Military Review

Taiwan is ready for the “jump” in the 5 generation: the first stage is the national modernization program of the F-CK-1 fighter jets

Taiwan is ready for the “jump” in the 5 generation: the first stage is the national modernization program of the F-CK-1 fighter jets

The assessment of the combat potential of the armed forces of Taiwan (Republic of China) is one of the most interesting and important topics of any forecast review affecting the military-strategic situation in the Asia-Pacific region, because against the background of the increasingly hardening anti-China position of the new administration of Washington, an automatic “spurring” of all is happening without exception, the defense allies of the US allies in countering Beijing’s ambitions in the region. Taiwan, in turn, is in the “anti-Chinese axis” a link to the main threat to Beijing, both because of the extreme geographical proximity of the borders of the two conflicting states, and due to the appearance in Taipei of quite modern 3-flywheel anti-ship missiles “Yuzo”, which represent a great danger not only for the Chinese naval trade and combat surface ships, but also for the strategically important objects of the Celestial Empire on the coast of Fujian province.

The basic tactical fleet of the Air Force of Taiwan is represented by single and double multipurpose fighters F-16A / B Block 20, which are being upgraded today to F-16V (145 machines), 127 multi-purpose fighters F-CK-1A / B (double in the background) Variant “B”), 56 highly mobile Mirage-2000-5 tactical fighter jets, as well as 60 F-5E / F Tiger military training fighter jets, capable of using all modifications of Sidewinder URVV, including AIM-9X -II. Total 388 machines

It is known that the minimum distance from the western coast of Taiwan to the coast of the Chinese island of Pingtana (Fujian Province) is only 140 km, while the range of Yuzo missiles (depending on the trajectory) can reach 320 km. An early version of this family of rockets, the Hsiung Feng-III (150 km range), which is already in mass production, is also capable of hitting targets on the Chinese coast, it has a flight speed of 2700 km / h. Naturally, the PRC can use it to repel the strike of these anti-ship ZRDN C-300PS and C-400, but given that the Taiwan armed forces will put into service more than 1000 units. during a major conflict, a situation may arise that in order to eliminate all Yuzo launchers and simultaneously intercept Yuzo and HF-3 anti-ship missiles, Beijing will need to attract significant attack resources and missile defense resources only in the Taiwanese direction. At this point, other missile-dangerous sections of the borders of China may be exposed in front of the enemy. No less interesting is the design of the Xsyung Feng-3 / Yuzo family of missiles: they are very similar to our X-31AD and X-41 Mosquito, but they are distinguished by flat rectangular air intakes for direct-flow air-jet engines, which significantly reduces their radar signature, as well as large separable accelerators. It is obvious that initially the documentation with the drawings on the Chinese anti-ship missile system YJ-91 (analogue X-31А), “dug out” by the Taiwanese special services, was delivered to the walls of the Zhunshan National Institute of Science and Technology, and then the project, with the help of American experts, was modified in accordance with constructive features of the supersonic GQM-163A “Coyote” target missile, the latter also used rectangular air intakes.

Over the past decades, Taiwan, as well as China, has achieved tremendous success in the development of advanced avionics for missiles and military aviation. This was made possible thanks to the support of specialists from the American companies Raytheon and Lockheed Martin, who today participate in a deep modernization program for 144 Taiwanese F-16A / Bs to F-16V levels. The machines receive powerful radars with AFAR AN / APG-83 SABR and new airborne electronic warfare equipment. And so it's time to consider the even more ambitious project of the Zhunshan Institute, which could soon put the Taiwanese defense industry at the level of South Korean or Japanese.

As you can see, the Taiwanese lightweight glider F-CK-1 glider has a decent unrealized modernization potential. For example, the sag area at the root of the wing can be increased 2-3 times, exactly like the American F / A-18E / F, compared to the early F / A-18C / D modification. This will significantly improve the flight performance of the new fighters designed on the basis of the F-CK-1 Chingo. Small gray radio transparent fairings on the edges of the flows (on the sides of the edges of the air intakes) - receiving antennas of the radiation warning system (STR)

We are talking about the development of a deeply refined version of the F-CK-1 Jingo lightweight twin-engined tactical fighter. In service is approximately 127 machines of this type, which are part of the 443 th wing of the Taiwan Air Force. They were developed as part of the IDF project (“Indigenous Defensive Fighter”), which owes its appearance to the American embargo on the supply of weapons to Taiwan. The embargo was imposed by Washington in the 80-s with the aim of reducing the degree of political tension with the People's Republic of China. Meanwhile, the embargo did not have any impact on the US-Taiwan military-technical cooperation, and the development of the fighter, led by the Taiwanese corporation Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, followed the path of “crossing” the structures of the Figer X-fighter X-TUM, F-5C and F / A-16C. The program consisted of several separate stages, among which were projects to create a glider, a power plant, as well as avionics and weapon control systems.

The result was a light multipurpose fighter in the JAS-39 "Gripen" weight category (the empty mass of the machine is 6500 kg, the normal take-off weight is 9100 kg and the maximum take-off weight is 12250 kg), the glider has a high aerodynamic qualities due to the developed flows root of the wing. This makes it possible to maintain flight with large angles of attack, as well as to realize a more or less normal angular speed of turning after a set speed of 700 — 900 km / h, but this maneuverability is achieved only for a very short period of time, because the thrust ratio of F-CK-1 is extremely small for a steady turn in the plane of pitch with a high angular velocity. It’s all a matter of insufficient Honeycomb F2-125 turbojet 70's twin turbojet engines: at maximum they give out 5470 kgf, afterburner 8380 kgf, this realizes the thrust-weight of all 0,92 kgf / kg with normal take-off weight and 0,69 kgf, and 4 kgf / kg with normal take-off weight and 16 with the normal take-off weight and 18, with real weight of the 130 kgf / kg with normal take-off mass and 346, and 1275 kgf / kg with normal take-off weight and 1 kgs / kg with normal take-off weight and 1 kgs / kg with normal take-off weight and 18 kgs / kg with normal take-off weight and XNUMX kgs / kg with normal take-off weight and XNUMX kgNKX / xNXX with normal take-off weight and XNUMX kgN, XXXXXXXXXXXXXVXXXXVXXXXXT kg at maximum take-off weight. Such figures do not even correspond to XNUMX generation machines. In other words, there is an unacceptable contrast between the aerodynamic qualities of the airframe and the thrust-to-weight ratio, as well as acceleration characteristics. As a result, the Jingo maneuverability, to put it mildly, is “lame” in comparison even with such fighters as the F-XNUMXC or the F / A-XNUMXC / D “Hornet”, and corresponds to the level of the Yak-XNUMX and Aermacchi training aircraft M- XNUMX. The speed of the fighter also does not shine and is of the order of XNUMX km / h (less than that of the strategic bomber B-XNUMXB). You can compare the performance of the F-CK-XNUMX with the American carrier-based fighter F / A-XNUMXC "Hornet" in the video below.


F / A-18C

However, due to official Taipei’s concerns about a possible military conflict with the PRC, the Taiwanese aerospace monopolist AIDC and the Zhunshan National Institute of Science and Technology are not going to stop there, and plan to replenish the Jingguo single-seat tactical fighter aircraft by 20. modifications of the F-CK-1A and the two-seater F-CK-1B radically upgraded prototype generation "4 ++". On Taiwan information resources, it is reported that the Zhongshan Institute of Science and Technology plans to develop a new fighter based on the existing Jingguo (Ching-Kuo) machines, as well as to improve the 127 machines already in service. It is also reported that the new generation fighter jets will be partially applied constructive and elemental base of the F-5A 35 generation fighters. Obviously, the gliders of the advanced F-CK-X will receive radio absorbing materials and coatings to reduce EPR; and in a perspective computerized fire control system they integrate an all-view optical-electronic sighting system with several sensors represented by high-resolution infrared matrices (like the OLS with the distributed aperture AN / AAQ-37 of the F-35A fighter). New Taiwanese fighters will be able to detect and distant tracking of warm-contrast air targets at ranges from 20-40 km (cruise missiles, RCC, PRLR) to 100 - 200 km (fighters and after-bomber bombers in the afterburner).

As part of the modernization, the existing F-CK-1A / B can also be equipped with optic-electronic sighting systems, but here they will definitely be limited to a single EOTS (Electro-Optical Targeting System) module or IRST (the first ones installed on the F-35A, the latter are based on Japanese F-15J), since the Taiwanese experts are unlikely to consider it necessary to “redraw” the entire Jingguo fore part (including coatings, wiring, etc.) to accommodate a complex DAS infrared aperture of the DAS type.

New fighters will receive a brand new radar with active phased array type AN / APG-83 SABR, and maybe more advanced. It is known that the F-CK-1A / B, which is in service with the Taiwan Air Force, is today equipped with airborne radar with a GD-53 slot antenna array. The station is a hybrid of AN / APG-66 and AN / APG-67 with the power of the radiator and the size of the aperture of the latter. The target detection range with the 3m2 EPR reaches 80 km, the large bomber type target is 150 km, and against the ground surface, these types of targets will be detected at a distance of 50 and 93 km, respectively. Moreover, the GD-53 radar has a similar high-performance processor and the element base for converting radar information, which allows for many operating modes, including: 2 of the air-to-sea mode (Sea-1 and Sea-2); subtypes of the air-to-ground mode, as well as several subtypes of the air-to-air mode. Moreover, the old aircraft radar of the Chingo fighters can be updated with the new airborne radar. The ease of refurbishment is explained by the use of modern digital backbone (bus) of the MIL-STD-1553B data on fighters.

At the time of the launch of the IDF program, during the arms embargo from Washington, the Ministry of Defense and the commanders of the Taiwanese Air Force were very interested in the embargo under the light F-20 multi-purpose fighter “Tigershark” (in the photo), and the AIDC specialists, using the absence of a ban on military-technical cooperation, obtained permits for licensed production of the then-advanced on-board radar "Taygershka" - AN / APG-67, which became the basis of the OMS F-CK-1A / B

The next task should be to increase maneuverability, thrust-carrying capacity and acceleration parameters of a promising fighter based on the F-CK-1A / B. For this, Taiwanese specialists will have an 2 way of selecting a new powerplant with an 1,5 - 2 -fold increased maximum and afterburner. The first way will be expedient if it is decided to maintain the weight and dimensions of the new machine within the limits of the early F-CK-1. Its essence lies in the fact that it is necessary to select TRDDF with a diameter corresponding to the diameter of the original Honeywell F125-70 type engine (F125-GA-100), which is 914 mm, and also 2,6 m long (these dimensions correspond to the fighter jet nacelles " Jingo "). The contenders are the next generation upgraded turbojet engines F125X and F125XX with the design afterburner 5710 and 7445 kgf. The power plant of the 2-x engines F125X will create a common 11420 kgf thrust, which will give the new fighter on the basis of the F-CK-1A / B thrust-to-weight ratio within 1,2 kgf / kg with a normal take-off weight. A more powerful pairing F-125XX with 14890 kgf can bring the thrust ratio to 1,45 kgf / kg with a normal take-off weight and 1,15 kgf / kg with a maximum. This principle can also be used to re-equip the F-CK-1 already in service, since it is unlikely that an increase in the internal dimensions of the nacelle will be required.

The second way looks much more logical. It provides for constructive changes in the draft airframe staffing "Jingguo". First of all, the wing span and area, the length of the fuselage, and the dimensions of the engine nacelles will be increased. Accordingly, the elevator area and stabilizer area will be increased; A two-tail vertical tail structure can also be implemented according to the type of construction F / A-18C / D / E / F. The wing area from 24 m2 will be increased to 37 - 42 m2, while the normal take-off weight will be kept at the level of 12 - 12,5 tons, which will reduce the wing load from 380 to 320 kg / m2: this will have a very positive impact on fuel efficiency. and at the speed of turning in melee air combat. As a power plant, more heavy and large engines will be considered, for example, the F404-GE-402 TRDDF (installed on the Hornet), or the more advanced F404-GE-402 (equipped with “Super Hornets”) with bench weight 8165 and 10000 kgf, respectively. In addition to high thrust, these engines differ from the regular F125-70 by an even higher working resource, as well as by the specific gravity reaching 7,25 and 9 kgf / kg. This series of turbofans from “General Electric” is very compact and is designed for installation on light and medium fighters: the diameter of the compressor is 88,9 cm, and the length is 3,912 m.

As noted earlier, the project of the multipurpose national fighter of the 4 ++ generation for the Taiwan Air Force provides for a reduction in the radar visibility of the product, and here the specialists from the Zhunshan Institute can follow the same path taken by the creators of the F / A-18E / F Super Hornet. at the beginning of the 90's Instead of oval air intakes (used on F / A-18C), on F / A-18E / F rectangular, with a large bevel of the plane of the edges relative to the normal was used, this led to a significant decrease in the EPR compared to the rounded edges of the Hornet air intakes. Moreover, the area of ​​their internal cross-section provided a greater flow of air for engines of increased power. A similar technique can be applied on the new F-CK-X, because the combatant F-CK-1 fighters have the same oval “Hornet” oval air intakes and air duct design. Many structural elements will get an angular shape, as well as radio-absorbing coatings: as on F / A-18E / F, on the F-CK-X it is advisable to install elevators with angular edges, this horizontal tail is used on the inconspicuous 5 generation fighters. Specialized radial-type radar grids will be installed in the air ducts of the engines of the new aircraft to reduce the output of electromagnetic waves reflected from the engine compressor blades.

With an increase in the size of the airframe of a new fighter, the total capacity of its fuel system will increase: from 2200 kg to 3200 - 3600, which will increase the range from 550 to 800 - 1000 km, but this figure will still not meet the requirements of the XXI century, and therefore definitely will the need to install additional conformal fuel with a total capacity of about 650-800 l. The developer company AIDC already has experience installing conformal fuel tanks on the 2 of the “Chingo” fighter modification F-CK-1C / D. The single (“C”) and double (“D”) versions of the fighter were developed and presented by 2007 in the framework of the IDF-2 pilot project aimed at exploring ways to upgrade the F-CK-1A / B fleet.

Multi-purpose fighters F-CK-1A / B have a maximum combat load of 3900 kg, which can be placed on 9 suspension points (6 underwing, 2 at wingtips and 1 ventral). This is quite enough to accommodate a pair of heavy supersonic anti-ship missiles of the Hsiung Feng-II / III type, 2-x 1000-pound GBU-32 JDAM controlled bombs, AIM-120C-7 bombs, the same "Sidewinder" and one outboard fuel tank (PTB). But any sharp maneuvers with such an arsenal are strictly contraindicated for the Jingguo, since the glider’s constructive-power scheme allows maneuvering with maximum permissible overloads of up to 6,5 units. On a promising machine, the constructive G-limit should be brought up to standard 9-11 units, and the combat load should be increased to 6-8 tons (not less than that of Gripen or Typhoon).

The F-CK-X fighters due to the more powerful engines will have a proper speed of 310 m / s, as well as speeds up to 2000 km / h (the existing F-CK-1 accelerates only to 1300 km / h and have a 254 m / with); moreover, representatives of the Taiwan Air Force expressed a desire to get a machine capable of flying at supersonic cruising speed. Taking into account the capabilities of the F414-GE-400 type engines, the new versions of Honeywell F125XX turbofans, as well as the minimum area of ​​the mid-section of the basic F-CK-1, the Taiwanese pilots' dream of cruising supersonic may well be embodied in a new concept. Technically, it is quite possible to realize speed in 1270 - 1350 km / h without switching on the afterburner and with the “light” configuration of the air-to-air weaponry, which was tested on the EF-2000 Typhoon.

The twin-engine powerplant of advanced Taiwanese fighters will significantly increase the level of survivability of a combat fleet as a whole, because about 60% of the country's fighter aircraft are today single-engine multipurpose F-16A / B fighters upgraded to F-16V. Moreover, the radar signature of the Jingguo version, reduced to 1 m2, will create an additional problem for timely detection for the Chinese J-10A and Su-30МКК. After the first squadron of new F-CK-1 vehicles, as well as the upgraded Falcons with AFAR, were used by the Taiwanese Air Force, China would urgently need to reinforce the Taiwanese direction of LFI J-10B, as well as Su-35C, supplied to the Celestial Empire at that time. moment. The fact is that after the development and launch of a series of new generation fighter 4 ++, the fleet of the Taiwan Air Force will overtake the existing Japanese and South Korean, reaching 500 — 550 fighters.

The last days were marked by the “drawing” of the truly diabolical face of the new American regime, and therefore, with each new defense program of the US allies in the APR, tensions around the Chinese borders will take huge steps to bring the entire region closer to a major military confrontation, and Taiwan is a key player in it.

Information sources:
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  1. baudolino
    baudolino 20 February 2017 08: 36 New
    Given that the Chinese have always waged war on the total destruction of the enemy, the corresponding weapons will prevail in the possible battle between Beijing and Taipei. No punches, just hardcore.
    1. EvilLion
      EvilLion 20 February 2017 09: 17 New
      I don’t know who the Chinese destroyed there, they all beat them, but to completely destroy the population and infrastructure of the territory that the PRC considers to be ... Until now, only the former. Ukraine thought of in relation to the Donbass.
      1. Karaul73
        Karaul73 24 February 2017 22: 51 New
        Chechnya also does not bother to remember.
    2. xetai9977
      xetai9977 20 February 2017 11: 06 New
      Taiwan is not a whipping boy. If a conflict arises, then the Americans will stop them. Far from the fact that China will win. I can’t believe that the parties will resort to weapons. China hopes that economic development will help it to peacefully annex the island. But Taiwan is a very developed country. Someone, the future will show
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 20 February 2017 15: 33 New
        The Chinese in China have assimilated, “digested”, many nations, nationalities in large numbers. The fact is that Taiwan “doesn’t doze off.” Japan, deceiving absolutely everyone, invents, creates, experiences, hides something all.
        1. Kasym
          Kasym 20 February 2017 17: 56 New
          Reptiloid, how is it - the Chinese will assimilate the Chinese? wink
          I was in Taiwan. Developed country, second in Asia. Most of the industry is exported. Needs resources. He lives about 30 million. person. It is interesting, but the fact, when you ask them about the number of people on the island, they begin to say that oh, very much, more than 100 million. - Apparently they are still afraid of bro.
          The fact is that with the development of China, Taiwan itself is increasingly looking towards China. I think it will happen over time, as with Hong Kong (Hong Kong).
          It would not be difficult for Beijing to block the island, if not for the United States. "If you sit by the river for a long time, you can see the passing corpse of your enemy." Beijing will definitely not “level off” the army. 70% of accessories for all laptops are made in Taiwan. Another 15 years, and Taiwan itself will be asked - the PRC market will become the most attractive for Taipei. More recently, trade between the island and China has been impossible. hi
          1. EvilLion
            EvilLion 20 February 2017 20: 49 New
            And in general, do hard drives and microcircuits do there, if it is bombed, how much will they rise in price? Nizya!
      2. rasteer
        rasteer 21 February 2017 20: 19 New
        Americans stopudovo help them.
        Yeah like iraq laughing No, of course, a lot of Hi-Tech industries are concentrated in Taiwan, but the United States is the United States wink Marketing rolls, tomorrow it will be considered that they will benefit from the jump in prices for microelectronics and Taiwan themselves will be dragged out. But modern China doesn’t give a damn about the USA in case of war, and the USA couldn’t even get half of Vietnam without it. There is no war for the time being, both sides are not set to lose income, but everything changes. At the expense of peaceful integration, as in the case of Hong Kong, it will not work out yet, since with Taiwan it is more difficult because of the banal difference in status and the reasons for the emergence of Hong Kong and Taiwan. Everything was relatively simple with Hong Kong; the benefits of integration were lobbied among the world economic elite. and since England politically only benefited from this, the deal went off with a bang, who promised whom and who will remain behind the scenes, but everyone succeeded, we see that. With Taiwan, the reason for its formation is more difficult to be rejected by the Kuomintang political elite. politicians of the Chinese Communist Party and this is a mega problem, especially since the United States is profitable to have a similar "unsinkable aircraft carrier" near China.
  2. EvilLion
    EvilLion 20 February 2017 09: 32 New
    I still do not understand, what is all this about? The F-CK-1 is a typical machine with lousy flight data, which appeared, as correctly indicated, only because the United States did not sell aircraft. Even if it is brought to mind (310 m / s climb is hardly achievable), where does the 5 generation come from and why should China urgently run after the Su-35 when it has only J-10, which will be stronger than Taiwanese trash, in 2-3 times more than Taiwan’s underfighters (basically there are F-16, which are much more dangerous and much stronger ask for bricks in the sea ... a rocket with Su-35 into the nozzle).

    The F-CK-1A / B multipurpose fighters have a maximum combat load of 3900 kg, which can be placed at 9 suspension points (6 underwing, 2 at wingtips and 1 ventral). This is enough to accommodate a pair of heavy supersonic long-range anti-ship missiles of the Hsiung Feng-II / III type, 2's 1000-pound guided aerial bombs GBU-32 JDAM, and a pair AIM-120C-7

    At the beginning of the 2014 year, in my article about light fighters, I described that the Su-17, an airplane not weak, in Afghanistan during the day in the heat and in the mountains with difficulty raised a ton of bombs. So in fairy tales about how an aircraft weighing 6.5 tons will carry 4 tons of cargo, I don’t really believe something. Theoretically, from the point of view of strength, this is real, especially when you accelerate on a frosty December morning (we have a favorite time for the first flights of new cars, visibility is excellent, maximum thrust) along some runway in the depths of Russia. But an airplane is not a barge capable of delivering cargo from point A to point B; it must also do something with the enemy’s opposition.
  3. kugelblitz
    kugelblitz 20 February 2017 10: 46 New
    How much can the unfortunate T-38 Talon be tortured? wassat The coeval of the MiG-21, and they were going to make the fifth generation out of it, seriously, shtol ?! Anyway, advertising bullshit, like the Indians were going to saw their file gene, because they rumbled around the T-50, they say it's not nice, it's not. Saw-saw! And I wish the Taiwanese to cut it as soon as possible, if it comes out with 3 ++, then it will be a success.
  4. ukoft
    ukoft 20 February 2017 10: 50 New
    such a large fleet. for such a small country. neighborhood with a big brother requires. after modernization f16 formidable force. and drlo still need air.
    but against land-to-earth missiles they need to come up with something. they are nearby all airbases will definitely cover. it seems to have seen them train from the freeways for this occasion. you can't bomb all motorways. and if China does not take advantage in the air, then you should not dream of water.

    missiles bomb all military bases. Taiwan will arrange a sea blockade for them with such an air fleet. It’s quite possible that China will have nothing to oppose. who will stand the first?
    and if there is still refueling in the air, then the continent will be bombed
    1. Shadow shooter
      Shadow shooter 14 July 2017 08: 25 New
      Will Taiwan arrange a sea blockade for China? lol
  5. silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 20 February 2017 11: 30 New
    There can be no advanced technology in one particular country (the USSR / Russia is an exception) in Taiwan ... there are a lot of technologies pumped from outside (the USA and so on ...) and the island rests solely on the confrontation between the USA and China ... otherwise, he would not have been there either with or without airplanes (it’s not the matter of the word in general)
    1. ukoft
      ukoft 20 February 2017 12: 51 New
      Well, the support of the United States not only the army but also raised the economy of Taiwan. the question is different. At the moment, what can the PRC counterpose to the above air force?
      1. silberwolf88
        silberwolf88 20 February 2017 17: 25 New
        e.g. C400 and nuclear weapons
  6. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 20 February 2017 11: 41 New
    I don’t think that the started alteration will turn the fighter of the 3 generation into the 5.
    The F-16 is doing well, except for a huge EPR (with all pylons and pendants).
    Something similar to the 5th generation can be created only by sticking arms
    and sights inside the fuselage.
    If the United States agrees to supply them with F-35, and China does not arrange ultimatums
    on this occasion (and Beijing may) then there is nothing to make a dubious upgrade.
    1. rotmistr60
      rotmistr60 20 February 2017 12: 05 New
      I don’t think that the started alteration will turn the fighter of the 3 generation into the 5.

      I will support you. This (figuratively speaking) is how to step from feudalism directly into socialism. True, at one time the USSR helped some republics to make such a leap. But this is a technique. You cannot make a microscope out of an awl.
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion 20 February 2017 13: 12 New
        The USSR was gone, they jumped back.
    2. Bongo
      Bongo 20 February 2017 15: 31 New
      Quote: voyaka uh
      I don’t think that the started alteration will turn the fighter of the 3 generation into the 5.

      Of course not turn No. Most of what is stated in the publication is "sucked from the finger." negative
  7. Tsoy
    Tsoy 22 February 2017 04: 54 New
    Huge capital from Taiwan is now in mainland China. These are productions and factories, so also workplaces. So China will fight only as a last resort. All according to the precepts of Deng Xiaoping. Cold calculation and waiting. Such as in the Korean War will be gone. At least while the chosen political course is maintained, China will try to avoid all sorts of adventures. Even the sanctions won joined against the DPRK.

    And it’s really easier for Taiwan to buy F-35 if Trump agrees.
  8. kunstkammer
    kunstkammer 13 June 2017 22: 09 New
    initially, documents with drawings for Chinese anti-ship missiles YJ-91 (analogue of X-31A), "dug up" by Taiwanese special services, were delivered to the walls of the Zhunshan National Institute of Science and Technology

    this is called: "a thief stole a club from a thief"