Belyana: almost ready aircraft carrier for the Volga!

One of the consequences of the difficult natural-geographical conditions in the Russian habitat was their developed savvy, which caused many of our victories and ... disappointments for our opponents. For example, during the Great Patriotic War, the Nazis began, without thinking, to bring our Soviet citizens to work in Germany, and this, in theory, was impossible. Why it is impossible, but because very soon packs of reports about the Bauers and industrialists, who seemed to be “loyal to the ideas of Nazism,” began to lie on the table to Himmler, who in their own circle (and not only in theirs!) “Spread their tongues” and said that the Russians the girls are very clean and cultured, cut out amazingly beautiful snowflakes, make amazing Christmas decorations and even knit napkins! Simple workers repair them with complex machines, which German engineers with diplomas could not cope with, their rationalization proposals bring them good profit, and in fact they were told that the Russians are “wild and backward people”. To plant all these "talkers" was simply unreal. Send all Russians back too. So the Nazis became hostages of the impasse, which they themselves had created by ignorance. Situations at all levels, undermining the credibility of state propaganda! That is, they were destroying the informational foundation of the society, and obviously should not have done this!

Huge five-span whitefish with a full load: "Whitefish about five cities"!

This is one example related to the influence of ingenuity on propaganda, while another one is already more specific and directly related to technology. Today, many engineers and economists say that "things for a long time" gradually go out of their everyday life and are replaced by disposable ones - this is supposedly more profitable, and it is technologically easier to do. However, nothing is new under the Moon! It was here in Russia and in the 19th century that our great Volga river already sailed ... disposable cargo ships! At the same time, their displacement reached as much as 2000 tons and more! And these vessels were called Belyany, which is also very significant.

In this photo, the dimensions of the belyany and above all the dimensions of its anchor are clearly visible.

First of all, we note that ingenuity, as a rule, works for laziness, it reduces the entropy and increases efficiency. So, for example, it was with the names of the Volga river vessels, of which there were a lot on our Mother Volga. “Mokshany” means from the Mohshi River, “Surks Banks”, “Suryaks” - the Sura Rivers (why invent something new - Sura - “Suryak”), “Tablets” - Banks from the boards ... after all, how many there were then and how simple and clear they were then called! At that time, they were recognized from afar, as we today distinguish the Chevrolet from the Marcedes. But in the midst of all this diversity, Blyana stood alone. And all because she really was ... well, very big! Other belyany were a displacement of two or more thousand tons, so it is not surprising that it was simply impossible to confuse such giant vessels with some other vessel! There is evidence that along the Volga the Belyans floated a hundred meters long, that is, their length was comparable to the size of the Aurora cruiser, and the side height reached six meters. That is, it could easily be placed next to a modern two-story house! If we measure in poods, then small belyans raised the load to 100-150 thousand pounds (pood –16 kg), but for the largest ones, the carrying capacity could reach 800 thousand pounds! That is, it turns out that this was a payload, albeit of a small, but still ocean steamer, although the Belyans themselves sailed exclusively from the headwaters of the Volga and to Astrakhan.

It is known that for the construction of one belyany it was required about 240 pine and 200 spruce logs. Since the bottom of the belyan was flat, they laid it out of the spruce boards, but the boards were made of pine boards. Frames were very often, so that the distance between them was no more than half a meter, as a result of which the bodies of the whites had absolutely exceptional strength. And as in Russia in the past it happened very often, at the very beginning, the belyans were built without a single iron nail, and only later did the masters begin to use iron braces. By their appearance, they resembled modern brackets for a stapler with pointed ends and were driven into a tree with sledgehammers. The strength of such anchoring was very high, and besides, by passing the need, they could be easily removed and then reused.

Belyana: almost ready aircraft carrier for the Volga!

The construction of whitefish.

The durable body of the whitefish had the simplest shape, that is, it was sharpened both in front and behind. But they managed to drive the whitewash afloat with the help of a huge rudder, similar to the gates they had knocked down, and turned it with the help of a very long log that rose from the stern to the upper deck. Therefore, down the river, Belyana was not fused by the nose, but ... exactly astern! And she sailed with the flow, occasionally moving this rudder like a whale's tail, a samoplav, and with all its outward clumsiness it had excellent maneuverability! The fact is that, again, our artisans invented for this purpose ... a lot - a cast-iron ball on a chain that rolled along the bottom. Lot slowed down her speed on bystrin and helped to "steer", and when the shoals were not expected and the depth was decent, the lot was raised. In addition to the lot, there was a whole set of large and small iron anchors weighing from 20 to 100 pounds, as well as a lot of very different ropes of hemp and sponge.

Belyana on one of the pre-revolutionary postcards.

But, of course, the most interesting thing about the log mill was its cargo, for the sake of transportation of which it was just built. And this cargo was “white wood”, that is, white-yellow, shaggy logs. It is believed that it was because of their color that the Belians gave this name, although there is a point of view that, again, its name came from the Belaya River. In any case, Belyana always had a white color and served only one navigation, and therefore was never tarred - why do good translate ?!

At the same time, the weights were loaded in the same way as they were not loaded, and even now no other ship in the world is loaded. There was even such a saying, testifying that it was not an easy matter: “You can dismantle the belyanu with one hand, you cannot collect belyany by all the cities!” And the reason for this was this: the belyanu laid the forest not just with a pile - so much she would not take away, - and in stacks with several spans (aisles) between them in order to have free access to the bottom and sides in case of a possible leak. At the same time, the cargo itself did not touch the sides and therefore did not press on them. But since at the same time the seawater was very heavily pressed on the sides, special wedges were used, which, as the wood on board dried out, were constantly replaced with new ones, each time larger and larger in size.

Belyana is the pride of the Vetluga river!

As soon as the forest somewhat exceeded the level of the board, the logs were laid in such a way that they stood for the dimensions of the ship hull and formed a kind of “balconies” on which they again laid the new row of logs, and then again pushed the next row of logs overboard and so several times! Projections were obtained, which were called dissolutions or separations, and which were required to be positioned so that the equilibrium of the vessel was not disturbed and did not lead to a lurch. And despite the fact that these dissolutions sometimes protruded four or more meters (!) In different directions overboard, so that the width of the blanket on its deck, like that of a modern aircraft carrier, could have been significantly greater than the hull. And here at some belyan it reached 30 meters, that is, it was possible to dance on it completely! But the log cabin above was also not solid, but had openings for airing. Therefore, in the old days, the size of whitefish was judged by the number of spans (cages) on it. And they were about three, four, and more spans.

The owner of this bog is clearly not stingy on the matter for the flags!

However, the Belyany deck itself was also a load, and it was laid either from a tesa (hewn boards) or sawn boards, and, as already noted, had dimensions that differed little from the deck of an aircraft carrier during the Second World War! An 2-4 gate was installed on it for lifting large anchors and tensioning the lot holding ropes. Well, closer to the stern, which again makes the architecture belyannogo with the aircraft carrier, there were at once two “islands” arranged in pairs along the sides - two timbered huts - “cossacks” in which the crew of the ship lived.

Between the roofs of these huts there was a high cross bridge with a railing and a carved shed in the middle, in which there was a place for the pilot. The booth was covered with whimsical carvings, and sometimes it was also painted “under gold”. And although the Belyany vessels were “disposable” and purely functional, they were nevertheless richly decorated with flags, not only with the flag of the Russian Empire and its trade flag, but also with personal flags of one or another merchant the images of the saints, who were thus expected to receive a blessing. They did not spare any money for this, therefore they were sometimes so large that they flew over the white trees like sails. They were not stingy with the expenses, because the larger the flag, the higher the “image” of the merchant!

Well, what is not ready "aircraft carrier"? Arrange a flat deck of boards and ... "Newpore" to take off!

There could be workers on the middle belyan from 15 to 35 people, and on the largest from 60 to 80. Many people had to work on pumps that pumped water from the hull. Usually the pump was 10-12 pieces, since the non-tarry body of the whitefish was constantly leaking. Because of this, we loaded the white cloth with trim on the nose. All the water flowed into it, and from there it was pumped out.

The construction of Belyan on the Volga reached its peak in the mid-19th century. Numerous cities and villages in the steppe Volga region needed logs for construction, and new for that time steamboats - firewood. The latter were also brought to the Volga ports solely on the belyanakh. And only gradually, in connection with the transition to the heating of steamers with oil, the demand for firewood on the Volga gradually fell. But until the end of the 19th century, the Belyans continued to build up to 150 units per year and, after loading with wood, floated them from the headwaters down the river all the way to Astrakhan.

Here, these unique vessels understood, so much so that from them even the chips and those left. Cossack huts were sold as, in fact, ready-made five-walls, which could only be collected, white wood went to log houses for other houses and to sleepers, they cut the belyanu into wood, and hemp, matting, ropes, not to mention iron fasteners Everything, absolutely everything went on sale and brought income to the owners of the moths!

Only the smallest belyans were loaded with fish in Astrakhan and went back in tow. Although then they were still dismantled for firewood, because it was unprofitable for their owners to keep the mothwood afloat longer than one season!

However, there are cases when belyany gathered and understood two times during one navigation! This was done with small belyanami in the very place where the Volga came very close to the Don. Here they moored to the shore, after which they removed all the cargo from them, while they themselves were taken to pieces. All this was carried by a horse to the Don, where the belyans were again collected, loaded, and fused into the lower reaches of the Don, where they were finally taken apart for the second time!

And this was how the bogs were dismantled: they simply threw logs into the water from both sides, and then they were caught and sent to dry on the shore.

Such amazing vessels were created on the Volga by the genius of unknown Russian masters of the nineteenth century. And - judge for yourself how far our ancestors were creative and resourceful people who managed to create such a highly effective waste-free product for one season in such a distant time from today! By the way, do you know why the bark was removed from the logs on the spot and they were carried by the “white” ones? And they dried out well during the voyage, and from the bark, on the spot, they drove out tar, which all other wooden vessels had ground!

We note, however, one more circumstance - the Belyans did not live to see the 1918 year, because if they had, they could have been - again, according to the famous Russian wit, - used as "Volga aircraft carriers" for the wheeled "Newpor" and "Farman" . It is known that the "aircraft carriers" on the Volga were only to create them on the basis of oil barges, and the "flying boats" of Grigorovich operated from them. They were launched on special boardwalkers and lifted aboard. The dimensions and smooth deck of the Belan completely allowed them to be used for the take-off of wheeled airplanes!

Model belyany in the exposition of the Saratov Museum of Local Lore.

PS Since at TOPWAR we even have science fiction writers among the visitors who write in the alternative genre storiesthen this is for them a practically ready basis for another exciting piece. If the author is “for the Reds”, then the novel may be called “The Volga aircraft carrier of the red warrant Stepashin”, and if “for the whites”, then exactly the opposite. And the main idea - another hitcher in the past and a pilot by profession chooses the side of red or white, builds a squadron of river aircraft carriers on the basis of two or three remaining belyan and with their help wins the civil war on the Volga and its surroundings. At the same time, he greatly changes the subsequent story, so when he comes back, everything here has changed too, and this is the main reason for that! Beautiful, poetic, and most importantly - what adventures in such a novel can be painted with the participation of these belyan-aircraft carriers - well, just yummy fingers!
Our news channels

Subscribe and stay up to date with the latest news and the most important events of the day.

51 comment
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. +14
    28 February 2017 15: 11
    Thank you for the article. I have never heard or read about these "wooden aircraft carriers." Science fiction writers are food for new ideas.
    1. 0
      14 March 2023 09: 51
      A long time ago, in someone's memoirs, I read about the fact that the inhabitants of Saratov suffered from diarrhea, since the belyana did not arrive on time, there was no firewood, and there was almost nothing to cook food and boil water.
  2. +5
    28 February 2017 15: 18
    The article is zero buzz. But Ratsukha is nonsense!
  3. +6
    28 February 2017 16: 01
    Thanks to the author, I always read with pleasure, a lot of interesting information.
  4. +7
    28 February 2017 16: 06
    Yes! There were many specific vessels for specific cargoes on our rivers. I heard about the whites as a child, or rather I read in the book of L. Kassil “Goalkeeper of the Republic”. When he was a kid, on the Amur there were also specific ships, though Chinese, but the most memorable ones were remembered, these were the junks with sails from mats.
    By the way, in the background is a rear-wheel steamer with a tall thin pipe. Such steamboats and junks went with the Chinese until the 60 of the last century.
    1. +9
      28 February 2017 17: 26
      Here are a few more photos.

    2. jjj
      1 March 2017 10: 33
      Quote: Amurets
      By the way, in the background is a rear-wheel steamer with a tall thin pipe. Such steamboats and junks went with the Chinese until the 60 of the last century.

      Two such Chinese "wheels of history" went to the 1976 navigation of the year on the Amur River in the Heihe District. Usually a Chinese steamer went with a roll to our shore. Passengers watched: how ordinary people really live in the USSR. Later, a boiler exploded at one of the ships. There were victims
      1. +2
        1 March 2017 13: 48
        Quote: jjj
        In 1976 navigation on the Amur River in the Heihe District, two such Chinese "wheels of history" walked.

        It was so. And they went along the route Heihe-Harbin ro Amur to Leninsky, and then along the Sungari. In the 60s, if memory serves, there were three or four.
  5. +6
    28 February 2017 16: 38
    Plyusanul: Belyana is an unsurpassed engineering and commercial project.
    1. jjj
      1 March 2017 10: 40
      In fact, these are stacks of wood, sheathed below the waterline with plank-like boards. But it’s not clear why it was necessary to scoop up water. A log, being in water, better retains its properties, for example, in rafts or with a molten alloy. And raw logs should go to the sawmill, otherwise the sawmill will not be able to cut. This is now used in the band saws for lubrication with a solarium, and then lubrication was carried out only with natural moisture
  6. +8
    28 February 2017 16: 50
    On one of the photos is the signature "Belyana - the pride of Vetluga." There is the town of Red Tanks on Vetluga. At the Bakovsky shipyard, whitewashed and built. The site even has "Belyana Bakovskaya." If anyone is interested:
  7. +3
    28 February 2017 17: 21
    I do not want to offend anyone, but the author is a victim of propaganda. I do not quite understand why it is impossible to write about real achievements. Why it is necessary to invent any garbage. Well, why the Americans are making the films “Saving Private Raina,” “Rage,” and we are “Stalingrad” and “The White Tiger”. When does it end? When will we begin to really evaluate our enemies? Half of the articles on the topic of Russia are the homeland of elephants. Really it is necessary once again to step on a rake in order to understand: We are not top-notch. Well, there have been times when the enemy threw caps at the enemy.
    1. +15
      28 February 2017 18: 03
      You have a very good comment, but it seems to me that to some other article. In the News or Opinions section, your comment applies to half of the articles.
    2. +4
      1 March 2017 08: 50
      Yes, the commenter clearly missed the page / tab / etc. :)
    3. +6
      1 March 2017 09: 19
      Do you seriously think “Ryan” and “Rage” are films better than the same “White Tiger” ?!

      I would not say that.
      1. 0
        4 March 2017 19: 19
        Well do not. Rain is the best western WWII film made in the West after 1970. But the rage of the white tiger Stalingrad spy bastards is how goaoril at one time "ANTI-SOVIET FORGET".
    4. +1
      1 March 2017 09: 19
      Do you seriously think “Ryan” and “Rage” are films better than the same “White Tiger” ?!

      I would not say that.
    5. +1
      1 March 2017 09: 19
      Do you seriously think “Ryan” and “Rage” are films better than the same “White Tiger” ?!

      I would not say that.
    6. The comment was deleted.
    7. The comment was deleted.
    8. The comment was deleted.
    9. +1
      1 March 2017 11: 07
      We are not superemic.

      It should be understood that we are really topical schools, we are the coolest of all, we have no equal, in our own country and its environs, therefore all the enemies that invaded us were defeated, and if we had to go beyond our borders, then only to finish off defeated in Russia, where we are the coolest enemy.
  8. +4
    28 February 2017 17: 40
    Vyacheslav, thanks for the detailed story about the whites, once in the fiction “whites” was mentioned, but I did not know what she “eats” with what. But actually on the Volga went a great many different boats and barges.
    By the way, somewhere about three or four years ago I read that "Barge Haulers on the Volga" was an author's fiction: local historians did not find confirmation that such a phenomenon was massive.
    P. S The authors of the alternative story are very negative: the story must be “natural”, and the science fiction must also have some kind of scientific basis, for example, the Strugatsky brothers, R Zhelyazny
    1. +6
      28 February 2017 17: 58
      Here at the VO there was my article about the barge haulers - they worked in a completely different way, and Repin depicted a rare case of a "crisis situation" for which they paid very well.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. 0
        1 March 2017 08: 46
        Quote: kalibr
        Here in VO there was my article just about the hacks - they worked very differently

        I don’t know about the barge haulers; on the Amur they didn’t seem to be there. But at the beginning of the development of shipping on the Amur, I several times missed references in the literature, on the barge shops and barges transporting prisoners to Sakhalin, a "water sail" was used. It seems like it’s easier to manage with a small crew.
      3. 0
        1 March 2017 17: 29
        I’ll definitely look.
        1. 0
          3 March 2017 11: 23
          Look at Shubin’s book “Volga and Volga Shipping”! 927 edition. A very interesting thing and everything is painted in great detail there. Have great fun, although the theme is specific.
  9. +1
    28 February 2017 18: 00
    Quote: mar4047083
    but the author is a victim of propaganda.

    A specialist in PR and advertising since 1995 clearly cannot be such a victim. You can’t be a victim of what you do, ha ha!
    1. +1
      28 February 2017 19: 30
      It seems to me that your statement is not certain. Even if you avoided all the advertising traps of the consumer market (which is unlikely), do you, as an advertiser, not care about participating in the formation of dubious consumer values ​​and the double morality of a society of “prosperity?”
      1. +1
        28 February 2017 20: 51
        Excited, why not? But what is the use of worrying about the fact that I can’t stop it? The Chinese say, "when the sky falls, do not support it!" And then I myself, if I do advertising for someone, then this is a "good product." If you could look into my magazine Tankomaster, then there was a lot of advertising, but I wrote - this is what I held in my hands, this is good, here it is not very. And it was checked. "Medicines for all diseases" I do not advertise. By the way, when the moral of society was not double? Do you personally know such a time? Me not! Right now, the moral is more honest than before: I have money - I’m the boss, you (bad word). , No - I (a bad word), you are the boss. All is fair! Then as before - and everyone knows this, they thought one thing, said another, but did the third. This is not even double, but triple morality.
        1. +1
          28 February 2017 21: 50
          If you spoke with current politicians, businessmen, and officials in an informal, homely environment, I think that you would have the idea of ​​introducing the concept of "morality to the nth degree" and translating the concept of "honesty" into the category of rarely used archaisms.
          1. 0
            1 March 2017 11: 01
            Do you think I'm not talking? I have friends and buddies who only do not and for whom I just did not work. So I had the opportunity to observe them in different situations. The same people, only the responsibility is very great. Not only for yourself, but also for other people. Of course, what others are, but still unpleasant!
            1. +1
              1 March 2017 11: 36
              About responsibility you screwed great. As there, Shaova: "a certain muddy gentleman is saying from the screen it is important that for Russia, for our citizens, we will give our lives." Just does not specify whose lives he is ready to give.
              1. 0
                2 March 2017 07: 40
                And you, too, correctly noticed. People are selfish by nature. But if without the return of life, then you have to pay a salary every day. And pay pensions ... and it’s clear that they work for you, but in a certain sense you work for them, too, because if you work really poorly, then people ... and you will receive less profit, and substantially .
  10. +3
    28 February 2017 19: 21
    A good example is to place thousands of "Caliber" in inland waters!
    1. AUL
      2 March 2017 10: 54
      Oh my God! And thousands of Caliber dragged here! belay
  11. +1
    28 February 2017 19: 33
    Quote: VadimSt
    A good example is to place thousands of "Caliber" in inland waters!

    So what?! There is something in it! We have / will be "Barguzin", etc. as a railway platform for covert and difficult to track missile movements, retaliation!
  12. +2
    28 February 2017 19: 41
    If I’m not mistaken about the “Belyans,” Gilyarovsky wrote in his books ..
  13. +1
    28 February 2017 20: 09
    It is, of course, good about how
    [/ quote] Simple workers repair complex machines for them, the repair of which could not be handled by certified German engineers, their rationalization proposals bring them good profit [quote]
    but it’s a direct job for the Nazis. You can understand them, you want to eat, but be proud of it, as an author?
    1. +5
      28 February 2017 20: 53
      This is a given, it was. Probably I really wanted to eat, so someone decided ... to "help". This was reported in a report to Himmler ... And why not be proud of our estimate, even in such tragic circumstances ?! Not everyone can with a grenade under the tank, not to mention the fact that the workers stolen to Germany did not have them and it was necessary to simply survive in this captivity. Advising everyone to become heroes in peace is easy ...
      1. +1
        28 February 2017 21: 55
        Dear, you would first understand my text: I'm not talking about stolen hard workers, but about the author’s pride in them. And you are talking about tanks here, and you ascribe some advice to me ...
  14. PPD
    28 February 2017 20: 36
    "PS Since we even have science-fiction writers among TOPWAR visitors ...."
    exactly this author Shpakovsky.
    What is the article about the whites or aircraft carriers based on them?
    Does the author have evidence that the Belyans used as aircraft carriers?
    If not (and the way it is) then why dregs to write. Want to write about the whites, why should aircraft carriers be pulled in?
    It seems not to be an alternative history site!
    1. +5
      28 February 2017 20: 56
      An article about the whites. In the very last paragraph and in PS - about aircraft carriers. Nowhere is it written that they were used as such. And this paragraph and postscript do not interfere with the main content. Who likes that, huh?
      1. +5
        28 February 2017 21: 44
        In my opinion, the site is experiencing how serious filling problems are that they no longer have fat. And here is a normal interesting, let's say, local history material. Just in the "Armament" section looks wild. There is also a section "History".
      2. +11
        1 March 2017 04: 24
        Dear Vyacheslav. Thanks so much for the article. hi He learned a lot of interesting and new things for himself. Frankly, I was interested in the photo, at first I thought it would be about Noah's Ark and about the flood. But it won, like the flood doesn’t, but in the XNUMXth century it was used on the Volga. lol
  15. +2
    1 March 2017 00: 39
    In most AI stories, going back and losing your own success is not necessary. The main thing is to conquer and terrify everyone where the omniscient and knowing hero brings. The stream of this "literature" is inexhaustible, and even sometimes quite entertaining.
  16. +1
    1 March 2017 01: 00
    Where does the author hint at?
    And the colossal rivers are truly original and impressive.
  17. +1
    1 March 2017 06: 40
    Well Vyacheslav - thanks ... Surprised - to say the least ...
  18. 0
    1 March 2017 08: 42
    the main thing is not to make such a whit so that it does not squeeze the river out of the banks.
    I didn’t understand what the ingenuity + WWII + captured Russian women + whites.
  19. +1
    1 March 2017 09: 25
    Quote: Aviator_
    Dear, you would understand my text first

    And you too ...
  20. +1
    1 March 2017 09: 36
    the forerunners of the Belyans were the famous Volga and Don Boudars
    1. +3
      1 March 2017 10: 40
      Budarka. (to be) perm. oak, cargo boat, length 11-14 arsh., width 11/2 arsh .; raises 15-25 pounds. | Kaz sim. astrach., dugout boat, odnoderevka, dolubushka, oak, dugout, gas chamber, oak, boatman, baht, oak, kayuk in two, four oars. The Ural Cossack Budarka is distinguished by its lightness, subtlety and purity of decoration; the nose and feed are sharp; the water cutter is often fettered. | In the Don, Narova and Peypus go big boudary: the first - barges; the second, with a mast and a deck - live. |
      Do not find this to be something else.
      1. +1
        1 March 2017 11: 38
        only the Oksky boudoirs were built in Nizhny Novgorod, each one took 1000 pounds of cargo and they were intended to deliver the sovereign salary to the Don Cossacks (the salary was issued in kind — lead, wine, cloth, gunpowder, gunpowder and another 96 items of goods). build material
        1. 0
          2 March 2017 09: 16
          There is a very interesting book by Shubin in 1927 - the Volga and Volga shipping. There about all this in detail ...

"Right Sector" (banned in Russia), "Ukrainian Insurgent Army" (UPA) (banned in Russia), ISIS (banned in Russia), "Jabhat Fatah al-Sham" formerly "Jabhat al-Nusra" (banned in Russia) , Taliban (banned in Russia), Al-Qaeda (banned in Russia), Anti-Corruption Foundation (banned in Russia), Navalny Headquarters (banned in Russia), Facebook (banned in Russia), Instagram (banned in Russia), Meta (banned in Russia), Misanthropic Division (banned in Russia), Azov (banned in Russia), Muslim Brotherhood (banned in Russia), Aum Shinrikyo (banned in Russia), AUE (banned in Russia), UNA-UNSO (banned in Russia), Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (banned in Russia), Legion “Freedom of Russia” (armed formation, recognized as terrorist in the Russian Federation and banned)

“Non-profit organizations, unregistered public associations or individuals performing the functions of a foreign agent,” as well as media outlets performing the functions of a foreign agent: “Medusa”; "Voice of America"; "Realities"; "Present time"; "Radio Freedom"; Ponomarev; Savitskaya; Markelov; Kamalyagin; Apakhonchich; Makarevich; Dud; Gordon; Zhdanov; Medvedev; Fedorov; "Owl"; "Alliance of Doctors"; "RKK" "Levada Center"; "Memorial"; "Voice"; "Person and law"; "Rain"; "Mediazone"; "Deutsche Welle"; QMS "Caucasian Knot"; "Insider"; "New Newspaper"