Military Review

Hypersonic fuss: in pursuit of speed

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Hypersonic fuss: in pursuit of speed




Picture of the moment of separation from the carrier of the HSSW hypersonic missile. The US Air Force intends to move from development to a program to deploy this weapon system after a demonstration flight planned for 2020 year.

Hypersound becomes the next key parameter of weapons and surveillance platforms and therefore it is worth taking a closer look at the research conducted in this area by the United States, Russia and India.

The US Department of Defense and other government agencies are developing hypersonic technology for two immediate and one long-term goals. According to the head of the department of high-speed systems in the research laboratory of the US Air Force (AFRL) Robert Mercier, two near goals are hypersonic weapon, the technological readiness of which is expected at the beginning of the 20-s, and the unmanned surveillance vehicle, which will be ready for deployment at the end of the 20-s or the beginning of the 30-s, and hypersonic devices will follow in the more distant future.

“Space exploration using air-jet engines is a much more distant prospect,” he said in an interview. “It is unlikely that hypersonic spacecraft will be ready before 2050’s.” Mercier added that the general development strategy is to start with small weapons and then, with the development of technologies and materials, expand to air and spacecraft.

Spiro Lekudis, director of the weapons systems, procurement, technology and supply department at the Ministry of Defense, confirmed that the hypersonic weapon is likely to be the first procurement program to appear after the technology has been developed by the ministry and its partner organizations. “The aircraft is definitely a much more long-term project than a weapon,” he said in an interview. The US Air Force is expected to demonstrate the HSSW (High Speed ​​Strike Weapon) high-speed strike weapons - a joint development with the Advanced Defense Studies Directorate (DARPA) - around 2020, then the Pentagon will decide how best to transfer this technology to the development and purchases hypersonic rocket.

“There are two major research projects aimed at demonstrating HSSW technology,” says Bill Gillard, developer of plans and programs at the AFRL. “The first is the tactical overclocking program TBG (Tactical BoosWSIide) developed by Lockheed Martin and Raytheon, and the second is the hypersonic concept of a HAWC (Hypersonic Air-breathing Weapon Concept) jet-powered weapon, headed by Boeing.”

“Meanwhile, the AFRL lab is conducting another fundamental study to supplement the DARPA and US Air Force projects,” Gillard noted. For example, within the framework of testing the concept of the hypersonic reusable apparatus REACH (reusable aircraft concept for hypersonics), in addition to the study of basic materials, several experiments were conducted with small and medium ramjet engines. "Our goal is to promote the database and develop and demonstrate technologies that can be taken to create new systems." Long-term fundamental research AFRL in the field of improving the ceramic-matrix composite and other heat-resistant materials are extremely important for the creation of promising hypersonic devices.

AFRL and other Pentagon laboratories are intensively working on two main aspects of promising hypersonic devices: reusability and increase in their size. “In the AFRL laboratory, there is even a certain tendency aimed at promoting the development of the concept of reusable and larger hypersonic systems,” Gillard said. “We focused all of these technologies on projects like X-51, and REACH will be another.”


Hypersonic cruise missile X-51А WaveRider

“A demonstration of the Boeing X-51A WaveRider development in 2013 year will form the basis of the US Air Force hypersonic vehicle armament plans,” says John Leger, chief engineer of aerospace projects in the weapons department of the AFRL laboratory. “We study the experience gained in developing the X-51 project and use it in developing the HSSW.”

Simultaneously with the X-51 hypersonic cruise missile project, various research organizations also developed larger (10x) ramjet engines (ramjet), which “consume” 10 times more air than the X-51 engine. “These engines are ideal for systems such as high-speed observation, reconnaissance, and information-gathering platforms and atmospheric cruise missiles,” said Gillard. “And ultimately in our plans to move on to the 100 figure, which will allow us to gain access to space using air-reactive systems.”

The AFRL is also exploring the possibility of integrating a hypersonic ramjet with a high-speed turbine engine or a rocket in order to have enough driving force to achieve large Mach numbers. “We are exploring all the possibilities to improve the efficiency of the engines of a supersonic device. The conditions in which they are to fly are not entirely favorable. ”

On May 1, 2013, the Kh-51A WaveRider rocket successfully passed flight tests. The experimental apparatus undocked from the B-52H aircraft and accelerated using a rocket accelerator to a speed of 4,8 Mach numbers (M = 4,8). Then the X-51A separated from the accelerator and started its own engine, accelerated to Mach 5,1 and flew 210 seconds until all the fuel was burned out. The Air Force collected all telemetry data for 370 seconds of flight. Pratt & Whitney's Rocketdyne division developed the engine for the WaveRider. This unit was later sold to Aerojet, which continues to work on hypersonic propulsion systems, but does not provide any details on this topic.

From the 2003 to 2011 year, Lockheed Martin worked with DARPA on the original concept of the Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle-2 hypersonic device. The Minotaur IV light rocket served as the booster for these vehicles, which were launched from Vandenberg Air Base in California. The first flight of the HTV-2 in 2010 year allowed us to collect data that demonstrated progress in aerodynamic performance, heat-resistant materials, thermal protection systems, autonomous flight safety systems, and long-duration hypersonic flight guidance and control systems.
Two demonstration launches were successfully carried out in April 2010 of the year and August of 2011 of the year, but, according to DARPA statements, both times the Falcon vehicles during the flight, trying to achieve the planned speed M = 20, lost contact with the control center for several minutes.

The results of the X-51A program are now used in the HSSW project. The armament and guidance system are being developed as part of two demonstration programs: HAWC and TBG. DARPA issued in April 2014 to Raytheon and Lockheed Martin companies to continue the development of the TBG program. Companies received 20 and 24 million dollars respectively. And the Boeing company, meanwhile, is developing the HAWC project. She and DARPA refuse to give any details about this contract.


Figure of the detached high-speed strike weapons HSSW (High Speed ​​Strike Weapon) in flight, the US Air Force hopes to demonstrate the system (joint development with the DARPA Office) around 2020 year


The company Lockheed Martin with 2003 on 2011 year worked with DARPA on the previous concept of hypersonic device Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle-2. The picture shows the detached Falcon in flight.

The goal of the TBG and HAWC programs is to accelerate weapons systems up to speed M = 5 and their further planning on their target. Such weapons should be maneuverable and extremely resistant to heat. Ultimately, these systems can reach an altitude of almost 60 km. A warhead developed for a hypersonic missile has a mass of 76 kg, which is approximately equal to the mass of a small-diameter SDB (Small Diameter Bomb) bomb.

While the integration of the aircraft and the hypersonic engine was successfully demonstrated in the X-51A project, the focus in the TBG and HAWC projects would be on advanced guidance and control, which was not fully implemented in the Falcon or WaveRider projects. Homing head subsystems (GOS) are engaged in several US Air Force weapons laboratories to further enhance the capabilities of hypersonic systems. In March, 2014 of the year, a DARPA statement said that within the framework of the TBG project, which should be completed with a demonstration flight by 2020, partner companies are trying to develop technologies for a tactical hypersonic planning system with a rocket accelerator launched from a carrier aircraft.

“The program will focus on solving the problems associated with the system and the technologies necessary to create a hypersonic planning system with a rocket accelerator. These include the development of concepts of the apparatus with the necessary aerodynamic and aero-thermodynamic characteristics; manageability and reliability in a wide range of operating conditions; system and subsystem characteristics required for efficiency in appropriate operating conditions; finally, approaches to reduce the cost and increase the affordability of the experimental system and future production systems, ”the statement said. The aircraft for the TBG project is a warhead that separates from the accelerator and plans at speeds up to M = 10 and more.

Meanwhile, in the framework of the HAWC program following the X-51A project, a hypersonic cruise missile with ramjet propulsion at lower speeds will be demonstrated, approximately M = 5 and higher. “HAWC technologies can expand to promising reusable hypersonic aerial platforms that can be used as reconnaissance vehicles or access to outer space,” the DARPA said in a statement. Neither DARPA nor the main contractor of Boeing disclose all the details of their joint program.

Although the main goals of the Ministry of Defense in the field of hypersound are weapon systems and intelligence platforms, DARPA launched a new program in 2013 to develop a reusable unmanned hypersonic accelerator to launch small-sized 1360-2270 kg satellites into a low orbit, which will also serve as a testing laboratory for hypersonic devices. According to a congressional statement, in July 2015, the Office issued a contract to Boeing and its partner Blue Origin, which cost 6,6 a million dollars to continue work on the XS-1 experimental spacecraft Experimental Spaceplane. In August 2014, Northrop Grumman announced that in collaboration with Scaled Composites and Virgin Galactic, she was also working on a technical project and demonstration flight plan for the XS-1 program. The company received a 13-month contract worth 3,9 million dollars.

It is expected that the XS-1 will have a reusable starting accelerator, which, in combination with a one-time acceleration stage, will provide an affordable 1360 kg vehicle for delivery to a low near-earth orbit. In addition to the cheap launch, estimated at one tenth of the cost of the current launch of a heavy rocket, the XS-1 is also likely to serve as a testing laboratory for new hypersonic devices.

DARPA would like to run XS-1 every day at a price of less than 5 millions per flight. Management wants to get a machine that can reach speeds above 10 Mach numbers. The requested "like an airplane" principles of operation include horizontal landing on standard landing strips, in addition, the launch must be carried out from a lifting launcher, plus there must be a minimum infrastructure and ground personnel and a high level of autonomy. The first test orbital flight is scheduled for 2018 year.

After several unsuccessful attempts by NASA, which began back in the 80s, to develop a system like the XS-1, military researchers now believe that the technology has already developed enough and this is due to progress in light and cheap composite materials and improved thermal protection.

XS-1 is one of several Pentagon projects aimed at reducing the cost of launching satellites. In connection with the reduction of the US defense budget and the building up of the capabilities of other countries, routine access to space is becoming an increasingly priority for national security. The use of heavy rockets to launch satellites is expensive and requires an elaborate strategy against the background of a few possibilities. Such traditional launches can cost hundreds of millions of dollars and require maintenance of expensive infrastructure. Due to the fact that the United States Air Force insists that lawmakers issue a resolution to suspend the use of Russian RD-180 rocket engines for launching American satellites, DARPA’s research in the field of hypersound will significantly shorten the path that needs to be taken, relying only on its own forces and means.




(top) During the last fourth flight, the X-51A WaveRider rocket reached Mach 5,1 and flew 230 nautical miles in just six minutes. This is the longest hypersonic flight with ramjet today; (center) a drawing of the XS-1 aerospace aircraft offered by Northrop Grumman, although the main goals of the Ministry of Defense in the development of hypersonic systems are weapons and reconnaissance vehicles; (below) the concept of the space launch vehicle Boeing XS-1. In addition to the low launch cost, estimated at one tenth of the launch of a heavy rocket, it is expected that the XS-1 will also serve as a flying laboratory for new hypersonic devices.

Russia: catch up time

At the end of the existence of the Soviet Union, the engineering design bureau of the ICD Raduga from Dubna designed the GELA (Hypersonic Experimental Aircraft), which was supposed to be the prototype of the strategic launch aircraft X-90 ("Product 40") with a ramjet engine Product 58 »Development of TMKB (Turaev Machine-Building Design Bureau)“ Soyuz ”. The missile should have been able to accelerate to a speed of 4,5 Mach numbers and have a range of 3000 km. Two standard X-160 missiles were to be included in the standard armament of the upgraded Tu-90M ​​strategic bomber. Work on the X-90 supersonic cruise missile was discontinued in 1992 at the laboratory sample stage, and the GELA device itself was shown in 1995 at aviation MAX exhibition.

The most comprehensive information about the current programs of air launch hypersonic weapons was presented to the former commander of the General Staff of the Russian Air Force Alexander Zelin at a lecture given by him at the conference of aircraft manufacturers in Moscow in April 2013. According to Zelin, Russia is carrying out a two-stage program for developing a hypersonic rocket. The first stage envisages the development of a rocket sub-strategic level of air launch by 2020 with a range of 1500 km and a speed of approximately M = 6. Further in the next decade, a rocket should be developed at a speed of 12 Mach numbers capable of reaching any point on the globe.

Most likely, the 6 Max speed rocket, mentioned by Zelin, is a “75 Product”, also designated GZUR (Hypersonic Guided Missile), which is currently at the stage of technical design in the Tactical Missile Corporation. The “75 product” appears to have a length of 6 meters (the maximum size that the Tu-95MS bomb compartment can take; it can also be placed in the weapons compartment of the Tu-22М bomber) and weighs about 1500 kg. It should be set in motion by a ramjet “Product 70” developed by TMKB “Soyuz”. Its active radar homing head, the Gran-75, is currently developing the DCPPDB in Kamensk-Uralsky, while the broadband passive GOS is manufactured by Omsk TsKBA.

In 2012, Russia began flight tests of an experimental hypersonic vehicle mounted on a suspension of a long-range supersonic bomber Tu-23MZ (NATO designation “Backfire”). Not before 2013, this unit made its first free flight. The hypersonic device is installed in the nose compartment of the X-22 rocket (AS-4 "Kitchen"), used as a starting accelerator. This combination has a length of 12 meters and weighs about 6 tons; hypersonic component has a length of about 5 meters. In 2012, the Dubna Machine-Building Plant completed the construction of four X-22 supersonic airborne anti-ship missiles (without GOS and combat units) to be used in testing hypersonic vehicles. The rocket is launched from the Tu-22MZ underwing suspension at speeds up to 1,7 Mach and altitudes up to 14 km and accelerates the test apparatus to Mach 6,3 speed and 21 km altitude before launching the test component, which apparently develops Mach speed 8.

It was expected that Russia took part in similar flight tests of the French hypersonic MBDA LEA device with launch from Backfire. However, according to available data, the test hypersonic component is a primordially Russian project.

In October-November 2012, Russia and India concluded a preliminary agreement on work on the BrahMos-II hypersonic rocket. The cooperation scheme includes NPO Mashinostroeniya (rocket), TMKB Soyuz (engine), TsAGI (aerodynamics research) and TsIAM (engine development).


Russian experimental hypersonic rocket passes flight tests with 2012 year

India: new player on the field

After the agreement on joint development with Russia in 1998, the Indian BrahMos rocket program was launched. According to the agreement, the main partners were the Russian NPO Mashinostroeniya and the Indian Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO).

Its first version is a supersonic cruise two-stage rocket with radar guidance. A solid-fuel first-stage engine accelerates a rocket to supersonic speeds, while a second-stage liquid ramjet accelerates a rocket to a speed of M = 2,8. BrahMos, in fact, is the Indian version of the Russian Yakhont missile.

While the BrahMos rocket was already delivered to the Indian army, navy, and air force, the decision to start development by the already established partnership of the BrahMos-II hypersonic version of the rocket was made in 2009 year.

In accordance with the technical design, BrahMos-ll (Kalam) will fly at speeds above 6 Mach numbers and have higher accuracy than the BrahMos-A variant. The rocket will have a maximum range of 290 km, which is limited to the Missile Technology Control Regime signed by Russia (it limits the development of missiles with a range of more than 300 km for a partner country). In order to increase the speed of the BrahMos-2 rocket, a hypersonic ramjet will be used and, according to a number of sources, the Russian industry is developing special fuel for it.

For the BrahMos-II project, a key decision was made to retain the physical parameters of the previous version so that the new rocket could use the already developed launchers and other infrastructure.

The set of targets defined for the new version includes reinforced targets, such as underground shelters and warehouses with weapons.

The scale model of the BrahMos-II rocket was shown at the Aero India 2013 exhibition, and the prototype tests should begin in the 2017 year. (At the recently held Aero India 2017 exhibition, the Su-30MKI fighter with the Brahmos rocket on the underwing pylon was introduced). In an interview with 2015, Brahmos Aerospace CEO Kumar Mishra said in an interview that the exact configuration still needs to be approved and that a full-scale prototype is expected no earlier than 2022.



Su-30MKI with BrahMos rocket at Aero India 2017

One of the main problems is to find constructive solutions for the BrahMos-II, which would allow the rocket to withstand the extreme temperatures and loads acting during hypersonic flight. Among the hardest problems - finding the most suitable materials for the manufacture of this rocket.

DRDO is assumed to have invested roughly 250 million dollars in the development of a hypersonic rocket; So far, tests of the hypersonic WFD have been conducted in the laboratory of modern systems in Hyderabad, where, in a wind tunnel, the speed M = 5,26 was reported. Further tests of the BrahMos-II Technology Demonstrator Hypersonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle are taking place at a Bangalore Scientific Institute, whose hypersonic wind tunnel plays a key role in simulating the speed required to test various elements of a rocket design.

It is clear that the hypersonic rocket will be delivered only to India and Russia and will not be available for sale to third countries.

There is a leader

As the most powerful military and economic power in the world, the United States defines the trends of developments in the field of hypersound, but countries such as Russia and India do not allow them to go far into the lead.

The US Air Force High Command in 2014 announced that in the coming decade hypersonic capabilities will come out on top in the top five priority developments. Hypersonic weapons will be difficult to intercept, it will provide an opportunity to strike at long ranges faster than current missile technologies allow.

In addition, this technology is considered by some as the successor to the stele technology, since weapons moving at high speeds and at high altitudes will have a better survivability than slow low-flying systems, that is, it can hit targets in a challenged space with limited access. Owing to the progress in the field of air defense technologies and their rapid spread, it is vital to search for new ways to penetrate enemy cordons.

To this end, US lawmakers are pushing the Pentagon to promote hypersonic technology at an accelerated pace. Many of them point to developments in China, Russia and even in India as a justification for more aggressive US efforts in this direction. The House of Representatives of the Congress, in its version of the law on defense spending, stated that "they are aware of the rapidly evolving threat associated with the development of hypersonic weapons in the camp of potential opponents."

They mention there "several recent tests of hypersonic weapons conducted in China, as well as developments in this field in Russia and India" and call for "moving ahead energetically." “The Chamber believes that rapidly growing opportunities may become a threat to national security and our existing troops,” the law says. In particular, it also states that the Pentagon must use the "remaining from previous hypersonic technology tests" to continue the development of this technology.

US Air Force officials predict that reusable hypersonic aircraft can enter service by the 40 years and experts in military research laboratories confirm these estimates. Coming out with a competitive solution before potential adversaries would put the United States in an advantageous position, especially in the Pacific, where long distances prevail and high speeds at high altitudes will be preferred.

Since the technology, which should “mature” in the near future, can be applied in the development of weapons and reconnaissance aircraft, the big question arises - in which direction the Pentagon will move first. Both the Pentagon project, the arsenal aircraft project, which was first talked about by Defense Minister Carter in February 2016, and the new Long-Range Strike Bomber (LRS-B) / B-21 long-range bomber, are platforms that can carry useful hypersonic load, whether weapons or means of reconnaissance and surveillance.

For the rest of the world, including Russia and India, the way forward is less clearly defined when it comes to long development cycles and the future deployment of hypersonic technology and hypersonic platforms.


A preliminary model of the Russian-Indian BrahMos-II rocket, shown in 2013 year as a demonstration of intentions to jointly develop a hypersonic rocket

Materials used:
www.shephardmedia.com
www.defense.gov
www.darpa.mil
www.boeing.com
www.lockheedmartin.com
www.northropgrumman.com
www.ktrv.ru
www.tmkb-soyuz.ru
www.upkb.ru
www.npomash.ru
www.drdo.gov.in
www.wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org
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  1. Dmitry Potapov
    Dmitry Potapov 22 February 2017 05: 55
    +2
    It is not clear, but what about the “Zircon” subsonic or what ?! If I am not mistaken, the last tests showed above 6 Machs.
    1. Titsen
      Titsen 22 February 2017 06: 59
      +4
      Quote: Dmitry Potapov
      It is not clear, but what about the “Zircon” subsonic or what ?!


      Since the direction described in the article is SUPER SECRET, it follows that the information in the article is only from open sources and therefore for the most part is not only incorrect, but rather fraudulent, i.e. not true.

      So the option of knowingly entered false information from the side of the developer countries is not excluded - no one canceled the information and economic war ...
  2. fa2998
    fa2998 22 February 2017 06: 55
    +8
    Printed B-52 and signed-Russian rocket tested-clowns! recourse lol hi
    1. Same lech
      Same lech 22 February 2017 07: 02
      +3
      Russian experimental hypersonic rocket passes flight tests with 2012 year


      what Yes, a specific mistake ... the author to the wall for such punctures ... misleading people. am
  3. AlNikolaich
    AlNikolaich 22 February 2017 08: 14
    +4
    Again for hypersound ... When the samples reach the speed 7-10 Machs, with horizontal controlled flight, you can already talk about it! And at the current level of technological development, this is still fantastic. So far, this is just supersonic. The main problems are materials, engine power and strength ...
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 22 February 2017 12: 18
      +3
      There are materials, the only problem now is the unstable operation of the scramjet, and they created control systems back in the 80s. As for hypersonic single-stage aircraft, they are just around the corner - in Russia for such already the engine scramjet plus LRE did.
      1. FID
        FID 22 February 2017 13: 51
        +5
        This motor, which you presented in the photo, DOESN’T pull on the scramjet in any way .... And what should be the plane for this motor?
        1. Vadim237
          Vadim237 22 February 2017 14: 14
          +1
          Pulls - like Skylon SABER 5 - 6 Machs, and then switches to LRE
          1. gridasov
            gridasov 22 February 2017 14: 28
            +4
            The point is that in an elementary and banal pipe, with an increase in the speed of the hydro-gas-dynamic flow, the rotational speeds of both the total flow and the frequency algorithms increase, when the flow must again increase the energy of the longitudinal vector and then to the centrifugal one. So the higher the flow rate, the higher the frequency of such conversion processes. Therefore, the jet engine simply will not start to work at hyper speed. It must be brought to the high-speed operating mode after preparing it. Therefore, a turbine must be applied in which there are no moving parts, but the flow is always redirected to the center in a certain way, which is very difficult to understand. In short, this is a complex of such planes, which polarize from ionization to direct the flow to the center, which increases its longitudinal vector and rotation moment, and most importantly the latter. Therefore, a hypersonic engine should be built on the spin effects of the flow motion and not longitudinal ones. You just need to know elementary physics. If the potential difference increases along the longitudinal vector, then the spin effect of the rotation of the flow also increases. BUT! By rotating the flow, a longitudinal flow occurs more easily and efficiently. All the anomalous effects associated with disk flights, unipolar processes and engines, etc. work just like that.
            1. adept666
              adept666 28 February 2017 14: 00
              +1
              Therefore, a turbine must be applied in which there are no moving parts
              To imagine this, you must have, well, let's say very rich imagination lol
              Therefore, a hypersonic engine should be built on the spin effects of the flow motion and not longitudinal ones.
              For the colleague, I propose not to touch the quantum nature of things to build a hypersonic engine, I think this is superfluous ...
              All the anomalous effects associated with disk flights, unipolar processes and engines, etc. work just like that.
              Is it possible to touch on the topic of anomalous effects in more detail? (You don’t need much ... so a couple of examples smile )
              PS
              Comrade gridasov you would have to write descriptions for a fantastic technique laughing And what? I think science fiction authors for such "scientific" justifications for VARP engines would be nice to unfasten yes
              1. gridasov
                gridasov 22 March 2017 22: 00
                0
                Fiction is not able to give a complete justification of the physical process. Therefore, I do not belong to them. The technique for describing the complex process of motion cannot but take into account when moving, for example, an exaggerated point in space, not only a longitudinal motion vector, but also a rotational one, which implies spin rotation. However, I will tell you more that the motion algorithms of this point also have their own kind of motion along the longitudinal axis. With all this, I describe only part of the real process. Because many aspects are not perceived at all, not just by people, but by specialists, if you can call them that. All issues are solved by developed imagination and through the development of this ability. Why. Because even if a modern computer describes the process for you, the clogging of the picture will be absolute, and will not allow you to perceive differentiated processes in the interaction system.
                1. adept666
                  adept666 25 March 2017 13: 38
                  +1
                  Fiction is not able to give a complete justification of the physical process.
                  However ... But let me say that you write about things that you cannot prove by a full-scale experiment, moreover, much of what you wrote a full-scale experiment is refuted. Therefore, we can safely conclude that what you write to us here is nothing more than your own fantasies. Fantasies are beautiful and seemingly even justified by something (your other fantasies). So what can you do with science fiction? wink
                  The technique for describing the complex process of motion cannot but take into account when moving, for example, an exaggerated point in space, not only a longitudinal motion vector, but also a rotational one, which implies spin rotation.
                  Yes? Well, what do you say that the spin is of a quantum nature and is in no way connected with the movement of the particle as a whole colleague? (This is just proven by experiment).
                  However, I will tell you more that the motion algorithms of this point also have their own type of motion along the longitudinal axis
                  Phrase from the category: Garlands hung, but not crookedly, but originally and at the same time did not shine, but shone.
                  Because many aspects are not perceived at all, not just by people, but by specialists, if you can call them that.
                  Well, in this circumstance you can dream up so many alternatives. I’ll tell you, as in that film: - Do you see comrade spirit in the ground squirrel? - No, comrade demobilization! - And he is there!
                  All issues are solved by developed imagination and through the development of this ability.
                  A rich imagination is a very important aspect in creativity, but to accelerate your psyche to such speeds is fraught with a visit to the red-haired animal, gnawing nuts. Let the brain rest Gridasov ... burn it to God ... burn it ...
          2. Vadim237
            Vadim237 22 February 2017 14: 41
            0
            In the concept of SR 72, the Americans went the other way - separated engines, the ramjet is separated from the scramjet. At maximum ramjet speeds of 3000 kilometers per hour, the scramjet is connected, then the ramjet air intake closes
            1. gridasov
              gridasov 22 February 2017 17: 10
              +2
              The fact that the Americans create it seems that they invest a lot of money in experimental samples, but this understanding does not add to physical processes. Man is stupid in that he wants to fly like aliens on "flying saucers", but at the same time stupidly use knowledge from the level of low-potential physical processes. Looking at the sample aircraft, we can say that the potential of e-mail. magnetic interactions with the external environment can be achieved very high (remember elementary physics why the sharp are concentrators of magnetic force fields), but here is how to distribute this potential from the front so that the entire object can fly harmoniously - this is not. Not to mention engines.
  4. rubin6286
    rubin6286 22 February 2017 10: 03
    +4
    The creation and development of combat hypersonic aircraft is one of the biggest secrets not only in Russia, but also in the USA, China and other countries of the world. Information about them is classified as “top secret” - top secret. Products that develop hypersonic speed have been created for a long time. For example, these are the usual heads of intercontinental ballistic missiles. Entering the Earth’s atmosphere, they develop hypersonic speed, but they are uncontrollable and fly along a certain trajectory and their intercepts by ballistic missile defense (ABM) have been demonstrated more than once.
    Hypersonic speeds start at Mach 4,5, but the main task of modern hypersonic aircraft (GZLA) is not just to fly somewhere quickly, but to carry out a combat mission with high efficiency in the face of strong opposition from the enemy. For example, the Americans have only Arly Burke-class destroyers with 65 missiles in the sea. And there are 22 anti-missile cruisers of the Ticonderoga type, 11 aircraft carriers - each of which is based on hundreds of aircraft capable of creating an almost impenetrable missile defense system.
    Roughly speaking, hypersonic speed is 2 km / s. To overcome 30 km, you need to fly 15 seconds. On the final section of the trajectory, when the hypersonic aircraft approaches the target, the enemy’s anti-ballistic and anti-aircraft defense will be deployed, which the GZLA will detect. Modern air defense and missile defense systems deployed in positions require literally a matter of seconds to be made for firing. Therefore, for the effective combat use of GZLA, one speed will not be enough in any way if you have not ensured radio-electronic invisibility and inimitability for air defense / missile defense systems at the final flight site. Here, the speed and capabilities of the radio-technical protection of the device by its own radio interference stations will play a role. Everything in the complex.
    All hypersonic devices fly in plasma - and nuclear warheads fly in plasma, and all that went beyond Mach 4, all the more so 6. An ionized cloud forms around, and not just a stream with swirls: the molecules are broken up into charged particles. Ionization affects communication, the passage of radio waves. It is necessary that the GZLA control and navigation systems at these flight speeds pierce this plasma.
    So far, there have been plenty of problems and for almost 65 years of research in the USSR (Russia) and the USA, nothing really has been done. At speeds from 4,5 to 6 Mach there is not a single really made GZLA. As they say, there is something to work on.
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 22 February 2017 10: 30
      +3
      We have to admit that there are no theoretical justifications for the ability to fly at such speeds. Everyone thinks that by experiment and by investing all the issues can be resolved. An-no! This is the level of a completely new and mathematical analysis, which means a new level of modeling and prediction of physical events in their sequence algorithms .. And who thinks about it? Without a fundamental breakthrough in the theory of analysis of ultra-dynamic and complex processes, one cannot perceive these processes as a system of interconnections, let alone model and master them .. So, before anything is achieved, it must be understood and analyzed. Therefore, I think that only a few people understand this. Even fewer people are capable of doing anything in this direction. Experimental methods are secondary after theoretical processes.
      1. venik
        venik 22 February 2017 13: 06
        +2
        Quote: gridasov
        We have to admit that there are no theoretical justifications for the ability to fly at such speeds.

        ====
        What are you saying ??? So no? Or, if you don’t know something, then this DOES NOT EXIST in NATURE ???
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 22 February 2017 13: 36
          +4
          It is difficult to explain to a person what truthfulness is if he is basically unable to understand it. Mankind is now very popular art seem, not be! If you and others who are paid for their work, and who are obliged to comprehend a new level of energy interactions, get what they deserve and would be an evaluator of your work, then all of you will be rated "unsuccessful." You do not know how to generalize information and instantly concretize it, you do not see patterns and do not understand that all processes occur as algorithmic ones and in order to achieve hyper speeds it is necessary first of all to change the mathematical foundations of the analysis, which will make it possible to come into contact with complexity and at the same time specificity. And just do not say that there are even methods for the analysis of turbulent physical processes in which at least the processes of analyzing quantitative parameters with geometric and vectorial and energy as potential interactions are combined. You don’t even understand the reasons and patterns of manifestation of different levels of ionization on the surfaces of the outflow at high speeds, which ultimately manifest themselves as plasma or “breakdown” of this ionized surface to an external potentially charged medium.
          1. venik
            venik 22 February 2017 18: 16
            +2
            Quote: gridasov
            You do not see patterns and do not understand that all processes occur as algorithmic ones and in order to achieve hyper speeds it is necessary first of all to change the mathematical foundations of the analysis, which will make it possible to come into contact with complexity and at the same time concreteness.

            ====
            My friend! Did you happen to graduate from the Faculty of Philosophy ???
            1. gridasov
              gridasov 22 February 2017 18: 28
              +5
              The ability of a person to logical thinking extends to the ability to analyze a wide variety of life processes. Therefore, all normal scientists are philosophers in their own way. But if there are no such abilities, then there is not enough scientist in him.
              1. venik
                venik 23 February 2017 10: 11
                0
                Quote: gridasov
                Therefore, all normal scientists are philosophers in their own way. But if there are no such abilities, then there is not enough scientist in him.

                ====
                All this is so !! But it is philosophers (meaning graduates of philosophical faculties) who have an amazing ability to hide truth behind a veil of beautiful words and concepts from tinsel (which makes them similar to politicians) and turn simple concepts into a labyrinth of "sophisticated" conclusions! This is their main difference from normal scientists !!!
                1. gridasov
                  gridasov 23 February 2017 10: 30
                  0
                  All right! But there are such discoveries and topics. which are not very worth spreading. . Ie it is possible to discuss in a generalized form, but it is worth concealing the specifics. This also applies, by the way, to the theoretical foundations of understanding the processes of hyperspeed flights. I repeat once again that this is measured by MAXI for mass perception, and for scientists this is a certain stage in the transformation of complex energetically interconnected processes. These are much more voluminous and deeper issues that can ultimately be mastered for use by the military in the interests of politicians and their games. Therefore, scientists understand the interconnectedness from science to politics, and politicians are unlikely to understand the scientific aspects of their dominance or vulnerability.
                  1. venik
                    venik 23 February 2017 10: 54
                    +1
                    Quote: gridasov
                    I repeat once again that this is measured by MAXI for mass perception, and for scientists this is a certain stage in the transformation of complex energetically interconnected processes.

                    ====
                    Well, let's start with the fact that for a scientist (physicist for example) - ANY physical phenomenon (or process) - ALWAYS is the result of a complex of physical interaction processes!
                    Well, what about the "mass perception" ... My friend, where does this come from so much HIGHLY? Or is it a misunderstanding of what is from oneself, and why is such a subjective parameter needed as a "system of measures and weights" ??
                    1. gridasov
                      gridasov 23 February 2017 11: 29
                      0
                      First, we do not discuss ethics and morality. Therefore, it’s not worth talking about arrogance. While in Ukraine, I wouldn’t put the stupefied crowd on a par with scientists involved in the development of civilization. This is not about me. Because for me all this is a hobby. And secondly, you should distinguish a system of measures and weights with mathematical dimension, as a concept and definition.
                      1. venik
                        venik 23 February 2017 18: 40
                        0
                        Quote: gridasov
                        You should distinguish a system of measures and weights with mathematical dimension — as a concept and definition.

                        =====
                        That's about the DIMENSIONS (not just mathematical!) And spoke!
                        It’s terribly interesting what exactly in Ukraine do the scientists who set the grandiose task of “DEVELOPMENT OF CIVILIZATION” ?????
                        At least in "general terms" ???
          2. Photon
            Photon 23 February 2017 00: 27
            0
            Something I do not remember such a terminology in hydrodynamics. Do not throw links to related works?
            1. gridasov
              gridasov 23 February 2017 10: 31
              0
              Please specify a question
              1. Photon
                Photon 23 February 2017 21: 59
                0
                What to specify? You do not know what is the link to the source? What can you recommend to read on hydrodynamics? Especially on the issue you are discussing
                1. gridasov
                  gridasov 23 February 2017 23: 26
                  0
                  Why are you yelling at me? In hydrodynamics, you need to read everything and analyze along with anomalies. you need to especially carefully study starting from the Heron of Alexandria, Segner’s wheel and everything else. The more you read and comprehend, the faster you will realize that hydrodynamics is very closely related to magneto-dynamic processes and electro-magnetism in general. Understand that any calculations in turbulent processes do not make sense. and we need techniques of a completely different level to provide an analysis of complex transformations. And don't be nervous. It is unhealthy.
    2. venik
      venik 22 February 2017 12: 56
      +1
      Quote: rubin6286
      Hypersonic speeds start at Mach 4,5

      Quote: rubin6286
      Roughly speaking, hypersonic speed is 2 km / s

      ====
      Well, actually, the Mach number itself is not a constant in itself, because the speed of sound propagation in the atmosphere is a variable, which depends primarily on the state of the atmosphere itself (pressure, density, water vapor saturation, etc.). A hypersonic flight speed is the speed at which a plasma (ionized gas) is formed in the boundary layer - i.e. the process of ionization and dissociation of air molecules. Back in the 70s, we HAVE BEEN CONSIDERED TO ACCOUNT the hypersonic speed of an aircraft - a speed exceeding 5 Machs (and not 4.5M and not 2 km / sec !!!). Although this concept is rather arbitrary, because the emergence of a stable plasma in the boundary layer depends not only on the speed, but also on the parameters of the environment (atmosphere), the aerodynamics of the aircraft, the material and the "quality" of the aircraft skin, etc. !!!

      Quote: rubin6286
      It is necessary that the GZLA control and navigation systems at these flight speeds pierce this plasma.

      ====
      Is not a fact! In general, the plasma itself can change characteristics under the influence of electromagnetic radiation (especially high-frequency). - i.e. itself may be a kind of "antenna". There is a huge practical difficulty - associated with fixing these very weak changes !!
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 22 February 2017 13: 49
        +1
        All stupidity is that. that people evaluate hyperspeed as a concept evaluated by some reference values ​​of relative speed of movement. In this case, all issues and problems are solved at the level of energy e-mail. magnetic interactions. Why am I doing this? Moreover, the potential of such interactions, which often have a negative and destructive effect, can occur even at different angles of attack of the wing at relatively low speeds of the entire aircraft. Therefore, looking at the concept of a ramjet engine for hyper speeds, one can quite reasonably say that these people have no idea about the interactions of the longitudinal motion vector of a gas-dynamic flow with its spin. That is, the air flow on the one hand accelerates, and on the other brakes, which will destroy the engine on a "sigh"
        1. Falcon5555
          Falcon5555 22 February 2017 19: 51
          0
          Gridasov, and what is hyperspeed?
        2. san4es
          san4es 22 February 2017 21: 34
          +9
          I see you from Ukraine ... And move to Russia here is work, I think there will be for competent people
          1. gridasov
            gridasov 22 February 2017 21: 42
            +2
            So I am forming the work in which I can be as useful as possible. It’s just not my job to come and work as a taxi driver.
            1. san4es
              san4es 22 February 2017 22: 02
              +9
              You know better. Good luck.
            2. Falcon5555
              Falcon5555 22 February 2017 22: 55
              +2
              So I form the work in which I can be most useful.

              "Shaping the work"? .. belay To whom can Gridasov be useful? .. laughing
              1. gridasov
                gridasov 23 February 2017 00: 21
                0
                I do not beg for it. Your statements are like a subtle game, but rather a stingy mind.
                1. Falcon5555
                  Falcon5555 23 February 2017 01: 15
                  0
                  Of course, the stinginess of the mind. wassat You haven’t enriched it yet.
                  Do you want to be as useful as possible, or not asking for it? Somehow you need to decide. And who is useful? Who doesn’t ask for it?

                  PS: Some kind of nonsense with countries ... You suddenly seem to be from the States, I myself have come from somewhere else. Technical problems probably on their server.
                  1. san4es
                    san4es 23 February 2017 09: 28
                    +9
                    hi Campaign, while we are typing texts, Gridasov is already flying around the ball in hypersound, or finally teleported.
                  2. venik
                    venik 23 February 2017 11: 00
                    +1
                    Quote: Falcon5555
                    You suddenly seem to be from the States, I myself am from somewhere else. Technical problems probably on their server.

                    ======
                    And maybe everything is easier? Does someone have "dual citizenship" or you (and respected gridasov) or your provider ????
                    1. gridasov
                      gridasov 23 February 2017 12: 10
                      +1
                      I definitely have nothing to do with it.
                    2. Falcon5555
                      Falcon5555 23 February 2017 14: 55
                      +2
                      And maybe everything is easier? Someone has "dual citizenship"

                      I don’t understand ... Everything, as Gridasov explained to me, because of "stinginess of the mind."
                      What kind of "dual citizenship" is this, and in quotation marks, because of which I wrote from Russia at 22:55 p.m., at 1:15 got over to - with difficulty figured out - to Sweden, and at 3:40 returned to Russia? Now I find out, with you, where I am now.
                      1. venik
                        venik 23 February 2017 18: 55
                        +1
                        Quote: Falcon5555
                        What kind of "dual citizenship" is this, and in quotation marks, because of which I wrote from Russia at 22:55 p.m., at 1:15 got over to - with difficulty figured out - to Sweden, and at 3:40 returned to Russia?

                        =====
                        Yes, it's just a JOKE !!! I didn’t think that I would hurt you ... Sorry!
                        It’s just that I had a similar "cartoon" ... And to the question of one of the forum participants: "So where are you?" I had to answer: "How do I know - maybe I have" 2nd "," 3rd "or" 4th "citizenship ??? Only no one told me anything about this!"
                        Sorry again !!!
            3. Vadim237
              Vadim237 22 February 2017 23: 50
              +1
              You have a direct road to the Institute for Fundamental Research of Quantum Physics.
              1. gridasov
                gridasov 23 February 2017 00: 36
                +1
                I think it’s very important to discover the function of the "constant value of the number." New properties of numbers allow performing mathematical analysis on the principles of not computational mathematics, but "distribution". The function of the variable value of the number is used only for low-potential physical processes, and the constant value adds to the number the properties of seeing vectors in numerical flows, the potential is in the dimension of the numbers themselves. And most importantly, dynamism can be expressed through the process of constructing the structure of space, and not as the gradient of the interaction of exaggerated concepts of the dimension of space expressed by a straight line and a reference time parameter. Therefore, through the possibility of analysis, it is possible to build an interaction structure at any level of dimension of the components of this space, that is, understand what the Boson, photon, etc. are in and express it mathematically and in terms of number ..
                1. Falcon5555
                  Falcon5555 23 February 2017 03: 40
                  +2
                  Gridasov, and what is the Higgs boson in?
                  1. gridasov
                    gridasov 23 February 2017 10: 50
                    +1
                    To understand the structure of space, it is not necessary to have any obvious evidence of the existence of the same material particle of any dimension. I have already repeated several times that nothing in this world is in contact in interaction without the process of primary contact of magnetic force flows. Therefore, even if we mean that the neutron does not have a level of charge, but mark it as a separate component of space, it is worth considering that any dimension in local space has a dimension. And this neutron, having a dimension already, represents this local space interacting with other elements. Therefore, it is necessary to build such fundamental models of existence that do not rely on names, but on the system of interaction of magnetic force flows, but in the local space represented by only two exaggerated points around which magnetic processes can be formed in their basic concepts of dimension, vector and potential. Then this will be that initial elementary local space with the determining minimum information capacity equivalent to it. That is, there will be full compliance with the physical basis and its information component. And only then can we talk about new system processes based on the possibility of their information security in the description and analysis through the capacity of this description, as a mathematical model, based in turn on the number. Therefore, the Boson is in the midst of denser el. magnetic interactions of that which cannot be physically perceived, but can be described mathematically. All the ravings about antimatter and everything else are unreasonable fantasies.
                    1. gridasov
                      gridasov 23 February 2017 11: 14
                      +1
                      I would like to note that only in such an analysis technique can one combine dimension as a mathematical system with “time” as constituting this space. Time is the totality of all events in space, which in turn can be considered as a fractally radial system and at the same time understand why the energy of any component of any dimension in space tends to acquire a spherical shape. In other words, all the components of space are reduced to a single form and method of interaction .. So. What is missing is to understand, connect, describe and analyze all this. Numbers! Numbers in its function as a property that allows you to build an inextricable system of numbers in any vector, and at the same time the numbers themselves will determine both the dimension and the vector and potential. And I called it a constant value function of a number. Because only then can any point in the geometric space be given an exact definition in its location relative to other numbers and described in the basic properties of interaction with other points.
                      1. Falcon5555
                        Falcon5555 23 February 2017 15: 07
                        +2
                        What is missing is to understand, connect, describe and analyze all this. Numbers!

                        Personally, I only need the den number. signs in the wallet. laughing
                        And everything else that I need, I can easily “analyze”.
                        Therefore, the Boson is in the midst of denser el. magnetic interactions of that which cannot be physically perceived, but can be described mathematically.

                        And what is it that cannot be “physically perceived, but can be described mathematically”, and that “interacts more closely”?
                        All the ravings about antimatter and everything else are unreasonable fantasies.

                        And what, in your opinion, is no antimatter?
                      2. venik
                        venik 23 February 2017 19: 10
                        +2
                        Mr. gridasov and EVERYTHING!
                        Well, something like this happened that I was lucky enough to communicate quite LARGE Scientists with "world names" (well, it happened!) And not only ours (Soviet), but also from Britain, France and Japan ... And what’s interesting! ALL THEY (without exception!) Had one amazing feature: About ALL the most complicated problems of physics - to say SIMPLY AND UNDERSTANDING !!!! In my deep conviction, THIS IS the criterion of TALENT and MIND !!!!!!!
              2. rubin6286
                rubin6286 24 February 2017 23: 32
                0
                Boy, solving physics
                I stuffed the nail into the socket.
                What is the "current strength"
                he learned in practice.
  5. Operator
    Operator 22 February 2017 10: 08
    +1
    "Hypersonic" technologies at a speed of M <5 are purely specific budgets.
  6. gridasov
    gridasov 23 February 2017 16: 55
    +2
    Falcon5555,
    The very concept of antimatter in humans arose due to the stinginess of knowledge, and most importantly because of the inability to perform mathematical analysis only in integer values. In fact, computational mathematics is designed to analyze low-potential physical processes. In the understanding of antimatter, analysis must be carried out in capacitive and high-potential definitions. If something is missing then this simply does not exist by definition. . Therefore, the same "black holes" are elementary high-potential radial magnetic processes at the level of ultra-high density of these magnetic processes and their flows. Sooner or later, humanity will understand that the same sun is not a solid body, but a high-density radial magnetic space, and its surface interacts with the structure of space and this is like a “breakdown” of plasma. That is, it is only on the surface of this planet or star .. But the physics of the process is completely obvious and understandable.
    1. Falcon5555
      Falcon5555 23 February 2017 18: 07
      +2
      In the understanding of antimatter, analysis must be carried out in capacitive and high-potential determinations. If something is missing then this simply does not exist by definition.

      So does antimatter (by the way, is it more correct to say in Russian - antimatter) mean or not? In the first sentence, you kind of hint that it is, and in the second - that it is not ...
      Unclear. If not, how can physicists be so wrong? Indeed, in Switzerland already received antihydrogen atoms.
      the sun is not a solid body, but a high-density radial magnetic space

      Also an interesting thought. laughing
      And what is the earth?
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 23 February 2017 19: 41
        +1
        And the Earth is the same principle of radial magnetic interactions, but only of a different level of interaction of potentials and, accordingly, the same "black hole" that creates a gravitational potential between them, which actually forms it. The mechanism is the same, but a different dimension. It is not difficult to explain the mechanism of distribution of magnetic fluxes around a sphere and the same polarization mechanism for planets. By the way, the axis of the precession points to the centers of gravity which in space that form, possibly, a different format of local space, visible to the galaxy, and which are not visible to us. But they are necessarily there because it is a mechanism built on algorithms.
      2. gridasov
        gridasov 23 February 2017 19: 50
        0
        This is not antihydrogen. This is just a new element, but with properties very close to hydrogen. Obviously, we do not know all the properties of hydrogen, and therefore we cannot see the differences in them. By the way, I can position such a device that can actually create a physical process for creating a whole gamut of substances. including basic ones, which will allow scientists to see algorithms for transforming one element into another, which means seeing new properties not only of what we will call antihydrogen, but also of many others. In fact, instead of torus accelerators el. Particles we offer a completely new and unique device that will allow the creation of new substances and materials in the conditions of the EARTH. Moreover, solid materials in a moving environment.
        1. Falcon5555
          Falcon5555 23 February 2017 20: 52
          +4
          So there is no antimatter? Is the earth a "black hole"? Stunningly! Why do we walk on it? And do not blacken?
          PS: (except blacks)
          1. gridasov
            gridasov 23 February 2017 21: 39
            +2
            The gravitational space that holds the entire structure of the planet and balancing the entire dynamics of rotation creates the conditions for the life of a biological product. A person is potentially unable to live in conditions of high altitude and below a certain level of the planet's surface. WE are created for certain external conditions of existence. A “black hole” is not just words — it is a system of interconnected processes that form the gravitational forces of magnetic attraction in the entire range of interaction with what is on the planet and in interaction with other astronomical objects. There is such an interesting effect when a drop of water of a certain degree of ionization, when approaching the surface of the earth, splits into smaller droplets of water. This is based on the interaction of magnetic processes. Why am I doing this? Moreover, the planet not only creates the living conditions of a certain level of energy objects, but also protects the planet from space objects that can destroy it.
            1. Falcon5555
              Falcon5555 23 February 2017 21: 52
              +3
              gravitational forces of magnetic attraction

              Well said! laughing
              But still, why do not we fall into a black hole? negative
              Or have we already failed? belay
              1. gridasov
                gridasov 23 February 2017 23: 32
                0
                Everything is like in a "ball-shaped lightning." the density of the radial magnetic field is such that it forms a plasma breakdown at a certain radius. But since the magnetic field cannot be static, magnetic fluxes and their properties are determined by a complex of fundamental materials. definitions, i.e., the dimension of the interaction potential with the potential of the external environment and the space that is formed between the magnetic force flows. Which carries the functions of the gravitational energy space. You have to use a lot of words, but in fact everything is very simple and prosaic.
                1. Falcon5555
                  Falcon5555 23 February 2017 23: 57
                  +2
                  Well, if everything is so simple, then answer: have we failed in a black hole, or not? Yes or no?
                  1. gridasov
                    gridasov 24 February 2017 12: 34
                    +2
                    YES no one fails anywhere. Why does everyone believe in "utter nonsense." We are all actually a kind of "black hole". After all, what is the "center of mass" that any local structure of space has? It is simply not the "center of mass", but the center of a multipolarized system. Why and where does the same Kirlian effect arise. It arises from the interaction system of magnetic fluxes that form this center of polarization. And this concept is very close to the concept of "zero point". The difference is that we give a justification for this. others just feel it as a logical guess.
                    1. Falcon5555
                      Falcon5555 24 February 2017 17: 11
                      +1
                      We are all actually a kind of "black hole".

                      Oh well. But how do we go into space?
                2. san4es
                  san4es 24 February 2017 09: 03
                  +8
                  And what is the size of the space between the magnetic force flows and what is the strength (brother)? recourse
                  1. gridasov
                    gridasov 24 February 2017 12: 46
                    0
                    And why do you need to know? Why clog the brains with unnecessary and unperceivable phenomena. The fact is that the size of such a space is determined by the mathematical dimension expressed in the force that attracts or repels one point of space from another. But this is not at all the size of a precisely and clearly designated space. This is the dimension by vector of increase in force or its decrease. These are the algorithms of interacting processes that determine the properties of space, and not some constants and constants. That is, the same Pi number is not a number itself indefinite in absolute value. After all, the circumference can be expressed by an algorithm of a sequence of certain numbers, as well as a radius or diameter. But the circumference of a circle is the gradient of a polygon defined not by its radius, but by their number. which form this polygon. Therefore, the Pi number is the interaction of two algorithmic sequences of certain numbers, but not expressed in absolute value. Therefore, depending on the dimension of this circumference, we can always have the exact value, which is related to the number of angles in the polygon. This is not a contradiction as it may seem. This is the unity of mathematical properties, which are sometimes very polar.
              2. san4es
                san4es 24 February 2017 17: 03
                +8
                Of course failed yes and flew out from the other side. After all, in fact, everything is not as it seems. wink
          2. san4es
            san4es 24 February 2017 13: 22
            +7
            ... Phew! Full fly away! good ... for a long time I didn’t smile like that ... already the press got sick
            1. gridasov
              gridasov 24 February 2017 13: 32
              +1
              You should pay tribute and respect for tolerance. In nature, people melt their brains after a few sentences. Because I read a person according to more of his ability to perceive this or that information and accordingly I give this information not so much more, but how concentrated.
              1. san4es
                san4es 24 February 2017 13: 52
                +8
                hi It’s good for my injuries. I appreciate knowledge, I try to understand something. Respect ...
      3. venik
        venik 23 February 2017 19: 53
        +1
        Quote: Falcon5555
        So does antimatter (by the way, is it more correct to say in Russian - antimatter) mean or not? In the first sentence, you kind of hint that it is, and in the second - that it is not ...

        =====
        HERE! But this is what the "philosopher" differs from the "scientist" - the "philosopher" - always so: "it seems to be there, but it seems to be not ..." !!!
        1. Falcon5555
          Falcon5555 23 February 2017 21: 04
          0
          Gridasov is not a philosopher.
  7. Falcon5555
    Falcon5555 23 February 2017 19: 06
    +2
    venik,
    I didn’t think that I would hurt you ... Sorry!

    Yes, I was not offended. Just asked what you meant, that's all.
    1. venik
      venik 23 February 2017 21: 50
      0
      Quote: Falcon5555
      Yes, I was not offended. Just asked what you meant, that's all.

      =======
      Well, sorry again! The joke was unsuccessful! .....
  8. gridasov
    gridasov 23 February 2017 19: 33
    +1
    venik,
    You can’t be sincere and frank, but I won’t begin to dissemble. In general, a systemic crisis.
    1. san4es
      san4es 23 February 2017 20: 05
      +9
      . fellow Guys! (Gridasov, Falcon5555, venik) - to read you - how to visit Amsterdam is little understood but very interesting and fun. Compared to other sections, this is a complete relaxation. Thank you from the bottom of our hearts. Happy Holidays! Meet more often good
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 23 February 2017 20: 13
        0
        But thank you too! By the way, the same with the holiday!
      2. Falcon5555
        Falcon5555 23 February 2017 20: 25
        0
        Happy holiday to all! Hooray! Hooray!!!
      3. venik
        venik 23 February 2017 22: 11
        0
        Quote: san4es
        Thank you from the bottom of the heart. Happy Holiday! Meet more often

        =====
        ALL, ALL, Happy Holiday! Whom - Happy Defender of the Fatherland Day! Who with the Day of the Soviet Army and Navy !! Or with THEM and WITH OTHER - TOGETHER !!!!
        In short - ALL !!!!! HAPPY HOLIDAY!
        And U-R-R-A !!!!! (R.S. "Bourgeois" - DO NOT UNDERSTAND!)
    2. venik
      venik 23 February 2017 21: 51
      0
      Quote: gridasov
      venik,
      You can’t be sincere and frank, but I won’t begin to dissemble. In general, a systemic crisis.

      =====
      And now I’m NOT FUCKING already .. I didn’t understand !!! ???
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 23 February 2017 23: 39
        +2
        You understand that more than twenty years of devastation has generated a generation of people who inadequately perceive reality. Ukraine is more like not a state, but a reserve of undeterred stupid people. It’s very difficult for me to understand many of the processes that take place in this society. One thing is clear that the current situation is very unstable, so ugliness gives rise to freaks that themselves will destroy. In general, your incomprehensibility surprises me, in the country of the junta and censorship. SBU rages and there is a real "witch hunt". Such a mess that I did not even dream about in a nightmare.
  9. gridasov
    gridasov 23 February 2017 20: 00
    +1
    venikYou see, but the conversation is not about recognizing or not recognizing the opinions of authorities. We are talking about the search for a certain TRUTH, or rather a system that can bring us closer to understanding the complexity of processes, and not some panacea. Therefore, I respect everyone, but I do not bury my own free thought in the framework of logic.
    1. venik
      venik 23 February 2017 21: 57
      +1
      Oh my God! Dear gridasov (excuse me, I don’t know the name, patronymic), well, can you be easier ????
      What are the "truths" (or "systems") that "bring us closer to the" understanding of complexity "" ???
      Be simpler and "people will reach for you" !!!!!
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 23 February 2017 23: 48
        +1
        I'd rather be myself. I feel so comfortable. I do not humiliate anyone, I do not insult anyone, but I want to be sincere and truthful in front of myself. Therefore, who accepts, and someone does not. Moreover, more than anything else, I am alien to publicity. And then I try to accept and comprehend absolutely everything with which I can come into contact.
        1. san4es
          san4es 24 February 2017 08: 33
          +8
          Right, right, this includes de-energized parts of the brain (mine)
        2. san4es
          san4es 24 February 2017 17: 13
          +8
          ... Now, if you remove magnetism, then everything around will disappear. Can this happen on its own, or should there be an external impact (for example, on a flying rocket)?
          1. rubin6286
            rubin6286 24 February 2017 23: 24
            +2
            One can only be surprised: what clever comments people write and how stupid they lead lives ....
            1. san4es
              san4es 25 February 2017 00: 20
              +8
              laughing Check out the show? I am already 3 days in the subject good
        3. lubesky
          lubesky 24 February 2017 21: 14
          +1
          Thank you very much, I enjoyed reading you. Specifically, what you didn’t quite understand, I forgot a lot, but ran away for the second bottle and voila - I enjoyed the deep Russian thought and especially the mastery of its presentation! Those who ask you to be simpler - do not listen, they are already biorobots, not capable of analysis and exposure
          1. rubin6286
            rubin6286 24 February 2017 23: 20
            +1
            As a child, Lesha dreamed of becoming an astronaut, Vanya - an athlete, and Seryozha - an alcoholic. As a result, the first two drank themselves, but the third still got his way.
            1. lubesky
              lubesky 24 February 2017 23: 27
              0
              Quote: rubin6286
              and Sergei - an alcoholic

              And did not expect that I would understand. Sarcasm and subtle humor - intelligence is not your path, otherwise you would understand)))
  10. Dzafdet
    Dzafdet 9 June 2017 06: 10
    0
    How much time did Yeltsin and the company lose. It has long been necessary to make hypersonic missiles. Now it would be possible to experience in Syria on barmaley ... tongue
  11. Ilya Vasilyev
    Ilya Vasilyev 1 March 2018 16: 16
    0
    That's all, Americans will sob today, they all think that our rockets fly at a maximum distance of 1.5 thousand km, and 100 km / h, but in fact there are already laser weapons and installations with a speed of 20 max fly, given that this is not all that was shown , I can’t even imagine what else could be, American weapons are 10-15 years behind development since the Russian years, to the point that they spend billions on defense if their scientists are dumb !!!
  12. VladVlad
    VladVlad 31 March 2019 08: 17
    0
    Reaching speeds of 100 km per second or more is real. For more than 15 years I have been offering such a technology to the "party and government". But there they slow down something, very much. For some reason they do not need it. The introduction of the invention, in the public domain, patent No. 149598, "Device for controlling the flow of an aircraft" and modifications of the device for based on the patent allows:
    - create an additional lift force on the wing in two or three times;
    - to reduce to almost zero aerodynamic resistance at any hypersonic speeds;
    - to be an invisible aircraft for all types of anti-aircraft missile defense and anti-aircraft defense systems;
    - be protected from lasers, beam weapons, EW systems;
    - reach in the lower dense layers of the atmosphere, at an altitude of 1 km, to missiles and airplanes of hypersonic speeds in 10 km / s and more to 50 km per second. (resolved the issue of heat exposure during hypersound, and sound, the device does not make noise, there is no shock wave);
    - take off and land vertically, with minimal fuel consumption;
    - to achieve fuel economy of aircraft and vehicles more than 50%;
    - to fly rockets and airplanes in the atmosphere and in space;
    There is know-how!