baton" from nitric acid in military engines. Possesses saomovosplamenemost with hydrazine, UDMH. Low-boiling component, but can be stored for a long time when taking special measures.

Disadvantages: the same crap as HNO3but with its quirks. May decompose to nitric oxide. Toxic. Low specific impulse. Often used and used oxidant AK-NN. It is a mixture of nitric acid and nitric tetroxide, sometimes referred to as "red fuming nitric acid." Numbers indicate percentage N2O4.

Basically, these oxidizing agents are used in the LRE for military purposes and the LRE spacecraft due to their properties: long-duration and self-igniting. Characteristic combustible for AT is UDMH and hydrazine.


Atomic mass = 18,998403163 a. e. m. (g / mol)
Molar mass F2, 37,997 g / mol
Melting point = 53,53 K (−219,70 ° C)
Boiling point = 85,03 K (−188,12 ° C)
Density (for the liquid phase), ρ = 1,5127 g / cm³

Fluorine chemistry began to develop since 1930-ies, especially quickly - during the years of 2-th world war 1939-45 and after it in connection with the needs of the nuclear industry and rocket technology. The name "Fluorine" (from the Greek. Phthoros - destruction, death), proposed by A. Ampere in the 1810 year, is used only in Russian; In many countries, adopted the name "Fluor". This is an excellent oxidizing agent in terms of chemistry. Oxidizes and oxygen, and water, and in general almost everything. Calculations show that the maximum theoretical Iud can be obtained on a pair of F2-Be (beryllium) -6000 order m / s!

Super? Bummer, not "super" ...

The enemy does not want such an oxidizer.
Extremely corrosive, toxic, prone to explosions when in contact with oxidizing materials. Cryogenic. Any product of combustion also has almost the same "sins": terribly corrosive and toxic.

Safety Instructions Fluorine is toxic, its maximum permissible concentration in air is about 2 · 10-4 mg / l, and the maximum permissible concentration at exposure of no more than 1 h is 1,5 · 10-3mg / l.

LRE 8Д21 use of a pair of fluorine + ammonia gave a specific impulse at the level of 4000 m / s.
For a pair of F2+H2 it turns out Iud = 4020 m / s!
The trouble: HF-hydrogen fluoride on the "exhaust".

Starting position after the launch of such an "energetic engine"?
A pool of liquid metals and other chemical and organic objects dissolved in hydrofluoric acid!
Н2+ 2F = 2HF, at room temperature, exists as H dimer2F2.

It is mixed with water in any respect with the formation of hydrofluoric (hydrofluoric) acid. And its use in the LRE KA is not realistic because of the murderous complexity of storage and the destructive action of combustion products.

All the same applies to the remaining liquid halogens, for example, to chlorine.

Hydrogen fluoride LRE 25 t for equipping both stages of the rocket booster AKC Spiral supposed to be developed in OKB-456 V.P. Glushko on the basis of spent LRE 10 t on fluoroammic (F2+ NH3) fuel.

Hydrogen peroxide-H2O2.

It is mentioned by me above in single-component fuels.
Walter HWK 109-507: advantages in the simplicity of the LRE design. A vivid example of such a fuel is hydrogen peroxide.

Hydrogen peroxide for luxurious hair "natural" blondes and 14 more secrets of its use.

Alles: the list of more or less real oxidants is over. Focusing on HClО4. As independent oxidants based on perchloric acid, they are of interest only: monohydrate (H2O + ClO4) - solid crystalline substance and dihydrate (2NO + HClO4) - tight viscous fluid. Perchloric acid (which is unpromising in itself due to Iod), is of interest as an additive to oxidizing agents, which guarantees the reliability of self-ignition of fuel.

Oxidizers can be classified as follows:

The final (more commonly used) list of oxidizers in conjunction with the real flammable ones:

Note: if you want to translate one variant of specific impulse into another, you can use a simple formula: 1 m / s = 9,81 with.

In contrast, they are combustible here. "heaps".


The main characteristics of two-component LRT at pc / pa = 7 / 0,1 MPa

According to the physico-chemical composition, they can be divided into several groups:
Hydrocarbon combustible.
Low molecular weight hydrocarbons.
Simple substances: atomic and molecular.

For this topic, for the moment, only hydrogen (Hydrogenium) is of practical interest.
Na, Mg, Al, Bi, He, Ar, N2Br2Si, Cl2, The2 and others. I will not consider in this article.
Hydrazine fuels ("stinkers").

Wake up to Sony - we got to alcohol (С2Н5ОН).

The search for the optimal fuel began with the development of LRE enthusiasts. The first widely used fuel was ethanol)used first
Soviet missiles Р-1, Р-2, Р-5 ("legacy" ФАУ-2) and on Vergeltungswaffe-2 itself.

Rather, the solution 75% ethyl alcohol (ethanol, ethyl alcohol, methyl carbinol, wine alcohol or alcohol, often simply colloquially "alcohol") is a monohydric alcohol with formula C2H5OH (empirical formula C2H6O), another option: CH3-CH2-OH
This fuel two serious drawbacks, which obviously did not suit the military: low energy indicators and low resistance of personnel to the "poisoning" of such fuel.

Supporters of a healthy lifestyle (spirits) tried to solve the second problem with the help of furfuryl alcohol. It is poisonous, mobile, transparent, sometimes yellowish (to dark brown), with time a liquid reddening in air. BARNES!

Chem. formula: C4H3AND2OH, Rat. formula: C5H6O2. Disgusting swill. To drink is not suitable.

Group of hydrocarbons.

Conditional formula C7,2107H13,2936
Combustible mixture of liquid hydrocarbons (from C8 to C15) with a boiling point in the range 150 — 250 ° C, clear, colorless (or slightly yellowish), slightly oily to the touch
Density - from 0,78 to 0,85 g / cm³ (at temperature 20 ° С);
viscosity - from 1,2 - 4,5 mm² / s (at temperature 20 ° С);
flash point from 28 ° С to 72 ° С;
calorific value - 43 MJ / kg.

My opinion: it’s pointless to write about the exact molar mass

Kerosene is a mixture of various hydrocarbons, so there are terrible fractions (in the chemical formula) and the "smeared" boiling point. Convenient high boiling fuel. Used for a long time and successfully worldwide in engines and in aviation. It is on it that the Unions still fly. Low toxicity (strongly do not recommend drinking), stable. Nevertheless, kerosene is dangerous and unhealthy (ingestion).
But there are people who treat them nothing! Ministry of Health strongly opposed!
Soldier tales: well helps to get rid of nasty Pthirus pubis.

However, it also requires caution when handling: passenger aircraft crash video

Significant advantages: relatively inexpensive, mastered in production. A kerosene-oxygen pair is ideal for the first stage. Its specific impulse on the ground is 3283 m / s, the empty 3475 m / s. Disadvantages. Relatively low density.

American Rocket Kerosene Rocket Propellant-1 or Refined Petroleum-1

About cheap was before.
To increase the density, the leaders of space exploration were developed by Sintine (USSR) and RJ-5 (USA).
Sintine synthesis.

Kerosene has a tendency to deposit tar in the highways and the cooling path, which has a negative effect on cooling. At this his bad property pedal Mukhin, Velor @Co.
Kerosene engines are most mastered in the USSR.

A masterpiece of human reason and engineering our "pearl" RD-170 / 171:

Now the term has become a more correct name for combustible on the basis of kerosene HCG- "hydrocarbon fuel", because from kerosene, which was burned in the safe kerosene lamps of I. Lukasevich and J. Zeh, the UVG used "went away" very long away.

As an example:naphthyl.

In fact, "Roskosmos" dezu gives out:
After fuel components are pumped into her tanks - naphthyl (rocket kerosene), liquefied oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, the space transportation system will weigh more than 300 tons (depending on the PH modification.

Low molecular weight hydrocarbons


Molar mass: 16,04 g / mol
Density gas (0 ° C) 0,7168 kg / m³;
liquid (−164,6 ° C) 415 kg / m³
T. melt = - 182,49 ° C
T. Kip. = - 161,58 ° C

Everyone is now considered as a promising and cheap fuel, as an alternative to kerosene and hydrogen.
Chief Designer NPO Energomash Vladimir Chvanov:
- The specific impulse of the engine for LNG is high, but this advantage is leveled by the fact that methane fuel has a lower density, so the total is a slight energy advantage. From a structural point of view, methane is attractive. To free up the cavities of the engine, you only need to go through a cycle of evaporation - that is, the engine is easier to get rid of residual products. Due to this, methane fuel is more acceptable from the point of view of creating a reusable engine and a reusable aircraft.

Inexpensive, common, stable, low toxic. Compared to hydrogen, it has a higher boiling point, and the specific impulse paired with oxygen is higher than that of kerosene: about 3250-3300 m / s on the ground. Good cooler.

Disadvantages. Low density (twice lower than that of kerosene). In some modes of combustion, it can decompose with carbon in the solid phase, which can lead to a drop in the pulse due to the two-phase flow and a sharp deterioration in the cooling mode in the chamber due to the deposition of soot on the walls of the CS. Recently, active NOR and R & D in the field of its application (along with propane and natural gas), even in the direction of modification, are already existing. LRE (in particular, such work was carried out on RD-0120).

“Roskosmos” already in 2016 year began to develop a power plant on liquefied natural gas.

Or "Kinder Surpeis", as an example: Space X American Raptor engine:

These fuels include propane and natural gas. Their main characteristics, like combustible, are close (with the exception of greater density and higher boiling point) to HCG. And there are the same problems with their use.

Apart among combustible positioned Hydrogen-H2 (Liquid: lh2).

The molar mass of hydrogen is 2 016 g / mol or approximately 2 g / mol.
Density (when n. U.) = 0,0000899 (at 273 K (0 ° C)) g / cm³
Melting point = 14,01K (-259,14 ° C);
Boiling point = 20,28K (-252,87 ° C);

Use of a LOX-LH pair2 proposed by Tsiolkovsky, but implemented by others:

In terms of thermodynamics H2 an ideal working body for both the LRE itself and the TNA turbine. Excellent cooler, with both in the liquid and in the gaseous state. The latter fact makes it possible not to be particularly afraid of the boiling of hydrogen in the cooling path and to use the gasified hydrogen in this way to drive the THA.

This scheme is implemented in the Aerojet Rocketdyne RL-10-just smart (from an engineering point of view) engine:

Our counterpart (even betterbecause younger): RD-0146 (D, DM) is a gas-free liquid-propellant rocket engine developed by the Design Bureau of Chemical Automation in Voronezh.

Especially effective with a nozzle nozzle from the material "Grauris". But not yet fly

This TC provides a high specific impulse-paired with oxygen 3835 m / s.

Of the actually used is the highest rate. These factors cause a keen interest in this fuel. Environmentally friendly, at the "outlet" in contact with O2: water (water vapor). Distributed, almost unlimited reserves. Mastered in production. Non-toxic. However, there are a lot of fly in the ointment in this barrel of honey.

1. Extremely low density. Everyone saw the huge hydrogen tanks of the PH Energia and the Space Shuttle Space Shuttle. Due to its low density, it is applicable (as a rule) in the upper stages of the LV.

In addition, low density poses a difficult task for pumps: multi-stage hydrogen pumps to ensure the required mass flow and not to cavitate.

For the same reason, you have to put a so-called. booster fuel pumping units (BNAG) immediately behind the intake device in the tanks, in order to facilitate the life of the main TNA.

Also, hydrogen pumps for optimal conditions require a significantly higher rotational speed of the TNA.

2. Low temperature. Cryogenic fuel. Before refueling, it is necessary to carry out many hours of cooling down (and / or overcooling) of tanks and the entire path. Bucky PH "Falocn 9FT" - inside view:

More about "surprises":
FSUE "GKNPTs them. Mv Khrunicheva, Salyut; "Moscow Aviation Institute (State Technical University)
The paper describes the main mathematical models of heat and mass transfer processes in the tank and highways of oxygen-hydrogen overclocking block 12KRB. Anomalies in the supply of hydrogen in the LRE are revealed and their mathematical description is proposed. The models were worked out during bench and flight tests, which made it possible to predict the parameters of serial overclocking units of various modifications on their basis and make the necessary technical decisions to improve pneumatic-hydraulic systems.

The low boiling point makes it difficult to pump into tanks and store this fuel in tanks and storages.

3. Liquid hydrogen has some gas properties:
Compressibility factor (pv / RT) with 273,15 K: 1,0006 (0,1013 MPa), 1,0124 (2,0266 MPa), 1,0644 (10,133 MPa), 1,134 (20,266 MPa), 1,277 (40,532 MPa);
Hydrogen can be in ortho and para states. Orthohydrogen (o-H2) has a parallel (of the same sign) orientation of nuclear spins. Para-hydrogen (p-H2) -anti-parallel.

At normal and high temperatures H2 (normal hydrogen, n-Н2) is a mixture of 75% ortho- and 25% para-modifications, which can mutually turn into each other (ortho-para-transformation). When turning oh2 in pn2 heat is released (1418 j / mol).

This all imposes additional difficulties in the design of highways, LRE, THA, cyclograms of work, and especially pumps.

4. Hydrogen gas, faster than other gases, spreads through space, passes through small pores, and at high temperatures penetrates steel and other materials relatively easily. H2g has a high thermal conductivity, equal when 273,15 K and 1013 hPa 0,1717 W / (m * K) (7,3 with respect to air).

Hydrogen in the normal state at low temperatures is inactive, without heating it reacts only with F2 and in the light with cl2. Hydrogen interacts with non-metals more actively than with metals. It reacts with oxygen almost irreversibly, forming water with release of 285,75 MJ / mol of heat;

5. With alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, elements of group III, IV, V, and VI of the periodic system, as well as with intermetallic compounds, hydrogen forms hydrides. Hydrogen reduces the oxides and halides of many metals to metals, unsaturated hydrocarbons to saturated ones (see Hydrogenation).
Hydrogen gives up its electron very easily. In solution, it detaches in the form of a proton from many compounds, causing their acidic properties. In aqueous solutions, H + forms a hydroxonium ion H with a water molecule.3A. Being part of the molecules of various compounds, hydrogen tends to form a hydrogen bond with many electronegative elements (F, O, N, C, B, Cl, S, P).

6. Fire hazard and explosiveness. You can not rassusolivat: everyone knows an explosive mixture.
A mixture of hydrogen with air explodes from the slightest spark in any concentration - from 5 to 95 percent.

So there is hydrogen and gut (even Excellent), and at the same time "headache" (even severe headache).
The first law of dialectics: "Unity and the struggle of opposites" /Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel/

Impressive Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME)?

Now estimate its cost!
Probably, after seeing this and considering the costs (the cost of putting the 1 kg into PN orbit, the legislators and those who steer the US budget and NASA in particular ... decided "well, it's in FIG."
And I understand them - on the Soyuz RN it is both cheaper and safer, and using the RD-180 / 181 removes many of the problems of American RN and significantly saves the taxpayers ’money in the richest country in the world.

The best rocket engine is such an engine that you can produce / buy, while it will have a load in the required range (not too big or small) and will be so effective (specific impulse, pressure in the combustion chamber) that its price will not become too heavy for you. / Philip Terekhov @ lozga

The most mastered hydrogen engines in the United States.
Now we are positioning on the 3-4 place in the “Hydrogen Club” (after Europe, Japan and China / India).

Separately mention solid and metallic hydrogen.

Solid hydrogen crystallizes in a hexagonal lattice (a = = 0,378 nm, c = 0,6167 nm), in the nodes of which H molecules are located2interconnected weak intermolecular forces; density 86,67 kg / m³; C ° 4,618 J / (mol * K) at 13 K; dielectric. At pressures above 10000 MPa, a phase transition is expected with the formation of a structure built of atoms and possessing metallic properties. Theoretically predicted the possibility of superconductivity "metallic hydrogen".

Solid hydrogen is a solid state of hydrogen.
Melting point −259,2 ° C (14,16 K).
Density 0,08667 g / cm³ (at −262 ° C).
White snow-like mass, crystals of hexagonal syngony.

The Scottish chemist J. Dewar in the 1899 for the first time received hydrogen in a solid state. For this, he used a regenerative cooling machine based on the effect Joule-Thomson.

Trouble with him. He is constantly lost: "Scientists have lost the world's only sample of metallic hydrogen". It is understandable: a cube was obtained from molecules: 6х6х6. Just "giant" volumes - right now, "refill" the rocket. For some reason it reminded me "Nanotank of Chubais". This nano miracle can not find already 7 years or more.

Anamason, antimatter, metastable helium while I leave behind the scenes.

Hydrazine Fuels ("Stinkers")

A condition at NU. - colorless liquid
Molar mass = 32.05 g / mol
Density = 1.01 g / cm³

Very common fuel.
It is stored for a long time, and it is “loved” for it. It is widely used in remote control of spacecraft and ICBM / SLBM, where long-duration is of critical importance.

Who was embarrassed by Iud in the dimension of H * s / kg I answer: this designation is "loved" by the military.
Newton is a derived unit, based on Newton's second law it is defined as the force that changes the speed of a body with a mass of 1 kg per 1 m / s in the direction of the force in 1 seconds. Thus, 1 H = 1 kg · m / s2.
Accordingly: 1 N * s / kg = 1 kg · m / s2* s / kg = m / s.
Mastered in production.

Disadvantages: toxic, smelly.
For humans, the degree of toxicity of hydrazine is not determined. According to S. Krop's calculations, 0,4 mg / l should be considered a dangerous concentration. Ch. Comstock with employees believes that the maximum allowable concentration should not exceed 0,006 mg / l. According to later American data, this concentration is reduced to 8 mg / l at 0,0013-hour exposure. It is important to note at the same time that the threshold of olfactory sensation of hydrazine in humans significantly exceeds the indicated numbers and is equal to 0,014-0,030 mg / l. Essential in this connection is the fact that the characteristic smell of a number of hydrazino derivatives is felt only in the first minutes of contact with them. Subsequently, as a result of the adaptation of the organs of smell, this sensation disappears, and the person, not noticing it, can stay for a long time in an infected atmosphere containing toxic concentrations of the substance.

Hydrazine vapor explodes during adiabatic compression. It is prone to decomposition, which, however, allows it to be used as a monofuel for small thrust (LPDMT) thrusters. Due to the development of production is more common in the United States.

Asymmetric dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH) -H2NN (CH3)2
Хим. формула:C2H8N2,Рац. формула:(CH3)2NNH2
A condition at NU - liquid
Molar mass = 60,1 g / mol
Density = 0,79 ± 0,01 g / cm³

Widely used on military engines as a result of its durability. With the development of technology ampulyatsii - almost all problems have disappeared (except for disposal and accidents allowances).

It has a higher impulse compared to hydrazine.

Density and specific impulse with main oxidants below kerosene with the same oxidizers. Self-ignite with nitric oxidants. Mastered in production in the USSR.

Favorite fuel V.P.Glushko. Not the favorite fuel of my OZK and the surrounding wildlife.

I can write a whole article about its nasty properties (based on the operation of the C-200 air defense system).

It is used, as a rule, with nitric oxidants on LRE MBR, SLBMs, KA, and on our Proton- *.

Disadvantages: extremely toxic. The same "skunk", like the rest of the "skunk". An order of magnitude more expensive than kerosene.

Hydrazine is extremely poisonous

To increase the density is often used in a mixture with hydrazine, the so-called. aerosin-50, where 50 is the percentage of UDMH. More common in the USSR.
And in the jet engine of a French fighter-bomber Dassault Mirage III (I recommend a good video) UDMH is used as an activating additive to traditional fuels.

About hydrazine fuels.

The specific thrust is equal to the ratio of thrust to weight fuel consumption; in this case, it is measured in seconds (s = N · s / N = kgf · s / kgf). To convert the weight specific gravity to the mass, it must be multiplied by the acceleration of gravity (approximately equal to 9,81 m / s²)

Behind the scenes left:
Aniline, methyl, dimethyl and trimethylamines and CH3NHNH2-Methylhydrazine (aka monomethylhydrazine or heptyl), etc.
They are not so common. The main advantage of the flammable hydrazine group is its long-term retention when using high-boiling oxidizers. To work with them is very unpleasantly-toxic combustible, aggressive oxidizing agents, toxic products of combustion.

In professional jargon, these fuels are called "stinky" or "stinky."

It can be said with a high degree of confidence that if there are “smelly” engines on the LV, then "before marriage" she was a combat missile (ICBM, SLBM or anti-aircraft missiles - which is already rare). Chemistry in the service and the army and the citizen.

The only exception is, perhaps, the Ariane PH - the creation of a cooperative: Aérospatiale, Matra Marconi Space, Alenia, Spazio, DASA, etc. It was passed away like a similar fate in the “girlhood”.

The military almost all switched to solid-propellant rocket motors, as more convenient to operate. The niche for smelly fuels in the space program has narrowed down to use in the spacecraft remote control, where long-term storage is required without any special material or energy costs.
Perhaps a brief overview can be expressed graphically:

Rocket men are actively working with methane. There are no particular operational difficulties: it allows for a good pressure increase in the chamber (up to 40 MPa) and get good performance.
(РД0110МД, РД0162. Methane projects. Perspective reusable launch vehicles) and other natural gases (LNG).

On other directions to improve the characteristics of the LRE (combustible metallization, the use of He2, acetam and other) I will write later. If there is interest.
Using the effect of free radicals is a good perspective.
Detonation burning is an opportunity for a long-awaited jump to Mars.


in general, all missile launchers (except for NTK), as well as an attempt to make them at home, are very dangerous. I suggest to carefully read:
26-year-old Chris Monger, father of two children, decided to prepare rocket fuel at home, following instructions, spied on YouTube. The mixture, which he cooked on the stove in a saucepan, exploded as expected. As a result, the man received a huge number of burns and spent five days in the hospital.

All household (garage) manipulations with such chemical components are extremely dangerous, and sometimes illegal. It is BETTER to not approach the places of their spill without OZK and gas mask:

As with spilled mercury: to call the Ministry of Emergency Situations, they will quickly arrive and they will pick everything up professionally.

Thank you all who could endure all this to the end.

Primary Sources:
Kachur P. I., Glushko A.V. "Valentin Glushko. Designer of rocket engines and space systems", 2008.
G.G. Gahun "Design and design of liquid rocket engines", Moscow, "Mechanical Engineering, 1989.
The possibility of increasing the specific impulse of a liquid rocket engine
when helium SA is added to the combustion chamber. Orlin MGTU them. N.E. Bauman, Moscow
M.S.Shehter. "Fuel and working bodies of rocket engines", Mechanical Engineering "1976
Zavistovsky D. I. "Conversations about rocket engines".
Phillip Terekhov @lozga (
"Types of fuel and their characteristics. Fuel is combustible substances used to produce heat. Fuel composition The fuel part is carbon C-hydrogen H-sulfur." ​​- Oksana Kaseeva
Fakas SS "Fundamentals of the LPRE. Working body"
Photo and video materials from sites are used:
The television studio of Roskosmos
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  1. EvgNik
    EvgNik 5 March 2017 16: 13 New
    Thank you, Anton, with humor about serious things - you need to be able to do this.
    And with kerosene I treated a sore throat (a diluted gargled throat), but I don’t remember whether this remedy helped or not.
    1. Cat
      Cat 5 March 2017 16: 32 New
      Pancake......!!! request
      I always read the beginning, I’ve already begun to figure out which pipe to donate to the rocket! He mastered the article with two approaches and a break for dinner and ..... at the end
      Chris Monger, 26, the father of two, decided to make rocket fuel at home according to instructions spoken on YouTube. The mixture he was cooking on the stove in the pan exploded as expected. As a result, the man received a huge amount of burns and spent five days in the hospital.

      I already said goodbye to the pipe, and then the “bummer", apparently I'm not good at rocketry. Spouse for a crutch ... wassat
      Thank you for the article, smiled, although I'm not a techie at all !!!
      1. EvgNik
        EvgNik 5 March 2017 16: 50 New
        Quote: Kotischa
        Thank you for the article, smiled, although I'm not a techie at all !!!

        And I, Kotische, worked as an apparatchik for the oxygen station K 0,15, so I am very familiar with liquefied gases.
      2. opus
        5 March 2017 18: 13 New
        Quote: Kotischa
        which pipe to donate to the rocket!

        Find such (creation by Karl Nyberg):

        if you modify the nozzle, into the Laval nozzle: ready LRE.
        By the way, the gas-dynamic effect of the jet will be able to cut stones (this was done during the USSR)
        1. Cat
          Cat 5 March 2017 20: 54 New
          Not ......! Dear Anton, this is all complicated for me!
          Having read your research, I went on a different principle!
          He took a pipe with a diameter of 50 mm, drowned one end with a sledgehammer, poured water, and in the other drove a stalk from a shovel 15 cm long.
          With a daughter, they made a fire in the garden when the ground thawed with a plugged end thrust a pipe vertically into the ground. It all took about three hours. After about 15-20 minutes there was a boom and a flight of a piece of the cuttings about 9 meters high straight to the neighbor’s roof! The benefit is not the window or the roof of the car. A missile is not a rocket, but something similar to a mortar happened. The only bad thing is that the pipe is deformed.
          And so everyone is happy! Even the neighbor that the gift fell on the roof, not out the window !!!
          1. opus
            5 March 2017 22: 02 New
            Quote: Kotischa
            it's all complicated for me!

            can be easier

            Another toy was sold like this: racket + pump, there is always water.
            I dabbled in childhood.
            Iud- small
            Quote: Kotischa
            Even the neighbor that the gift fell on the roof, not out the window !!!

            mine, when firecrackers start to run without me: the hotbeds break through to the core (well, they don’t want to think that the guide is broken and there is no stabilization.
            He transferred them to the water
            1. Dr. Sorge
              Dr. Sorge 6 March 2017 18: 25 New
              I’m afraid of Chinese people, in my childhood I was not afraid of either magnesium or cerium (like from a tram) .... But these Kytai farts are scary. Somehow unsafe they are made.
        2. Vadim237
          Vadim237 5 March 2017 21: 27 New
          Maybe someone will someday make a combination - GVRZHU hypersonic, direct-flow liquid, rocket boosters, with a falling stream, liquid-fueled liquid Hydrogen - Kerosene - Beryllium.
        3. Vladimir K
          Vladimir K 8 March 2017 21: 58 New
          For the Laval nozzle to work, the pressure in the combustion chamber must be at least 1 / 0,565 = 1,77 atm (at k = 1,2). In this case, we get a critical outflow from the nozzle. When using a blowtorch, the pressure in the combustion chamber is slightly higher than atmospheric and the speed of sound at the nozzle exit cannot be obtained. To implement a primitive rocket engine according to this scheme, it is necessary to supply compressed air to the combustion chamber from the compressor, or from a cylinder (after the gearbox, of course).
          1. opus
            11 March 2017 15: 10 New
            Quote: Vladimir K
            To implement a primitive rocket engine according to this scheme, it is necessary to supply compressed air

            So we did (serially).
            But I will get and on the groove (suction) atmospheric with a cutoff
            See ramjet pulsation-detonation. It's simple, well, briefly and incorrectly and on the fingers,
      3. Bongo
        Bongo 6 March 2017 03: 49 New
        Quote: Kotischa
        I always read the beginning, I’ve already begun to figure out which pipe to donate to the rocket!

        I remember a stormy childhood! belay Naturally, I did not build rockets with LRE, but I experimented with solid propellants very widely. I tried various gunpowders, the best results in range and altitude were achieved in mixed fuels based on magnesium and aluminum. The main problem was to find a suitable pipe and to choose the size of the nozzle. Fortunately, there were no casualties, although there were destruction. lol
        Anton, article "upper class" - read in one go! good It would be interesting to continue:
        I can write a whole article about its nasty properties (based on the operation of the C-200 air defense system).
        - This topic is close to me!
        Hydrogen peroxide for luxurious hair of "natural" blondes and 14 secrets of its application.
        “There are many more secrets, but I will not reveal them!” belay I am sure that you are aware of what I mean. wink
        1. opus
          6 March 2017 10: 49 New
          Quote: Bongo
          I am sure that you are aware of what I mean.

          Well, the thing.
          I feel you, I got it right at night fishing / hunting yesterday (I forget everything about the time difference)
          =============== Ready for 8 March?
          1. Bongo
            Bongo 6 March 2017 13: 52 New
            Quote: opus
            I feel you, I got it right at night fishing / hunting yesterday (I forget everything about the time difference)

            No, fishing-hunting, by coincidence, did not work, although the weather is just right. Not cold, at night below -30 does not fall ...
            Quote: opus
            Ready for March 8?
            Partially ... it’s not possible to fully prepare for this! belay
    2. Cat man null
      Cat man null 5 March 2017 16: 50 New
      Quote: EvgNik
      And with kerosene I treated a sore throat (a diluted gargled throat), but I don’t remember if this remedy helped or not.

      - and with what bred? It's me that kerosene does not dissolve in water wink
      1. opus
        5 March 2017 18: 04 New
        Quote: Cat Man Null
        - and with what bred?

        in oil (not machine of course): olive, sunflower, corn, etc.
        even kerosene is bred in shampoo (pediculosis is treated, there are glycerins, but only technical k! it’s impossible to use rocket-propelled: otherwise it’s a kovtun) and in honey diluted in water
        Or in alcohol ((what barbarity). 100% alcohol does not exist (there is water)
        Quote: Cat Man Null
        that kerosene does not dissolve in water

        BAD dissolves
        r-in in kerosene at (or vice versa) 18 ° 0,005%
        raise the temperature and? voila - solubility increases
        but kerosene elegantly dissolves the glue base on which the louse egg is attached to the hair .. good
        1. Cat man null
          Cat man null 5 March 2017 18: 11 New
          Quote: opus
          ... more kerosene ...

          - Anton hi
          - I cannot be original - the article is wonderful, but “thick” and long. When reading, it requires the inclusion of mozha, which is not typical for articles on BO ... laughing
          - Thanks for the article, I heard and read about many things before, and here "everything and in one bottle" ... cool good

          About kerosene:
          - once painted a bridge (railway, huh ... with a spray gun of increased dustiness, huh ...), after the shift, washed the muzzle around the eyes and eyes this same kerosene
          - from the kettle belay Undiluted fellow

          Therefore, in fact, it was of interest - but why (and why) do you need to breed it so that you gargle? what
          1. opus
            5 March 2017 18: 36 New
            Quote: Cat Man Null
            requires the inclusion of the brain,

            They say that those who drive a car from youth to old age - Alzheimer (do you remember Reagan?) despised.

            I drive almost from the cradle. Alz does not seem to be threatened.

            Mohg stress prevents dementia.
            Do you remember Frau Clint?

            Quote: Cat Man Null
            and then "all in one bottle."

            Duc and wanted ... thinking then floating.
            Still me comrade Smirnov forced all photos to be uploaded to the topvar (html you see the wrong system) ...
            Well, something like this "word for word .... ** on the table," and the brick was born.
            Threat. I took out my family, switched to neighbors, and took them out. in the steam room they say to me "from **" get away on the cultural
            I will consider
            Quote: Cat Man Null
            after the shift, he washed off the muzzle around the eyes and eyes with this very kerosene

            what a tin. could be burned!
            oil (olive oil is better for oneself, well, and glamorous)
            1. Cat man null
              Cat man null 5 March 2017 18: 56 New
              Quote: opus
              what a tin. could be burned!

              - now I understand that too request
              - Washed not with a jet, of course, but with a carefully wrung rag
              - at the same time, the eyelashes remained ... the color of the bridge (steel), the people in the trolley bus, when driving home, got a little tense. Well, and the smell ... no matter how I wash, the painter, he is the painter laughing

              Quote: opus
              oil (olive oil is better for oneself, well, and glamorous)

              - in 1983? Olive? Not in this life...
              1. opus
                5 March 2017 19: 08 New
                Quote: Cat Man Null
                Not in this life

                was, was.
                We always had good relations with the descendants of the Romans (except for 2 MB):
                famous destroyers 7ki, AvtoVAZ, Palmiro Togliatti streets and avenues.
                Yes, in principle, and sunflower would do.
                Quote: Cat Man Null
                washed muzzles around the eyes and eyes with this very kerosene

                I remembered here: there was one smearing glue on the trees (which rats are caught intentionally), got stuck, and still leaned against it, I couldn’t take anything (tin sticks), the soap would not be washed with water.
                I got to the basement, wrapped my teeth in white spirit, poured it on the river, barely smashed, then smeared the "tender hands" on the 2 of the day, the skin on my hands (sales on mine) went nuts.
                and you face / eyes!
                Extreme though.
                1. Cat man null
                  Cat man null 5 March 2017 19: 12 New
                  Quote: opus
                  Extreme however

                  - was young, healthy and stupid fool

                  Quote: opus
                  Yes, in principle, and sunflower would suit

                  - I switched to it ... somewhere in the second week starting.

                  Quote: opus
                  glue (on which rats are caught tightly), got stuck, and still leaned against, I can’t take up anything (tin sticks), the soap will not be washed with water ...

                  - Now there is no worse: foam sealers for joints, for example. Washes off only with skin laughing
                  1. opus
                    5 March 2017 19: 30 New
                    Quote: Cat Man Null
                    - was young, healthy and stupid

                    When I “worked” with UDMH and AT (well, there I’ll lick the badge of the belt, put the buttons on the form in order again, dissolve the frogs, etc.), despite the OZK, I always insured myself with soap or something greasy.
                    as my son says during the experiments, "dad is something stupid for me" (and dumps over the radius of defeat), and I understand him
          2. Lekov L
            Lekov L 5 March 2017 21: 24 New
            - I cannot be original - the article is wonderful, but “thick” and long. When reading, it requires the inclusion of mozha, which is not typical for articles on BO ...

            This is bad, that is not typical! It is good that the brain turns on! Thank you so much to Anton!
            I join further with my arms and legs, and most of all with my head!
            - Thanks for the article, I heard and read about many things before, and here "everything and in one bottle" ... cool

      2. Agent_017
        Agent_017 5 March 2017 19: 37 New
        Well, in lemonade or milk ... I used to hear about such a canoe, around the 1970s. It was all over. Of course, I did not have to have such an experience, but it is also interesting. Kerosene can be diluted with similar fluids. But he certainly does not mix with water ...
    3. Was mammoth
      Was mammoth 5 March 2017 20: 01 New
      Quote: EvgNik
      I treated sore throat with kerosene ... (

      Have you tried to drive lice? wink It helps!
      The smell of an oxidizing agent is probably still being taught. wink
      1. EvgNik
        EvgNik 6 March 2017 05: 24 New
        Quote: Was Mammoth
        Have you tried to drive lice?

        There were no lice, just there were none. But the bugs poisoned.
  2. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 5 March 2017 16: 27 New
    Dear Anton [opus]! Such articles should be divided into 3 parts, at least so that
    they have become "readable."
    And each of them will become: super. good
    1. corporal
      corporal 5 March 2017 17: 43 New
      Quote: voyaka uh
      Such articles should be divided into 3 parts,

      Yes, fine, I launched it in parallel
      burning wood in a fireplace,
      and, enough for the whole article laughing
      Anton, the article is really good, but long.
      1. avt
        avt 5 March 2017 18: 15 New
        Quote: Corporal
        Anton, the article is really good, but long.

        Normal Just used to clip performance. And so beautiful, witty good And in the bottom line, well, to summarize, chemical rockets have reached their limit and a qualitative leap is not reached, even if you fill everything with hydrofluoric acid. The so-called deep space, and even more so in the manned version, will be mastered on fundamentally different physical technologies.
        1. opus
          5 March 2017 18: 38 New
          Quote: avt
          And in the dry residue

          Yes. Nearly. Now the struggle for cents per kg and for the environment.
          I will try to write about the "anameson" if anyone remembers wink
          1. Lekov L
            Lekov L 5 March 2017 21: 32 New
            I will try to write about the "anameson" if anyone remembers

            Anton! Hello!
            Only without the "garage" recipes. And then to the Andromeda nebula one thread straight from Podlipok starts ...
            Sincere pleasure from the material, thank you very much. good
            The yellow bald spots on the territory of the technical division are especially vividly recalled.
            UDMH and nitrogen they are ... wink
            Sincerely ...
            1. Cat man null
              Cat man null 5 March 2017 21: 41 New
              Quote: Lekov L
              And then to the Andromeda nebula, someone thread starts directly from Podlipok ...

              - why - from Podlipok? Why - from Finger ?! belay
              - set aside, ban ... I live here !! stop
              1. Lekov L
                Lekov L 5 March 2017 21: 59 New
                So I am about the same - we do not need garage recipes - podlipki sorry.
                And the cats that live there ... hi
            2. opus
              5 March 2017 21: 57 New
              Quote: Lekov L
              The yellow bald spots on the territory of the technical division are especially vividly recalled.

              This is next time:

              Nick Rimer
              At the cosmodrome grass is not growing. No, not because of the fierce flames of engines that journalists like to write about. Too much poison is spilled on the ground during refueling of carriers and during emergency dumping of fuel, during rocket blasts on the launching pad and small, inevitable leaks in worn-out pipelines.
              But this spaceport is not earthly.

              "- And they call people cabmen.
              - Reptiloid pointing to me short paw. "

              - Are you an astronaut, granddaughters? - asked grandma. More approving than questioning. My jacket was too characteristic.

              We were always told about the great future. About the happiness of mankind. After all, I built communism ... then capitalism ... tried ... We all endured for this. For the sake of the future, for the sake of happiness ... Now you are building a stellar future. Boy, do you believe that this is not in vain?

              Do these people believe in the stellar future of mankind? Do they need it, wrapped up in transport problems and interruptions in the heating of apartments, planned power outages and high cost of products? What space gave them - besides fear of alien worlds and tortured pride for planet Earth, for its spaceships - the fastest in the Galaxy...

              Lukyanenko S./"Stars cold toys "
            3. opus
              6 March 2017 10: 53 New
              Quote: Lekov L
              Anton! Hello!

              podlipovskih cats still feel sorry.

          2. avt
            avt 5 March 2017 21: 52 New
            Quote: opus
            I will try to write about the "anameson" if anyone remembers

            Ehhhhhh! Sounds great!
            Quote: opus

            good Straight breathed Soviet fiction Efremova !! Starships, Andromeda nebula ..... all the same, it was real then MEANINGS! And ,, We were born to make a fairy tale come true, to overcome space and space! "Today, more and more, seh and whiskey, but Coccari Caribbean." request
          3. ICT
            ICT 6 March 2017 05: 41 New
            Quote: opus
            I will try to write about the "anameson" if anyone remembers

            barely remembered, about the "Luts" also do not forget
        2. Dzafdet
          Dzafdet 11 March 2017 20: 57 New
          that's for sure, otherwise we’ll revolve around the planet ... drinks
      2. opus
        5 March 2017 19: 52 New
        Quote: Corporal
        Anton, the article is really good, but long.

        and then firewood in the fireplace? Lafa.
        I'm going to set fire, or what?
        Skro Snowden will be shown: 500 grams of whiskey and a fireplace, for an interesting film. It soothes
    2. opus
      5 March 2017 18: 06 New
      Quote: voyaka uh
      Such articles should be divided into 3 parts, at least so that

      "brevity is the soul of wit"...
      Looks like this mister passed me by.
      / I will try, it often brings me up. I wanted everything about the liquid propellant rocket engine, because the trace of the solid propellant rocket engine, electric propulsion engine, nuclear engine, photonics.
      rather fuel for them
      1. EvgNik
        EvgNik 5 March 2017 18: 26 New
        Quote: opus
        "brevity is the soul of wit"

        Okay, Anton, I read it in one breath, it’s very exciting, on the contrary, I don’t really like short articles. But kerosene, I threw up warm water, you can chat with a spoon to the funnel and look for it. Withstood 1 time, incredible disgusting.
        1. opus
          5 March 2017 19: 51 New
          Quote: EvgNik
          Withstood 1 times, incredible disgusting.

          We experimented with nadis with iodine:
          amusing chemistry + smart disinfection.
          They felt like astronauts when flying to the moon
      2. Mordvin 3
        Mordvin 3 5 March 2017 18: 50 New
        And there is a ruble-dollar coin, in the photo, it was made of an alloy of luminium with titanium, from P-12, and not copper-nickel.
        1. opus
          5 March 2017 19: 00 New
          Quote: mordvin xnumx
          from P-12, not copper-nickel.

          For PR, what kind of crime just do not go.
          All right good
      3. AUL
        AUL 5 March 2017 19: 24 New
        I read it with difficulty, but I do not regret it. I learned a lot of interesting things. The article is not one of those that ran diagonally and shouted "Uryayaya." Requires the inclusion of a co-device. I agree with Voyaka - the article should be divided into 2 - 3 parts for better readability. But the article is very informative.
  3. Petrol cutter
    Petrol cutter 5 March 2017 16: 32 New
    Hmm. Once again I was convinced that chemistry is not mine. But the photos are impressive of course. repeat
    1. opus
      5 March 2017 18: 53 New
      Quote: Benzorez
      Hmm. Once again I was convinced that chemistry is not mine.

      Yes, quit. everything is simple there. Humanity has been “exploiting” physics and chemistry longer than female labor (a hint at March 8).
      Start simple.
      1. I mastered the technology in 2016 (before my hands didn’t reach, but here the garden was filled up with apples: stop five hundred tons) of production: cider, moonshine, calvados, etc.
      solid CHEMISTRY.
      2. After the production according to item 1, 4 liters of “goals” were accumulated (you can’t drink, what a pity alcohols with strength 75-80%)
      -chic "soft" solvent, a natural-based cleaner (varnish + nocti, stove and cleaning, stainless steel refrigerator with a bang) with a pleasant apple smell.
      - excellent and not harmful medium for a fire (barbecue, barbecue)
      -The coolest yesterday showed tricks to the family:
      I doused my hand with “heads”, carried it over the fire, the hand turned into a torch (something like that, ONLY Naked HAND, without a “cover”, sorry we didn’t shoot)

      my son had eyes at 12 $
      - then he doused his hand with “heads”, waited 40 seconds, his hand in the liquid, wet, carried through the center of the fire (slowly): the hand does not burn, I do not burn for how long.
      my son had eyes at 17 $
      PS. the wife didn’t let the fire dragon show, the reason: "you are drunk Xanf is drunk for extreme sports."
      Threat 2. If you are going to try, it is better to start with a model of hands
      otherwise my neighbor splashed 400cl of gasoline into the fire in the fall (the damp was not burning).
      almost emulation of ammunition of a volumetric explosion came out (no eyelashes, washed his pants)
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 5 March 2017 21: 31 New
        For volumetric explosion ammunition, liquefied gas mixed with aluminum “powder” is best suited
        1. opus
          5 March 2017 21: 42 New
          Quote: Vadim237
          For volumetric explosion ammunition, liquefied gas mixed with aluminum “powder” is best suited

          what is not available at home, incl. I (the neighbor) was lucky.
          Threat. you are more careful with the distribution of SUCH information: the FSB, ISIS and all that.
          competent comrades will not understand this
          1. Vadim237
            Vadim237 5 March 2017 22: 56 New
            In this case, the main proportion and the third component - which I did not mention.
      2. region58
        region58 6 March 2017 02: 19 New
        Quote: opus
        scored 4 liters of "goals"

        This ... why ... this is according to the most modest estimates of normal 80 liters it turned out ... a good harvest !!! good
        1. opus
          6 March 2017 11: 07 New
          Quote: region58
          This ... why ... this is according to the most modest estimates of normal 80 liters it turned out ... a good harvest !!!

          lied a bit (in 2 times), the canister is not 10, but 5

          there is 20 liters of mash of 12% strength (+/- the hydrometer is lying shamelessly), which means that the total alcohol content is 12% * 20 = 2,4 l (100% alcohol is a theory).
          The first 8-12% of the yield of pure alcohol cannot be drunk.
          These are the heads, translating by fortress in ml, we determine the volume of heads

          second distillation:
          Before double distillation, the strength is measured, the amount of pure alcohol is determined, for example, 1 liter 40% contains 400 ml of pure alcohol (this is necessary for the selection of fractions in the third stage), then moonshine is diluted with cool water to 20%. First 8-12% of the output Pure alcohol (identified at the first stage) can not be drunk, this is a harmful fraction
          like this on 100-300 ml and half a can is gained.
          and there were a lot of apples (I have almost a ton in compost: they are sporty, no one can eat soaked, paddles, etc.)
          Threat you have the device in the photo, as in India. without a steamer winked
      3. Amurets
        Amurets 6 March 2017 02: 24 New
        Quote: opus
        .After production according to claim 1, 4 liters of “goals” were accumulated (you can’t drink, what a pity spirits with a strength of 75-80%)

        And V-2 flew on this pair: 75% alcohol and Oxygen. So the finished steam stir up the rocket.
        1. opus
          6 March 2017 11: 08 New
          Quote: Amurets
          So the finished steam stir up the rocket.

          it’s difficult with the rail.
          Or displacement (tightness) - if something gets loose
          or tna- but where can I get it?
          1. Amurets
            Amurets 6 March 2017 11: 39 New
            Quote: opus
            or tna- but where can I get it?

            Here is the problem too.
      4. Locksmith
        Locksmith 6 March 2017 09: 09 New
        Quote: opus
        otherwise my neighbor splashed 400cl of gasoline into the fire in the fall (the damp was not burning)

        laughing vividly reminded army youth — they sent a young Uzbek to the fleet, ordered him to bring half a liter of tanning beds, didn’t want to light up the stove in a tent on raw larch, runs in, brings a can, we ask for a solarium? Nods affirmatively-well then mold in the stove .....
        Such a woman, the stove breaks into components - we are sitting in full out, as the pancake did not burn the tent laughingIt turned out brought a bastard of gasoline.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 6 March 2017 11: 51 New
          Quote: Locksmith
          vividly reminded army youth — they sent a young Uzbek to the fleet, ordering him to bring half a liter of solarium

          A similar situation, but with the opposite effect. We had some kind of tramp in our fuel and lubricants warehouse, God forbid touch it, the scandal did not turn out. As a stoker managed to dial it, the mind is incomprehensible. So the bucket of this rubbish disabled heating for a week, the boiler just did not want to burn and give heat. Tolley smoke, felts vapor from this rubbish extinguished any flame.
  4. thinker
    thinker 5 March 2017 17: 05 New
    Phew, mastered, very, very informative. I would like to continue on solid fuel.
    1. opus
      5 March 2017 18: 08 New
      Quote: thinker
      I would like to continue on solid fuel.

      Necessarily. I began to develop taxiway with solid propellant rocket engine .... poor cattle of neighbors in the village.
      Babahs were test
      1. demiurg
        demiurg 5 March 2017 18: 53 New
        By the way, then it turns out that I, dabbling with nitrated paper, used two-component solid fuel? lol
        1. thinker
          thinker 5 March 2017 19: 06 New
          Well, we used a one-component film wrapped in candy foil. And then they began to make a non-combustible film yes
          1. avt
            avt 5 March 2017 22: 00 New
            Quote: thinker
            Well, we used a one-component film wrapped in candy foil.

            Yes-ah-ah .... Old as the world, but it wasn’t interesting from the foil. We guys found a thin-walled one I don’t remember what, but probably a duralumin, finely cut and densely stuffed. So Musk with his return-dumb plagiarist laughing laughing
            Quote: thinker
            And then they began to make a non-combustible film

            It was a tragedy! When the first time I got non-combustible and it dawned on us that everything, flights to orbit stopped. bully I had to switch to cordon aviation. laughing
            1. Curious
              Curious 6 March 2017 00: 30 New
              Soviet industry for a long time produced rulers, patterns, squares, which burned no worse than film. A candy foil is not suitable. The one from which the caps of milk bottles were made is good.
        2. opus
          5 March 2017 19: 12 New
          Quote: demiurg
          used bicomponent solid fuel?

          Well with a stretch probably, yes.
          as an example
          : 2x component TT, it is: solid fuel containing brown coal and the addition of clinoptilolite composition (Na2, K2) ОАl2О310SiO28H2O
      2. region58
        region58 6 March 2017 01: 51 New
        Quote: opus
        Quote: thinker
        I would like to continue on solid fuel.

        Necessarily. I began the development of RD with RDTT ....

        Then it would be nice about the engines themselves, and about their manufacturers ... It would be nice ... hi And then many people think that okromya RD-180 there is nothing ...
        1. opus
          6 March 2017 14: 22 New
          Quote: region58
          then many think that okromya RD-180

          badly mistaken.
          There is a lot of time before Cosmonautics Day.
  5. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 5 March 2017 17: 06 New
    Well written!
  6. Des10
    Des10 5 March 2017 17: 20 New
    Awesome article!
    Greetings - CPI / DPA Faculty.
    Direct joy from the native, competent and clever presentation of information.
    Thank you!
    1. opus
      5 March 2017 18: 58 New
      Quote: Des10
      Greetings - CPI / DPA Faculty

      Now this is the aerospace faculty of the Polytechnic Institute of SUSU

      Hi colleague
      1. Des10
        Des10 5 March 2017 21: 07 New
        Yes, I did not finish my studies, I was recovering and again ... three times laughing but memory and the hostel are "deuce" ...
        And then MEPhI, in another specialty, but - LA, the construction team (Okha, Sakhalin) and friends can not be forgotten.
  7. andrewkor
    andrewkor 5 March 2017 18: 42 New
    And I read that the best working fluid for a rocket engine is mercury. On ancient murals somewhere in India, an aircraft with such an engine is depicted !!
    1. opus
      5 March 2017 20: 13 New
      Quote: andrewkor
      And I read that the best working fluid for a rocket engine is mercury.

      That is still an infection: highly toxic to any life form.
      For LRE does not roll (large second flow)
      1. Mercury stocks (without CIS) -500 thousand tons, including in Spain-250, Italy-100, USA-50, Canada-15, Mexico-15, Turkey-9, Algeria-8; mean. resources possessed by Japan, Bolivia, Peru, China, Slovakia. The mercury content in ores from 0,05 to 6-7%.
      / don't get enough /
      2. reversible reaction with increasing T
      2Hg + O2 ---> <--- 2HgO (over 340 grC)
      + Uniquely durable complexes with ligands (do not scrape off the path and criticism will be)
      For ERD it is preferable (in a cocktail with xenon) - the highest ionization potential
      The mercury contained in the titanium tank is squeezed out of it for feeding into the engine an elastic diaphragm from neoprene rubber). At the 5-th conference on electric rocket engines in the USA (March 1966), Hughes reported on its developed liquid metal cathode for mercury ion engines in the Lewis Center); in this cathode, similar to the one used for a long time in mercury rectifiers and arc gas discharge lamps, a forced supply (by a piston pump) of a working substance (mercury) for operation in zero gravity conditions is used). Mercury flows out through a small hole in the molybdenum cathode, forming a meniscus). Resource tests of the cathode lasted more than 5000 hours, of which more than 4000 hours - on an ion engine.

      The specific impulse was in the range of 3000 — 8000 sec
  8. demiurg
    demiurg 5 March 2017 18: 51 New
    Well written :))
    My, as usual, subjective opinion. Chemical fuel is close to perfection. Those. actually exhausted the reserves of improvement. Increasing the efficiency by 5-7-10% is not serious. Missiles with chemical fuel, like ICE, are overgrown with whistles and coils, but no radical improvements are seen.
    Anton, you as a person closer to the stars than I say, what in the future? Electric rocket engines, global launch systems?
    1. opus
      5 March 2017 19: 20 New
      Quote: demiurg
      Anton, you as a person closer to the stars

      Yes, I'm far from the stars now.
      I think that until we master gravity, chemistry cannot be dispensed with.
      There is potential: free radicals and detonation combustion, for example
      A deep space: certainly NRE (more promising than ERD)
      No, of course, if it is possible to "dig up antimatter (my opinion is not so far from us), then photonics

      I will write: the USSR had amazing achievements

      But this is only in the solar system:

      Deep space without Jamp and gnawing holes in the metric
      1. avt
        avt 5 March 2017 22: 03 New
        Quote: opus
        No, of course, if you manage to "dig up antimatter

        The main theme of the hadron collider in Switzerland is to try to synthesize particles. And they rubbed people on the search for “particles of God.”
  9. Agent_017
    Agent_017 5 March 2017 19: 39 New
    Thank you for the article. But this is probably not mine. Everything is interesting, but for institutions. I can’t do such technologies at home or in the garage ... Well, thanks for the enlightenment of the brain, it smoked ...)))
  10. A1845
    A1845 5 March 2017 19: 47 New
    Article offset! good
    did not find about a pair of methanol-hydrogen peroxide
    for some reason the British used it (if I don’t confuse winked )
    did not understand what it is remarkable for, explain plz? hi
    1. opus
      5 March 2017 20: 03 New
      Quote: A1845
      did not find about a pair of methanol-hydrogen peroxide

      methanol is relatively expensive (270 $ / t in 2000)
      muck still that
      methanol as fuel: volumetric and mass energy consumption (calorific value) of methanol (specific calorific value = 22,7 MJ / kg) is 40 — 50% less than gasoline.
      Density again (this is critical for rocket tanks): density = volume, volume = tare: parasitic mass
      I ud so-so.
      Threat. it’s even strange to me that none of the rocket launchers yells: and they used UDMH on fig if hydrazine
      Lyapnu already:
      high freezing point (higher than that of water) + 1,50 ° C
      UDMH: -58 ° C
      the military certainly did not suit + 1,50 ° C
      UDMH and MMG are less explosive, absorb less water vapor, are thermally more stable than hydrazine.
      UDMH self-igniting (with AT and AK) is better, T flash is lower.
      Tk and density in UDMH are worse than in hydrazine.
      But the military satisfied.

      on a special assignment from the head of OKB-456, V.P. Glushko, the State Institute of Applied Chemistry (GIPH) developed a process for the industrial synthesis of asymmetric dimethylhydrazine (UDMH).

      "Aerosin-50" used by the Americans on their liquid rockets is a mixture of hydrazine and UDMH, which was a consequence of the process in which they were obtained simultaneously.
      density, Tk, Tk
      water - 1,00 g / cm3, 0 ° and 100 ° С,
      hydrazine - 1,01 g'cm3, 1,5 - 2 ° С and 11 3,5 ° С,
      hydrazine hydrate - 1,03 g / cm3, —51,7 ° С and 119,5 ° С.
      At our latitudes it’s hard to imagine (in those days for sure) the missiles in thermostabilizing containers on combat alert.
      required operating temperature range from –55 ° C to + 55 ° C
      therefore, nitric acid was abandoned in favor of AT (“amyl”) only when silos and TS containers appeared

      and ummg is more expensive than hydrazine in production (in my opinion% on 7-15)
      Yes, and had to master the pr-in.
      and hydrazine already "was":
      To obtain hydrazine on an industrial scale, two methods are mainly used now - oxidation of urea with sodium hypochlorite in an alkaline medium and the process of the interaction of ammonia with chlorine in an aqueous solution of caustic soda, developed back in 1907 by the chemist Friedrich Raschig
      UDMH stocks have the same bunch:
      Explosive concentration limits for mixtures of UDMH with air: from 2 to 99% UDMH by volume. Therefore, it is better to prevent its contact with air.
      - it is oxidized by oxygen;
      - interacts with carbon dioxide contained in air (in this case, solid salts are formed);
      - like hydrazine, UDMH absorbs moisture from the air.
      because of this, UDMH is recommended to be stored under a nitrogen “pillow”.

      Asymmetric dimethylhydrazine is a good solvent. Therefore, it swells, losing strength and density, most of the known cushioning materials. The exception is only some special rubbers, polyethylene and, of course, “plastic platinum” - fluoroplast-4.
      1. A1845
        A1845 5 March 2017 20: 32 New
        Now a lot of discussion is a pair of oxygen - methane. And somewhere they wrote that with an excess of methane in the fuel tract, coke is deposited request is that true?
        1. opus
          5 March 2017 21: 35 New
          coke and methane are like identical twins and two-faced Janus
          methane cokes reversibly, it contains too much hydrogen (specific)
          Kerosene: C12.3H23.9 methane CH4
          The decomposition of methane begins at 800 deg C, and the optimal pyrolysis temperature is of the order of 1200 deg C. In kerosene, decomposition begins at lower temperatures.
          Threat according to the test results of KVD1М and RD0146 in the flow paths of soot engines was not found

          but it’s cheap and its dofig (in density and efficiency is between kerosene and hydrogen): rocketers have already begun to get nervous about the impending reduction in the production of rocket kerosene
          On distant planets there is again (no need to drag on yourself)
  11. Operator
    Operator 5 March 2017 20: 02 New
    The article made a standard error in such topics - the specific impulses of fuels are given without indicating the pressure in the combustion chamber of the rocket engine and the degree of expansion of the nozzle.

    In this regard, the article cannot be used as a source of information on rocket engines.
    1. opus
      5 March 2017 21: 12 New
      Quote: Operator
      The article made a standard error in such topics - the specific impulses of fuels are given without indicating the pressure in the combustion chamber of the rocket engine and the degree of expansion of the nozzle.

      Well, the operator you "give"

      and why only Rk and Ra?
      but other?
      and the scheme

      and Tk (and the material of the COP)?

      and free radicals in reaction products?
      What about the shape of the nozzle?
      and additives?
      The possibility of increasing the specific impulse of a liquid rocket engine when helium is added to the combustion chamber
      / MSTU them. N.E. Bauman, Moscow,
      Quote: Operator
      In this regard, the article cannot be used as a source of information on rocket engines.

      1. Article about ROCKET FUELX (Liquid specifically), and not about "ZhRD (engines)"
      Missile saga FUELS"not about rocket engine same legend
      Quote: Author
      "... And there is nothing new under the sun"
      (Eccliaste 1: 9).

      but I didn’t pretend fool
      1. Operator
        Operator 5 March 2017 21: 29 New
        Additives are all about nothing, the article in the tables shows specific fuel vapors.

        A simple thing helps to avoid details such as the degree of expansion of the LPRE nozzle - changing the name of the indicator to "specific impulse in vacuum".

        But it is necessary to designate the pressure in the LRE combustion chamber at which the specific impulse was measured / calculated, otherwise one can also "successfully" compare the specific ICE parameters of the 1900 and 2000 models with different pressures in the cylinders.
        1. opus
          5 March 2017 21: 49 New
          Quote: Operator
          A simple thing helps to avoid details such as the degree of expansion of the LPRE nozzle - changing the name of the indicator to "specific impulse in vacuum".

          It’s still necessary to get beyond the Pocket line!
          And further.
          and why only about RK then?
          and Kmo, and alpha (I remember the Japs tried to make a ceramic ICE without cooling)
          What about the nozzle? Laval is one, the cone is different, and the puck in criticism is the third.
          article about fuels (repeat, if Che) and not about the design of the taxiway
          1. Operator
            Operator 5 March 2017 21: 54 New
            What does the flight altitude have to do with it - the reservation on measurement in vacuum allows you to remove the question of the degree of expansion of the nozzle.

            As for ceramic ICE - promising does not mean getting married laughing

            "Designs" LRE: host - barin (C)
    2. Lekov L
      Lekov L 5 March 2017 21: 46 New
      The article can not be used as a source of information on the LRE.

      Dear Operator, the article does not pretend to be a reference book.
      It is called strictly and modestly Saga (!), Which inspires and corresponds. hi
      And he wrote her Opus. And the saga he succeeded, a colleague, and a list of reference material - see the list of references (there is at the end of the article)
      Anton, thank you for a lot of positive emotions at the end of the workday. drinks
      1. Operator
        Operator 5 March 2017 21: 49 New
        Well, if only so - as an entertaining fiction, but something tells me that the author’s intention was exactly the opposite (judging at least by the number of letters) laughing
  12. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 5 March 2017 20: 38 New
    Thank you, although a lot of letters, but interesting
    1. opus
      5 March 2017 21: 25 New
      Quote: Aviator_
      Thank you, although a lot of letters, but interesting

      beech a little less foty.
      you can read., I think wink
  13. Falcon5555
    Falcon5555 5 March 2017 20: 58 New
    I did not find anything about the idea that I once read about - a recombination engine on 2H -> H_2.
    Of course, there is an ambush with storage of H in atomic form. But the flow rate would be monstrous.
    1. opus
      5 March 2017 21: 24 New
      [quote = Falcon5555] I did not find anything about the idea I once read about - the recombination engine on 2H -> H_2. [/ quote]
      [quote = Author] At ordinary and high temperatures, H2 (normal hydrogen, n-H2) is a mixture of 75% ortho and 25% para-modifications that can mutually transform into each other (ortho-para-conversion). When o-H2 is converted to p-H2, heat is generated (1418 J / mol). [/ Quote]
      [quote] When at temperatures above 3000 K, virtually all hydrogen exists as atomic. If such a gas is quickly cooled, then we get atomic hydrogen. When it is recombined in gas burners, the reaction 2H = H2 proceeds with the release of a large amount of heat. [/ Quote]

      conscience must have --->
      [quote = Author] Anamezon, antimatter, metastable helium for now I will leave behind the scenes. [/ quote]
      fluorine and metallic hydrogen were enough. [/ quote]
      [quote = voyaka uh] Dear Anton [opus]! Such articles nadd to 3 parts, minimumTo
      they became "readable." [/ quote]

      N2 is generally unique; Gridasov generally believes that all other chemical elements consist of variations (number) of H atoms / molecules
      1. Falcon5555
        Falcon5555 5 March 2017 21: 49 New
        At temperatures above 3000 K, almost all hydrogen exists as atomic. If such a gas is quickly cooled, then we get atomic hydrogen. When it is recombined in gas burners, the reaction 2H = H2 proceeds with the release of a large amount of heat.

        Is this also a quote from your text? I do not see her. Sorry if that.
        1. opus
          6 March 2017 11: 09 New
          Quote: Falcon5555
          I do not see her

          it held in mind.
          everything does not climb
        2. gridasov
          gridasov 2 May 2017 10: 50 New
          Well, how are the children! Hydrogen cannot exist even in atomic form as a uniform element or substances in properties in various parts of the stream and jets. In some zones it is in contact with the surface of the outflow, in others it is in contact as a stream with jets in various kinetic states. Therefore, the structure of the plasma, namely, hydrogen during combustion processes, must be considered in the same way as the structure of the hydrodynamic flow. I mean the methodology for analyzing the properties and processes of transformation. In general, the process itself, which we are considering in terms of changing "temperature", should be considered in terms of the interaction of magnetic force processes. This is extremely important and then everything becomes clear.
      2. gridasov
        gridasov 2 May 2017 10: 34 New
        What I believe does not completely deny and does not contradict the knowledge of scientists. including Anton. Question in another. The question is the optimization of processes and the real improvement of engine performance. Look at that. There are a lot of terms. but nobody can tie all this together. Work is done simply for the sake of work. and not for the sake of purpose, flying is easy, safe and cheap. By the way, the text contains such information about which I did not know, but it is an additional proof of my innocence. . Thank you very much for that.
        The last sentence wrongly quotes me. I did not write about the variation of atoms and molecules. I wrote about a completely different structure of what you mean by both an atom and a molecule. And it is precisely variations of the same so-called hydrogen under different conditions. That is, by properties, the same element is infinite, but systemically different from, for example, a "stable" element. It is not the structure of atoms or molecules that changes. and the magnetic force flows forming the local gravitational space, which we perceive as the body of an atom, are changing, but in fact this is the space of that. what is called in common people "black hole". All this means that it is necessary to study not only static isotopes or isomers of elements. and the algorithms of their transformations under various conditions of interaction of their magnetic force flows with other polarization systems. Let me remind you once again that scientists misunderstand the most important state of any substance or body - their state in highly dynamic contact, and this is precisely the basis of knowledge about interactions.
  14. silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 5 March 2017 21: 28 New
    A wonderful article) ... as a person involved in the launch of missiles for various purposes, BUT who is not a specialist in refueling and fuels, in general, I just discovered a lot of interesting things for myself ...
  15. A1845
    A1845 5 March 2017 21: 31 New
    There was her fashionable pentaborane theme, at least in aviation
    didn’t it reach the rocketers?
    1. opus
      5 March 2017 21: 39 New
      Quote: A1845
      didn’t it reach the rocketers?

      B5H11 is very toxic and flashes immediately upon contact with air (a drop of shed and amba)
      1. A1845
        A1845 5 March 2017 22: 22 New
        Glushko seemed to consider a pair of pentaborane - hydrogen peroxide ideal
        but in reality?
      2. Vadim237
        Vadim237 5 March 2017 23: 02 New
        For the scramjet, it is in the mixture.
      3. Amurets
        Amurets 6 March 2017 02: 14 New
        Quote: opus
        B5H11 is very toxic and flashes immediately upon contact with air (a drop of shed and amba)

        Anton! Thank you for the article! Very interesting. Pentoboran, if my memory serves me, they tried to use the Valkyries in the XB-70 engines.
        “To reduce the required fuel supply and the size of the aircraft, Boeing and North American decided to switch to hydrogen fuel, which was proposed as fuel in the Soviet Union by the chemist Yu. V. Kondratyuk in 1929. Preference was given to pentaborane, although diborane and decaborane were also investigated. Pentaboran has a lower density compared to kerosene and, accordingly, takes up a larger volume, but, characterized by high heat of combustion ("high calorie content", as they said at that time), allows to reduce the fuel mass of a long-range aircraft. The North American project, with the take-off weight reduced to almost 200 tons, the cruising number M increased from subsonic to 1,5-2,0, the maximum number M increased to 3, and the flight range of 9600 km was reached at a cruising altitude of 15000 m.
        The first failure was associated with boron fuel. It turned out to be very expensive, highly toxic and difficult to manufacture. At the same time, the flight range during its use increased, as it turned out, only by 10%. "
        In the rail, it seems they did not even try to use it. Or am I wrong?
        1. opus
          6 March 2017 11: 18 New
          Quote: Amurets
          In the rail, it seems they did not even try to use it. Or am I wrong?

          RD-270M (Glushko) for variations of UR-700
          Glushko exotic N2O4 / Pentaborane rocket engine
          Index: 8D420M. Status: 1962-1970 Research. Date: 1962-70. Thrust: 7,159.00 kN (1609407 pounds). Specific Impulse: 365 sec. Specific momentum at sea level: 340 s.
          (not M in the photo)

          huge toxicity, but increased engine specific impulse by 42 seconds
          1. Amurets
            Amurets 6 March 2017 12: 09 New
            Quote: opus
            huge toxicity

            “At the same time, the flight range with its use increased, as it turned out, only by 10%. By the spring of 1959, when the manufacture of the model of the aircraft was completed, a plant worth $ 45 million was built by order of the Air Force to produce hydrogen boron fuel, which however, it was never launched, since in August of the same year the development of hydrogen fuel and the J95-GE-5 engine, "
            At this point, the Americans said that the Russians were good at ... warming them.
            “Its use, of course, provided greater combustion energy compared to kerosene, but at the same time, the exhaust gases of the engines contained many toxic substances, which forced all ground personnel to work in a state of permanent chemical warfare.” I really liked this moment — a war with my own the staff.
        2. A1845
          A1845 6 March 2017 15: 01 New
          Americans kept unused pentaborane reserves for about 50 years, until they learned how to dispose of it.
          That's an ambush smile
          1. Amurets
            Amurets 6 March 2017 16: 34 New
            Quote: A1845
            Americans kept unused pentaborane reserves for about 50 years, until they learned how to dispose of it.
            That's an ambush smile

            So these are expenses, and not small ones.
  16. Evgenijus
    Evgenijus 5 March 2017 21: 48 New
    Good author outlined the material. Very accessible and interesting, with examples. I, as a missile, it was interesting to read. At the position of the Р-12 I spent 8 years (in the starting battery), I remember a lot of cases about liquid fuel and its harmfulness for soldiers and those with stars on their shoulder straps. He kept the textbook on liquid fuel, taught him soldiers, but did not strain them with formulas, and the emphasis in training was on the safety of handling CTDs. Effective was the occupation when nitric acid (AK-27I) was poured onto a pile of brushwood. A pillar of fire after hissing under the branches was effective! And cotton and a pillar of fire when overturning the floor of a bucket of hydrogen peroxide on an oiled jacket also convinced the soldiers in danger of this liquid. There was no need to talk a lot about TM-185 - the smell drove the soldiers away from the warehouse with КРТ better than the words of the instructor. But the badges of their belts advanced "grandfathers" still cleaned with nitric acid. Young warriors with bad initiative lost their badges, for the wire was broken and the plaque dissolved into molecules.
    And here is the textbook, I keep it as a rarity:
    Thanks to the author for the article wink
    Right after reading, I remembered my service and a field cap with holes from an oxidizer. It was a matter of youth ...
    1. opus
      6 March 2017 11: 19 New
      Quote: Evgenijus
      . The pillar of fire after hissing under the branches was effective! And the cotton and the pillar of fire, when capsizing the floor of a bucket of hydrogen peroxide on an oiled jacket, also convinced the soldier of the danger of this liquid. P

      How I adore such stories.
      Gotta try it carefully
      1. Evgenijus
        Evgenijus 6 March 2017 12: 02 New
        No, I do not advise ...
        In the comments there is already an example of "experience" ...
        Practical application in everyday life - oxidizer etching of printed circuit boards. But it was in those far dashing times when people read the magazine "Radio". In my bathroom, under the bathroom, there was a liter bottle of AK27i, but I hid it far to the wall so that the children would not get there.
        1. opus
          6 March 2017 14: 20 New
          Quote: Evgenijus
          No, I do not advise ...

          Yes, I can handle
          Quote: Evgenijus
          they lost their plaque, because the wire then broke off and the plaque dissolved into molecules.

          First you passivate (iron titanium, zirconium and alloys based on them) in concentrate, then quickly use it (until the film has eaten).
          Chromium cast iron generally on the drum.
          Glass, porcelain, acid resistant ceramics.
          And with the munus, in general, everything flows sluggishly.
          Polyethylene holds well and natural rubber

          And by the way: maleic acid hydrazide is a stimulant for the growth of potatoes, sugar beets, grapes, and tobacco.

          Quote: Evgenijus
          so that the children do not get.

          My children are scientists
          1. Evgenijus
            Evgenijus 6 March 2017 14: 36 New
            I still do not advise ...
            Need a lab, security measures, and more.
            No, I will not go to the company, your desires are not curbed ... stop
  17. Rabinowicz
    Rabinowicz 6 March 2017 00: 17 New
    Thanks, cool article and a lot of pictures and information.

    This is a dangerous business, fuel. And unpredictable. We need something fundamentally different, new and safe.
  18. Pajamas
    Pajamas 6 March 2017 01: 57 New
    Applaud standing, my respect. I well imagine the work of writing such a volume with tables, links, photographs, especially in a poorly formatted environment. The material is presented amazingly, it can be said encyclopedically, read with pleasure, eagerly distracted by related stories and "texture". Thank.
  19. Filxnumx
    Filxnumx 6 March 2017 07: 08 New
    many thanks to the author for the information provided. it is a pity that this is not an article, but only a synopsis, theses. were afraid of water or that modernization will not miss such a volume? I look forward to continuing. good luck to you
    1. opus
      6 March 2017 11: 23 New
      Quote: Fil743
      were afraid of water or that modernization will not miss such a volume?

      water (check and so showed 30% of water)
      but the volume is limited on topvar (I already lost 3 times “tails”)
  20. Old26
    Old26 6 March 2017 08: 58 New
    Thank you so much for the article. Sometimes it seems that the presence (albeit rare) of such articles compensates for the “lull” on “Topvar”

    Quote: thinker
    Well, we used a one-component film wrapped in candy foil.

    Well, we also used artillery gunpowder. There was an opportunity to use
    1. opus
      6 March 2017 11: 24 New
      Quote: Old26
      There was an opportunity to use

      Now it’s better to forget about these opportunities.
      competent authorities and comrades will not understand this. you can easily get the term "for no reason" .....
  21. trahterist
    trahterist 6 March 2017 09: 46 New
    It is sincerely written, with humor, but quite intelligibly lol
  22. Dr. Sorge
    Dr. Sorge 6 March 2017 11: 27 New
    Anton, thank you very much! As if the Soviet popular science magazine had reopened!
    These are not legend destroyers for you. All with formulas and physics!
    I put a lot of advantages !!!
    1. opus
      6 March 2017 14: 10 New
      Quote: Dr. Sorge
      As if the Soviet popular science magazine had reopened!

      Tea on the "Technique of Youth" childhood passed in the kindergarten
      Thanks for "thanks
      1. Dr. Sorge
        Dr. Sorge 6 March 2017 18: 15 New
        Young technician, amateur radio library :)
  23. 3vs
    3vs 6 March 2017 12: 00 New
    A man did a great job of writing an article - what a list of references!
    I bow to the brains of people creating this!
    1. opus
      6 March 2017 14: 55 New
      Quote: 3vs
      I bow to the brains of people creating this!

      The people who created the space rocket. And they did it all.
      Yes, the titans.
      we are proud of and worship them.
      My role here is not great: to create and run not write P-16.
      Thank you for reading
  24. Old26
    Old26 6 March 2017 15: 12 New
    Quote: opus
    Now it’s better to forget about these opportunities.
    competent authorities and comrades will not understand this. you can easily get the term "for no reason" .....

    They can. can. Moreover, it is now "independent" laughing
    That's just EMNIP foil was taken either from chocolates, or from empty tubes of toothpaste hi
    1. xtur
      xtur 12 March 2017 18: 59 New
      > That's just the EMNIP foil was taken either from chocolates, or from empty tubes of toothpaste

      it looks like a wrapper for filter cigarettes - we used foil with paper only with us
  25. Pajamas
    Pajamas 6 March 2017 16: 36 New
    The great thing is the symbiosis of childhood and Soviet education, since everyone remembers, then I will share it. At the initial stage, we dabbled with calcium carbide and then began to add newspapers saturated with nitrate, but the rocket more often broke than “flew”, experimented with hydroperide and hydrogen peroxide, but it was rarely possible to catch the correct ratio, we were amused by crystallizing iodine from iodine in alcohol solutions, it was good luck to find a magnesium ingot , but dabbled in with the "luminium". The pinnacle of creativity was a product from H2SO4 + HCI + cotton wool. Remembering now how it all happened, I am very surprised that with quite frequent amusements, all the time in the red was only burnt clothing and chemical burns, and my eyebrows had been burned a couple of times. good
    1. Locksmith
      Locksmith 6 March 2017 18: 04 New
      Quote: Pajama
      H2SO4 + HCI + cotton wool

      The middle part of the formula should include nitric acid, not hydrochloric laughing
      1. Dr. Sorge
        Dr. Sorge 6 March 2017 18: 16 New
        Yes, it’s strange, did the inventors succeed in that? :)
        1. opus
          6 March 2017 18: 45 New
          Quote: Dr. Sorge
          Yes, it’s strange, did the inventors succeed in that? :)

          H2SO3 + Cl2 + H2O -> <--- H2SO4 + 2HCl.
          Cotton chemistry: cellulose (95-96%) and impurities (fatty, coloring, mineral, waxy). Since the main component of the fiber is cellulose, of which the walls of the tube are composed, it is precisely on its properties that the chemical properties of the cotton fiber depend mainly.
          (C6H10O5) n
          Acids destroy fiber, make it brittle

          can cellulose hydrolysis go?
          (C6H10O5) n + nH2O ---> nC6H12O6
          Glucose will heap?
      2. Dr. Sorge
        Dr. Sorge 6 March 2017 18: 20 New
        And I generally missed about sulfuric acid in chemistry, I thought why it does not dissolve .... belay The chemist withheld the full recipe ...
        1. opus
          6 March 2017 19: 47 New
          Quote: Dr. Sorge
          And I generally missed about sulfuric acid in chemistry,

          Sulfuric, however, as well as hydrochloric acid, we have been tyring constantly.
          with zinc - a great opportunity to get hydrogen

          With some dexterity, filling in a regular balloon and remembering that
          A mixture of hydrogen with air explodes from the slightest spark in any concentration - from 5 to 95 percent.

          excellent light-noise [d] grenades [/ d]

          Well, if you pass the resulting hydrogen through a soap solution, get an interesting foam, then

          Hydrogen in general "an animal is useful, that I don’t understand, or what"
          It is only necessary to observe the PB and to get good at the Soviet school
          in schools used to be taught hard
      3. Pajamas
        Pajamas 7 March 2017 00: 34 New
        Quote: Locksmith
        Quote: Pajama
        H2SO4 + HCI + cotton wool

        The middle part of the formula should include nitric acid, not hydrochloric laughing

        Quite right, old age is not a joy, as long as everyone remembered the roof and drove off, as I myself don’t know, of course HNOz. I’ve been gone for 35 years now, I remember at least what you can drink and what not. )))
    2. Dr. Sorge
      Dr. Sorge 6 March 2017 18: 19 New
      I remember how my friend “sweets” cooked .... On a wooden floor in the kitchen I poured a jar of coffee with boiling sugar and siltra when everything was burning on gas :) Cooked sweets .... Theoretically, it was necessary to do this in a water bath .. .. In short, in the evening he already painted the floor, cut the curtains ...
  26. Banishing liberoids
    Banishing liberoids 6 March 2017 18: 38 New
    Anton hi Your style and your articles are truly masterpieces from a specialist! hi Thank you so much!
  27. 113262a
    113262a 6 March 2017 21: 38 New
    And what about combined and TT engines, will my uncle talk about?
    1. opus
      16 March 2017 11: 58 New
      TT, then combined, then NRE, ERD and "anamezon"
  28. e_krendel
    e_krendel 7 March 2017 17: 17 New
    Smiled about the ice on Chamor :) Not only everyone knows about it, few know! wink Especially about the bay next to it :)
    And the article is interesting.
    1. opus
      8 March 2017 16: 20 New
      Quote: e_krendel
      few people know!

      But everyone knows about the snow-ice captivity on the Neva

      But it's not as aesthetically pleasing as Chamor
  29. Nick
    Nick 7 March 2017 18: 33 New
    An article for the magazine "Young Chemist". For the Military Review, it is too cumbersome and too specific. A school course in Chemistry and Physics may not be enough.
  30. Antokha
    Antokha 9 March 2017 14: 35 New
    Great stuff! Thank you so much.
    1. opus
      9 March 2017 22: 20 New
      Quote: Anton
      Thank you so much.

      I will consider the namesake.
  31. oreh72
    oreh72 9 March 2017 18: 49 New
    Anton! Thanks so much for the article! I even wanted to climb onto the mezzanine and look for lecture notes on the chemistry of rocket fuels that were read in Mozhaika.
    1. opus
      9 March 2017 22: 21 New
      [quote = oreh72] I even wanted to climb onto the mezzanine and look for lecture notes on the chemistry of rocket fuels [/ quote]
      you are welcome.
      Probably print: [quote] Saga of rocket fuels-but on the other hand[/ Quote]
      There you will pick me up
  32. gridasov
    gridasov 1 May 2017 21: 01 New
    Like any professional auditor, there is no need to investigate the huge amount of information in the process of moving funds, but it is necessary, in balance, to see what happened and what we have, and in this case you can not read everything written. After all this verbosity it remains to ask: "What are we did you come? " And we came to a deadlock, which means that the path was chosen not logical and not right. Everything is said that “Whatever type of RD (scheme, nature of the process) is used in rocket technology, its intended purpose is to create thrust (force) by converting the initial energy stored in the RT into the kinetic energy (Ek) of the working jet body. " Therefore, it is worth adding that kinetic energy is created by the potential energy of the fuel substance, which creates an explosive impulse. And even if this is not understood, then there are no words. and further discussions are canceled. But then what can have such an energy density, that it remains to find the necessary technology for extracting energy from this substance. I do not give an answer because everyone knows. which gives the highest combustion temperature, but also in the short-term period of this process. So the answer is clear that not a single modern device as an organizer of the fuel combustion process remains and is not effective. Therefore, the further the process of understanding is moved forward, the higher the price of this knowledge becomes.
  33. Errr
    Errr 15 May 2020 05: 24 New
    Thank you so much Anton for the Saga. Not the first day I will study it slowly. I didn’t even imagine that it was you. hi
    The fact that you are special in rocket engines, I kind of already understood (I’m quick-witted, however laughing ) Bauman behind? (tactless me, however laughing )