Military Review

"Faded away like a lamp, a wonderful genius ..." 180 years from the date of the death of A.S. Pushkin

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"Faded away like a lamp, a wonderful genius ..." 180 years from the date of the death of A.S. Pushkin



Not a topic for "Military Review"? Objection ... Considering that Pushkin, as the classic used to say, is our everything, we consider it a great sin not to inform our readers that today - February 10 - is a sad date in the Russian stories and culture. 180 years ago did not become a great poet, who for Russia became really more than just a poet, in fact creating a whole literary world, perhaps ahead of its time and setting a real literary fashion for many years to come.

The death of Alexander Sergeevich still remains the subject of quite heated debates between historians and writers, as is the chain of intrigues that led to the fatal shot on the Black River.

Alexander Pushkin died two days after the injury wounded by Georges Charles Dantes. The duel, as is well known, took place on the initiative of the French officer in connection with Pushkin’s letter. The letter was addressed to the Dutch diplomat Baron Louis Gekkern, who is considered to be the adopter of Dantes. Pushkin’s February 1837 sample letter contained mostly statements from 1836, when Pushkin himself summoned Georges Dantes to a duel, but that was canceled due to the marriage of Dantes to the sister of Alexander Pushkin’s wife Ekaterina Goncharova.

If we talk about a brief background, it is that in the year mentioned by 1836, Alexander Pushkin received an epistolary message in which the poet was named the owner of the “patent for the right-handed cuckold”. It was about alleged sympathy for his wife on the part of officer Dantes and the emperor himself. And supposedly Pushkin's wife responded with mutual sympathy. Having carried out the present investigation with the connection of specialists from the printing house, Pushkin came to the conclusion that the authors of the letter were representatives of the Hecker family. Pushkin's friends, in turn, stated that neither Gekkern could be involved in the scandalous letter, and Princes Dolgorukov and Gagarin, with the aim of offending Pushkin's pride. In the end (even after many years - after the graphological examination), it was established that neither Dolgoruky nor Gagarin themselves were not the persons who wrote the letter. By the authorship of the Gekkernov disputes continue to this day.

Considering the fact that Pushkin was sure of the geckery authorship of the “writings” (as he himself spoke about this), in February 1837, he decided to send his letter to the Dutch envoy. In the letter, Pushkin stated that he could not afford to allow Dantes and Gekkern into his own house and did not consider them to be relatives even after legalizing Georges' marriage with Catherine (Goncharova). As an argument for the “weaning” of the Gekkerns from his home, Pushkin writes that he cannot let a man into his door who is “sick with syphilis”. At the same time, Pushkin himself was well aware that the matter was again going to a duel.

At that time, the duels were inextricably linked with both the fate of Pushkin and his work - both in poetry and in prose. True, the overwhelming majority of duels (whether Pushkin himself or someone else initiated them) were canceled - either on the basis of, as they were said, reconciliation of the parties, or for other reasons (including orders from supervisory authorities). Many were canceled, but this was not canceled. Dantes called Pushkin. Shot first. Pushkin had to make a return shot already lying in the snow in the blood. At the same time, the biographers of Alexander Sergeevich note that Pushkin’s pistol was clogged with snow, and Dantes, together with his second, an employee of the French embassy, ​​Laurent D'Archiac, forbade changing weapon. According to others, Pushkin still got another gun, eventually wounding Dantes in the arm.

After the command of Dantes and the state authorities became aware of the duel and the death of Alexander Pushkin in it, a decision was made on criminal prosecution. The initial sentence was harsh: the death penalty for all participants in the duel with the exception of the second Georges Dantes of the Viscount D'Archiac (he had diplomatic immunity). It was noted that “the criminal act of Pushkin’s junior chamber (...) on the occasion of his death should be brought to oblivion”.



After some time, the sentence was more than mitigated: Georges Dantes was deprived of the officer's rank in Russia and expelled from the country. D'Arshiak also left the Russian Empire. Pushkin’s Danzas second, arrested for two months and discharged from military service, was then released and reinstated.

A separate group of historians believe that for the state institutions of that time and the death of Alexander Pushkin, and the influence of the Russian authorities on Dantes, who ended up abroad, had their fruits. In particular, there is a version that Dantes in the future became one of the regular informants of the embassy of the Russian Empire in Paris, moreover as a kind of enforced measure for the fact that he was freed from the gallows. In particular, one of the most important reports of the “late” Dantes is considered to be the message about the impending assassination attempt on the Russian emperor Alexander II. The report was received through Swiss informed circles literally one day before the March 1 terrorist act of March (new style) 1881. No security measures were taken after the announcement in St. Petersburg. Informed by the Russian embassy in Paris Dantes, as historians believe, in earlier years.

10 February Alexander Pushkin's 1837 is gone. The loss for Russian literature and culture in general was enormous. And at the same time, Alexander Pushkin left a truly unique legacy, in fact creating a modern Russian language and inspiring dozens of eminent poets and writers, and not only the XIX century, to work. Until now, Pushkin's literary treasure remains a truly inexhaustible wealth of Russia and the whole world.
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  1. Moore
    Moore 10 February 2017 05: 11
    +7
    It was about the alleged sympathy for his wife from officer Dantes and the emperor himself. And supposedly spouse Dantes answered with mutual sympathies.

    Is there an error here?
    Add a little.
    The day before his death, Pushkin in a letter asked Nicholas I not to punish his second and received a response from the emperor in which he said that he forgives the poet himself and promises to take care of his wife and children.
    The emperor fulfilled all the obligations undertaken before the Pushkin family: the mortgaged estate was cleared of debts, the sons received grants for training and Page posts, unmarried daughters and the widow herself - a pension. The family was also paid 10 thousand rubles at a time and was given the right to receive all income from the collected works of the poet, published at public expense.
    The wound and the last hours of the poet are described in great detail by the onoff49 blogger http://onoff49.livejournal.com/203077.html
    1. Galleon
      Galleon 10 February 2017 09: 06
      +8
      I suppose that the primary source for the blogger was the book "Pushkin in Life" by V. Veresaev. The author did a great job: he from the archives of the poet’s contemporaries took out any more or less significant memories or references to A.S. and built a chronologically complete picture from these fragments.
      Here is a quote from this book on the theme of "Military Review"
      "The shootout on June 14, 1829 is remarkable in that a glorious poet, our A.S., participated in it. Pushkin. When the troops, having made a difficult transition, rested in the Inja-Su valley, the enemy suddenly attacked our forward chain. The poet, for the first time hearing such close sounds of war near him, could not give in to a feeling of enthusiasm. In a poetic impulse, he immediately jumped out of the headquarters, mounted his horse and instantly found himself at outposts. The experienced Major Semichev, sent by General Raevsky after the poet, barely overtook him and forced him out of the front chain of Cossacks at that moment when Pushkin, animated by the courage so characteristic of a rookie warrior, seizing the lance after one of the killed Cossacks, rushed against the enemy horsemen. You can believe that our Donets were extremely amazed to see an unfamiliar hero in front of him in a round hat and a cloak. It was the first and last military debut of Mus’s favorite in the Caucasus. "
      N.I. Ushakov. The history of hostilities in Asian Turkey in 1828 and 1829. Part 2 Warsaw, 1843. p. 303.
      1. Sling cutter
        Sling cutter 10 February 2017 09: 23
        +8
        To the author of ATP!
        I pour myself on the idea that many works of Pushkin, like many Russian classics, are very consonant with our time.
        Ride, peaceful people!
        You will not be awakened by the call.
        Why herds of gifts of freedom?
        They should be cut or cut.
        Their inheritance from generation to generation
        Yarmo with rattles and scourge.
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  3. elenagromova
    elenagromova 10 February 2017 06: 52
    +4
    Why not a topic? Very theme! In addition to love poems, Pushkin has a huge number of patriotic lines. It was a huge loss not only for the culture of Russia, but for the whole of Russia, including for future generations.
    It is a pity that Dantes was immediately given a fair verdict - hang, but he was just expelled.
    1. Moore
      Moore 10 February 2017 06: 58
      +2
      Quote: elenagromova

      It is a pity that Dantes was immediately given a fair verdict - hang, but he was just expelled.

      Together with Dantes, Danzas would have to be hanged (the imperial pardon did not extend to him), and in the political sense (the ambassador was involved) there would be inevitable tensions. Nicholas I decided everything wisely enough.
      1. elenagromova
        elenagromova 10 February 2017 07: 02
        +2
        But Danzas did not have to be judged or punished in any way, especially since Alexander Sergeyevich himself had asked this very strongly before his death. Danzas is not at all guilty, except that he turned out to be a true friend and tried to do everything in his power to save Pushkin ...
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  4. Petr1
    Petr1 10 February 2017 07: 09
    0
    The first shot, the rules of the duel are not fair, well, wherever else it went at the same time !!!
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 10 February 2017 08: 02
    +5
    February 10 is a mournful date in Russian history and culture.
    ... By the way, under the "totalitarian bloody communist regime" in the network of television programs, there must be a film by this date, either about A. Pushkin .. or a film based on his works ... the theme for "Military Review" is not mind ...
  6. Galleon
    Galleon 10 February 2017 09: 12
    +8
    Dear Alexey, author of the article! I sincerely thank you for the reminder of the poet and the article. This is a topic for Military Review. Another topic! The military theme itself sounded and would have looked completely different if we hadn’t had the theme of Pushkin, Glinka, Tchaikovsky, Dostoevsky and hundreds of others ...
  7. elenagromova
    elenagromova 10 February 2017 09: 56
    +3
    I had to read the version that Dantes had something like a chain mail under his clothes, which he put on in violation of all the rules. And that is why he survived - Pushkin’s bullet pierced his hand, and if this protective agent did not exist on Dantes, the bullet would have flown further and, at least, Dantes’s injury would not have been easy.
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      1. elenagromova
        elenagromova 10 February 2017 15: 06
        +2
        What kind of nonsense? Everyone knows that Pushkin honestly shot, that before his shot Dantes retreated to the starting position.
        1. Moore
          Moore 11 February 2017 06: 58
          0
          Quote: elenagromova
          What kind of nonsense? Everyone knows that Pushkin honestly shot, that before his shot Dantes retreated to the starting position.

          Who does this "everyone knows"? Pushkin shot already from a lying position from a distance of 10m (between barriers) - he only slightly wounded the enemy. Dantes did not go anywhere.
          Quote: elenagromova
          But Danzas did not need to be judged or punished at all, especially since Alexander Sergeyevich very strongly asked about this before his death. Danzas is not at all to blame ..

          Yes Yes. The "Code of Criminal Laws" of 1832 regarding the prohibition of duels and the corresponding punishment for participating in them, did not personally apply to Danzas.
          By the way, as a second he showed himself not from the best side. I didn’t find a doctor for a duel, I just didn’t fit the carriage just in case (in the end we used the Dante's). It is clear that the graduate of the Lyceum did not know how to make dressings (Pushkin lost about 2 liters of blood during transportation), but could he deliver him to the hospital? And in real life, at the request of a friend, he drove him home and rushed about Peter for a long time in search of a doctor ...
          Alas, such wounds were not treated then, but somehow the poet’s suffering could and could be ...
          1. elenagromova
            elenagromova 11 February 2017 07: 35
            0
            Here, I clarified

            Pushkin first went to the barrier and, stop, began to point the gun. But at this time, Dantes, before reaching the barrier of one step, fired, and Pushkin, falling ***, said:
            - Je crois que j'ai la cuisse fracassée ****.
            Seconds rushed to him, and when Dantes intended to do the same, Pushkin kept him with the words:
            - Attendez! je me sens assez de force pour tirer mon coup *****.
            Dantes stopped at the barrier and waited, covering his chest with his right hand.
            When Pushkin fell, his pistol fell into the snow, and therefore Danzas handed him another 9.
            Lifting up a few and leaning on his left hand, Pushkin fired.
            Dantes fell.


            (From Danzas memories)

            There was an accusation that Dantes approached Pushkin, and he shot him. But judging by these memories, Dantes wanted to come, but Pushkin kept him. So Dantes at the time of the shot stood at the barrier. All by the rules, isn't it? That is, Pushkin acted according to the rules. And Dantes just broke.

            As for the guilt of Danzas ... Well, how can you compare the guilt of the person who shot, and the one who was involved by chance and did not kill anyone? Moreover, Pushkin didn’t want to drag anyone into this business at all and said that he didn’t need a second, that he would let Dantes pick up any second. But he did not agree.
            And the wording could be as follows: hang all the participants, but due to Pushkin’s urgent request and given the special circumstances, Danzas should be pardoned and released from punishment.
      2. Dart2027
        Dart2027 10 February 2017 17: 48
        0
        Quote: Net
        In addition to inventions of Russophobes, you would be interested in court materials

        Well, where are these materials?
  8. elenagromova
    elenagromova 10 February 2017 10: 03
    +7
    This website is still good for you - that not only narrow topics of armaments are considered, and even not only political, but also such — historical, cultural, patriotic
  9. cedar
    cedar 10 February 2017 10: 20
    +4
    Thank you, Alex for the topic raised.
    Of course, if Pushkin is a cadet junker, a duelist and a poet from civilians, it seems that we only remember him here out of respect for his great talent.
    BUT .., if you do not know this ...
    "... On November 14, 1831, the Collegium of Foreign Affairs issued the order:" Sovereign Emperor Highly commanded deign: retired college secretary (emphasized by S.K.) Alexander Pushkin to accept the same rank and to appoint him to the State College of Foreign Affairs. ” In accordance with the appointment schedule of that time, this order indicates that the newly-appointed diplomat is appointed to the IV or V class post (posts from governors to deputy directors of departments, and in the army 1V class corresponded to the rank of major general)), since he was enlisted at the personal direction of the Emperor.

    This, as you understand, is a completely different conversation and it is the place for him in VO. But what about camera junkers, letters, etc.?
    How how? To grow to the root ... The informational and psycho-historical wars against Russia did not start yesterday. There were many who wanted to quench our Lighthouses, and if it is possible to quench them completely, so that, wandering in the historical darkness, we would once again become easy prey for Western predators. We must take into account the fact that until the forties of the 19th century, German historians ruled the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences and they decided what was good and what was bad for the historical memory of the Russian people.
    Only now I learned about the fact of admitting Alexander Sergeyevich to this academy. In January 1833, he was awarded a diploma of academician of the Imperial Russian Academy of Sciences. So much for the junker chamber killed on the Black River ...
    I am sure that the tsarist regime was not stupid today and that it did not scatter the graduates of the elite Lyceum, all the more so since they showed their talent early. Consequently, Alexander Sergeyevich was in a cage and fulfilled his duty to the Fatherland in full, which confirms the following excerpt ...
    "... Any intelligence service in the world knows that to determine what place and what level a person occupied in the hierarchy of special services, it is enough to find out what state pension he receives. And here again surprises await us. The pension accrued to the widow of Pushkin amounted to 10.000 rubles. When the former chief political intelligence officer, General A.A. Sagtynsky resigned after 46 years of service, he received exactly the same pension, and it should be borne in mind that for the top intelligence officers the Emperor assigned the total pension for the two government departments in which they served.
    In accordance with the legislation of those years, if an official has served in the public service for more than 35 years, he is entitled to a pension of 100% of his salary. If 25 years old then 50%. The period of public service A. Pushkin did not pull on any pension.
    In addition, the loan of A. Pushkin in the amount of 45.000 rubles was repaid at the expense of the treasury, a one-time allowance in the amount of 50.000 rubles was issued to the widow, and both sons received a pension in the amount of 1 rubles per year. Such payments could occur in only one case. If a government official was killed in office, carrying out a special task of the Emperor himself! Then it was supposed, regardless of the term of civil service, accrual of pensions in the amount of the last salary of the deceased official, as well as monetary compensation to the widow and next of kin dead.
    DIED, not killed!
    Feel the difference dear and see where?
    Here http://maxpark.com/community/901/content/1370285
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 12 February 2017 13: 48
      0
      What's new here? Stupid Nikolai 1st agreed with Pushkin.
      Pushkin - he did not need a friend of the Decembrists and a rebel, but an academician
      moderate views fit. Nikolai became the personal censor of Pushkin.
      Pushkin was to first show all new works to the tsar.
      Pushkin, in turn, wanted to work in the archives and write historical novels.
      Plus, after marriage, Pushkin had constant difficulties with money.
      He brought to Petersburg, in addition to his beautiful wife, two more of her inanimate sisters, also beautiful
      - dresses, balls, expenses.
      And ... the constant gentlemen who visited his house and it was not clear who was courting.
      And infuriated the poet, of course.
  10. alebor
    alebor 10 February 2017 10: 43
    +1
    The phrase, wandering from article to article, about Pushkin as the “creator” of the modern Russian language is always surprising. Well, if he is the creator of modern Russian poetry ... but the language! The Russian language is not Esperanto, it was not created by any person, it developed naturally. What language were written by contemporaries and immediate predecessors of Pushkin, in Old Russian or what? Are the earlier “Poor Liza” by Karamzin or the works of Denis Davydov not written in the same Russian language as the “Captain's daughter” of Pushkin?
    1. ruskih
      ruskih 10 February 2017 12: 06
      +5
      I will correct you a little Pushkin A.S. the founder modern literary Russian language. Google and it will become clear to you, you can read it, maybe everything will fall into place link: http://ksana-k.narod.ru/Book/meshj/01/gl14.htm
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      1. Nekarmadlen
        Nekarmadlen 10 February 2017 13: 58
        +1
        No offense to fans of Alexander Sergeyevich a joke ... Grandfather (Voroshilov shooter) and grandson pass by the monument to Pushkin and grandfather says: I don’t understand why the monument was erected to him, because it wasn’t him ...))))
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  12. Galleon
    Galleon 10 February 2017 15: 33
    +3
    Information and psycho - historical wars against Russia did not start yesterday. There were many who wanted to quench our Lighthouses, and if it is possible to quench them completely, so that, wandering in the historical darkness, we would once again become easy prey for Western predators.

    Dear Cedar, you are absolutely right! When, for example, the army of the Livonian Order took Pskov in 1240, the first thing the invaders began to do was burn the monastery chronicles.
  13. SG11
    SG11 10 February 2017 16: 22
    +2
    Thank you for the article. very interesting. there would be more of them here in
  14. Sotskiy
    Sotskiy 11 February 2017 00: 31
    +1
    10 February 1837 the year died out like a lamp, a wondrous genius ...
    I would like to ask: And who of today's youth can at least quote Pushkin, without even delving into the essence of what the poet said? Millions ?! lol laughing
    Use the exam and further, the founders of downs and you will succeed! Already obtained!
  15. Altona
    Altona 11 February 2017 21: 45
    +1
    Quote: Stroporez
    many works of Pushkin, like many Russian classics, are very consonant with our time.

    ---------------------------------
    The genius was Alexander Sergeevich, it was genius in every sense of the word, and not just a writer and poet. It is his genius that still allows all kinds of graphomaniacs to cynically remind the authorities that "a poet in Russia is more than a poet." And besides Pushkin there are no more such talented poets and writers. Even Tolstoy and Dostoevsky only stand at the pedestal to Pushkin. This is truly "I have erected a monument to myself not made by hands." That is what we remember you, Alexander Sergeyevich. And "Eugene Onegin" is a desktop book, an encyclopedia of Russian life.
  16. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 12 February 2017 00: 25
    +1
    "In particular, there is a version that Dantes in the future became one of the regular informants of the embassy of the Russian Empire" ////

    They made fun ... Dantes, deported with the loss of rank, made a dizzying career in France. He became a Senator, a millionaire manufacturer and a famous diplomat. All France knew him. The wife of Dantes, the sister of Pushkin's wife, went with him to France.
    In general, a completely ridiculous duel between relatives. Jealous Pushkin provoked vile "friends". Dantes, as a foreigner, for a duel for any outcome, only the deportation from Russia shone. And he avoided dueling with all his might.
    Pushkin, of course, if he had survived would have become an excellent prose writer.
    And sad for the medicine of that time: now such an injury would be considered "light-medium."
    In a couple of weeks, Pushkin would have been healthy at home.
    1. Parsec
      Parsec 12 February 2017 01: 07
      +1
      Quote: voyaka uh
      And sad for the medicine of that time: now such an injury would be considered "light-medium."
      In a couple of weeks, Pushkin would have been healthy at home.

      Severe wound by today's standards. If from a duel to a table in military surgery, there would be 70 percent survival, with a high probability of a stroller in the end. Commentary beg. surgical department.
  17. Altona
    Altona 12 February 2017 00: 43
    0
    Quote: voyaka uh
    Pushkin, of course, if he had survived would have become an excellent prose writer.

    ---------------------------
    Why would "become"? His huge literary baggage can be re-read with pleasure without it. His poems are just tons of meaning. In general, the personality is extraordinary. Well, about death, then there is "evil rock" and "such is his plan." for some reason geniuses and heroes die young.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 12 February 2017 11: 04
      +2
      "His huge literary baggage and without that you can re-read with pleasure" ////

      Of course. Poetic, basically. But he clearly traced the transition to prose.
      Novels could write outstanding.
  18. Altona
    Altona 12 February 2017 00: 47
    +1
    Not a topic for Military Review?
    ----------------------------------
    How not a topic? Who in the poem "Poltava" sang the feat of a Russian soldier?
  19. cedar
    cedar 12 February 2017 17: 02
    +3
    The poem "Slanderers of Russia" by Alexander Sergeyevich must be given in our Army to all recruits to be taught along with the oath.

    ADDRESSERS OF RUSSIA

    What are you noisy about, folk-like?
    Why anathema threaten you Russia?
    What angered you? unrest in Lithuania?
    Leave: this is a dispute between the Slavs,
    Home, old dispute, weighted by fate,
    A question that you will not solve.

    For a long time among themselves
    These tribes are at war;
    More than once bowed under a thunderstorm
    Theirs, then our side.
    Who will stand in an unequal dispute:
    Puffy Lyakh, il true Ross?
    Will Slavic streams merge in the Russian sea?
    Will it run dry? here is the question.

    Leave us: you have not read
    These bloody tablets;
    It’s incomprehensible to you, alien to you
    This is a family feud;
    The Kremlin and Prague are silent for you;
    Pointlessly seduces you
    Fights of desperate courage -
    And you hate us ...

    For what? answer: for whether
    What is on the ruins of flaming Moscow
    We did not recognize the brazen will
    Who were you trembling under?
    For the fact that they plunged into the abyss
    We are idol over kingdoms
    And redeemed with our blood
    Europe, freedom, honor and peace? ..

    You are formidable in words - try it in practice!
    Or the old hero, deceased on his bed,
    Unable to screw up your Izmail bayonet?
    Is the Russian tsar already powerless to speak?
    Or should we argue with Europe new?
    Il Russian weaned from victories?
    Or a little of us? Or from Perm to Tauris,
    From the Finnish cold rocks to the flaming Colchis,
    From the shocked Kremlin
    To the walls of immobile China,
    Shiny bristles,
    Will not the Russian land rise? ..
    So send us to us, Vitia,
    His angry sons:
    There is a place for them in the fields of Russia,
    Among the coffins that are not theirs.


    IN, EQUALITY ON ALEXANDER SERGEEVICH!
  20. Altona
    Altona 12 February 2017 19: 36
    +1
    Quote: voyaka uh
    Of course. Poetic, basically. But he clearly traced the transition to prose.
    Novels could write outstanding.

    --------------------------
    Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol grabbed the baton well and partially compensated for Pushkin’s lack of prose. It seems to me. that in his prose there is a great influence of Pushkin.
  21. wax
    wax 18 December 2017 13: 30
    0
    It amazes me incredibly that for so many years Chicherin’s assumption that Foreign Ministry official Brun (n) ova was involved in writing a libel was not professionally tested. Is it really that hard? Just a shame.
    https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/2287234