Military Review

Soviet-Polish war. Novograd-Volyn operation 1920,

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Soviet-Polish war. Novograd-Volyn operation 1920,



After the breakthrough of the 1 Cavalry Army of the Polish Front and the seizure of the cities of Zhytomyr and Berdychiv, the Poles were forced to leave Kiev and withdraw in the north-western direction - to Korosten and Ovruch. The Polish command sought, above all, to preserve manpower and equipment.

By June 18, the Poles reached the line of Ovruch, Korosten, Novograd-Volynsky and began to consolidate their positions along the r. Already.

At the front Korosten - Novograd Volyn they focused part 2-rd and 3-Armies: 6-yu and 7-th infantry division, dvuhdivizionnuyu group General Borbetskogo and 1-Cavalry Division: up to 20000 bayonets, 3000 sabers, 360 machine guns, 60 light and heavy guns, several armored trains. 6-I Polish army by this time retreated to the front Kazatin - Starokonstantinov.

1-th Cavalry army to 17-th June was concentrated to the northeast of Zhytomyr - in the area of ​​Annopol - Stone ford - Torchin - High - Chernikhov. 12-I army, its neighbor on the right, went to the line Martynovka - Malin. Left 14-I army moved to the front Berdichev-Vinnitsa.

The area in which the 1 Cavalry Army was to operate during the operation at Novograd-Volynsky was a hilly area covered with forests and cut by many rivers and streams. The river Sluch was a serious obstacle to the cavalry. On the eve of the operation, it rained for several days in a row, which made the roads difficult for its progress. Horse Horse of the Cavalry Army, being in motion since May 25, became overworked. The rear of the association remained in the Uman area, and horses had to be held at the grass.


1. SM Budyonny, commander of the 1 th Cavalry Army. Photos 1930's


2. General E. Rydz-Smigly, commander of the 3 of the Polish army - the main opponent of the 1 of the Cavalry during the Novograd-Volyn operation.

On June 18, the army field headquarters received an order from the commander of the Southwestern Front. In it, the army was assigned the task: “to assist the 12 Army in eliminating the enemy in the Korosten region, not later than 20. VI to seize the area Novograd-Volyn.

The 12 Army was ordered no later than June 20 to reach the Ovruch area, and the 14 Army, which occupied Gaisin by the end of June 17, was ordered to go to the Zhitomir-Vinnitsa region by June 19.


3. The situation to the beginning of the operation.

S. Budyonny directed his divisions, in addition to the 6 th cavalry, north to the Jablonec direction - to bypass the Korostensky center of resistance of the Poles from the south and south-west, simultaneously creating the 6 division threatening Novograd-Volyn from the east.

The Poles firmly entrenched on the river. Oh, having organized a bridgehead on its right bank. Novograd-Volynsky was well fortified, especially its eastern outskirts. On the eve of the operation, the Novograd-Volyn fortifications were examined by Yu. Pilsudsky personally, who gave them a positive assessment. It should be noted that the Poles, leaving the minimum number of troops in the Korosten area against units of the 12 Army, focused on the defense of the rivers Oh and Sluch. Their main task was not to let 1-th Horse, his main opponent, move to the west.

On the morning of June 19, on the first day of the operation, fighting took place on the front lines of the 1 Cavalry Army. By the end of the day, a fierce battle broke out in a forest on the Drying-Neseltische-Simona-Krapivna front.

19 June Soviet units on the river. Already not achieved success and were forced to retreat to the starting position.

At the army field headquarters, a report was received that the cavalry brigade of GI Kotovsky by the end of June 19 had occupied Kazatin. The commander and RVS of the 1 th Cavalry Army decided in the morning of June 20 to resume the offensive and strike the enemy on the Ushomir - Novograd-Volynsky front.


4. G. I. Kotovsky.

5. I.I. Yakir.

The 45 th Infantry Division of I. I. Yakir was ordered to reach the Zhytomyr-Berdichev-Kazatin front in the shortest possible time.

But at the dawn of June 20, the Poles preempted the 1 Cavalry Army and went on the offensive themselves. Fighting ensued, as a result of which the Cavalry Army was pushed aside to the east. Despite the fact that she already had experience of operations in a wooded and marshland, she could not resist and, by the 23 watch of 20 June, she returned to her original position - to the front Pisarevka - Goroshki - Colonia - Art. Buda - Sokolov.

Parts of the 4 Cavalry Division held Baranovka and Suchowol, and the 11 Cavalry Division held the village. Kiyanka

Throughout the night of June 21, there was a stubborn battle, and during the day the Cavalry Army launched an offensive on all fronts, drove the enemy from their positions and threw them to the r. Already.

At crossings, the Polish units offered strong resistance, but were discarded. By the end of the day, in the field headquarters of the 1 Cavalry Army, it became known that on June 21, Korosten occupied the units of the 12 Army.

SM Budyonny, in order to prevent the Poles from moving beyond the river. Sluch gave an order in which he set the task for his divisions: “shoot down the enemy on the r. Oh and force the river. The case at the site Zvil Malaya, Gorodishche, Novograd-Volynsk.

By the end of June 22, the Budennovsk units managed to bring down the Poles from the r. Already. The 4 th cavalry division in the equestrian line attacked the 3 th division of the legionnaires and almost completely knocked out the 9 th infantry regiment. The 34 th cavalry regiment of the 6 th cavalry division that day also in a horse attack in the Yablonoe area destroyed the 2 infantry battalion. The army field headquarters received many prisoners and trophies (including machine guns and an artillery battery).

23 June, 1-I Cavalry Army began to force the river. Case The Poles resisted stubbornly, but despite this, the 3 Brigade of the 6 Cavalry Division, having crossed at Alexandrovka, broke into Novograd-Volynsky in 15 hours. But due to the small number of Soviet troops on the left bank of the r. Sluch also because of the strong artillery fire of the Poles, the brigade was forced to leave the city and depart.

23 June under the onslaught of connections 1 th Cavalry Army Poles were forced to clear the right bank of the river. Case

Moreover, parts of the Cavalry Army as the river. Oh, and on the river. Sluch had to fight, acting both on horseback and on foot. Polish troops had serious wire barriers, full profile trenches - remaining from the times of the First World War and updated by Polish engineers.

24 June 4-I cavalry division, operating on the right flank of the Cavalry Army, occupied Emilchin by the end of the day, capturing 500 infantry and seizing 7 guns and 36 machine guns. Emilchin several times passed from hand to hand.

The Poles, fearing a detour from Novograd-Volynsky from the north, concentrated against the 4 Cavalry Division to the 6 infantry regiments and the 3 cavalry regiment. Despite the bloody battles, it was not possible to take Novograd-Volynsky on this day with frontal attacks, and the Soviet divisions remained in their original position - in 4 - 6 km east of the city. The commander of 1-th Horse, taking into account the situation, made a regrouping of his troops.

In the order for 26 June the following tasks were set for the army units.

The 4 Cavalry Division was entrusted with the operation from the north, occupying the area between the Sluch and Ubart rivers - along the Andreyevichi line, Art. Rykhalskaya, Bogolyubovka. The 11 Cavalry Division, reinforced by a heavy artillery division, was tasked with attacking Novograd-Volynsky from the east - on the Rzhadkovka and Lubchetsy front lines. The 6 and 14 cavalry divisions, which were the shock group of the army, were ordered to force the Sluch and Smolka rivers in the Gilsk region and capture Novograd-Volynsky from the south. A special brigade made up an army reserve and was located in the Romanovka area, while the group of I. I. Yakir was given the task of attacking Rogachev, N. Miropol and Shepetivka.

At dawn of 26, the cavalry divisions began to perform assigned tasks.

The 6 th and 14 th cavalry divisions in a stubborn battle near the village of Gilsk chopped up 1000 enemy fighters and captured another 500 man, as well as captured 2 batteries and several dozen machine guns. By the end of the day, these connections managed to seize the crossings through Sluch - in the Gilsk-Rogachev area.

The 4 Cavalry Division fought north of Novograd-Volynsky, and by the end of the day captured the crossing of the Sluch u Chizhevka.

The 11 Cavalry Division occupied positions on the right bank of the river opposite Novograd-Volynsky, and the advancing units of the 12 Army moved to the Gorbov-Emelchin-Kuleshi line, while the 14 Army troops approached Starokonstantinov.

June 27, on the last day of the operation, fierce battles flared up on all the combat sections of the army. The Poles went over to counterattacks, but the 1 divisions of the Cavalry Army managed to break down the enemy’s resistance during the heavy fighting - the attack group advanced on Novograd-Volynsky from the south and south-west, and parts of the 4 cavalry division took the crossing over the Cere near the Settlement and began to threaten the city from the north.

Thus, the city was covered by the 1-th Cavalry Army from three sides: from the north, from the east and from the south.

The Poles persistently defended Novograd-Volynsky, but the city was taken by 1 hours of June on the 14 hours by the heavy attack of the 27 divisions.

The operation ended.

Despite all the tactical and operational difficulties in its implementation, the Poles did not withstand the onslaught of the Cavalry Army units. Leaving many captives and vehicles in her hands, they retreated to the Koretz - Bereztsov - Shepetovka line.

Group I. I. Yakir to the end of June 27 th forced the river. The case at the site Baranivka - N. Miropol and moved to Polonnoe.

The next day, the commander of the 1-th Horse sent the 4-th cavalry division along the highway to Rovno, and the 6-th, 11-th and 14-th cavalry division, bypassing exactly from the south.


6. Completion of the operation.

In the period Novograd-Volyn operation 1-I cavalry army, despite the resistance of the Polish units and despite the difficulties, overcame all obstacles and defeated the enemy.

During the occupation of the Novograd-Volynsky 36 th cavalry regiment of the 6 th cavalry division first entered the city and in memory of this event began to be called Novograd-Volynsky.

Under Novograd-Volynsky and on the river. The captive army captured prisoners from 6, 7, 8, 9, 12 and 20 infantry regiments (parts of 3, 6 and 7 infantry divisions), and also from the 9 th hussars, 3 th Uhlan and 11 th cavalry regiment.

The specific conditions of the terrain affected the operation: a wooded and marshy region, carved by rivers and streams, did not allow cavalry to use the element of surprise, favoring the defenders.

Crucial in the course of continuous 9-day battles was the bypass movement of the shock group of the Cavalry Army, two divisions of which decided the fate of the operation.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 6 February 2017 07: 51
    +7
    A good kick was given to the “panamas” .. It’s a pity that all this then ended unsuccessfully ..
  2. Niccola Mack
    Niccola Mack 6 February 2017 08: 58
    +8
    Nevertheless, it turned out well — they liberated the lands of Ukraine and Belarus.
    They gave the Poles a hat with their ambitions.
    And they would stop on the Curzon line - which roughly divided the territories ethnically ..
    No - they rushed on to liberate the "brotherly Polish proletariat" - be it wrong.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 6 February 2017 10: 05
      +9
      Quote: Nikkola Mac
      No - they rushed on to liberate the "brotherly Polish proletariat" - be it wrong.

      Polish as Polish, it was a question of the GERMAN proletariat, raising which it was possible to carry out a revolution already throughout Europe
      1. Niccola Mack
        Niccola Mack 6 February 2017 10: 43
        +5
        Well then, the Entente would definitely not let us into Germany, but everything was real with Poland.
        Already, the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Poland was formed (Polrevkom) in Smolensk.
        He even issued an appeal - the nationalization of lands, factories, factories, etc. - The creation of the Polish Red Army.
        1. Roman 11
          Roman 11 6 February 2017 18: 18
          +6
          Quote: Nikkola Mac
          Well then, the Entente would definitely not let us into Germany

          Something tells us that it was she (the Entente) who did not let go to Germany ... and not these Rydz-Smigly and others. No, the Poles are certainly good fighters, and yet after such an asshole from under Kiev and Minsk, they simply lost their combat effectiveness. Surprisingly, we really believe that it was the Poles who stopped our armies near Warsaw and Lvov .... there were only a few such shock situations in history - you can recall the 1941th near Moscow, a miracle on the Marne, and even then with the help of the Masurian catastrophe Samsonov’s army, if not for our hasty and unprepared offensive, there would have been no miracle and most likely Paris would have fallen. You can recall the terrible history of the Romans after Cannes, but there Hannibal suddenly was imbued with nobility and kindness to his opponent and did not bother by and large for several years .... to which the Romans reciprocated and did not annoy the latter until the situation changed, and his fighters had a great age laughing
          1. cake
            cake 7 February 2017 15: 42
            0
            Yes, we made a mistake. Instead of negotiating with the boyars in 1610, we had to burn Moscow and sprinkle salt around the land
            1. JIaIIoTb
              JIaIIoTb April 27 2017 12: 47
              +1
              Then, I think, Poland would no longer be there. Long.
    2. avt
      avt 6 February 2017 23: 14
      +2
      Quote: Nikkola Mac
      No - they rushed on to liberate the "brotherly Polish proletariat" - be it wrong.

      Quote: Olgovich
      Polish as Polish, it was about the GERMAN proletariat,

      However, the government in the train transported Polish. Well, actually, yes. Trotsky mutilated a permanent revolution throughout Europe with the bayonets of the Red Army.
  3. iz odessy
    iz odessy 6 February 2017 17: 28
    +6
    Trotsky, his idea of ​​a “permanent revolution”, which captured the minds of the red commanders, who were unstable to pathos, and then led to disaster,
    1. avt
      avt 6 February 2017 23: 19
      +4
      Quote: iz odessy
      , which captured the minds of the red commanders, who were not very resistant to pathos, and then led to disaster,

      Actually, the genius of the future marshal of all times and peoples of Tukhachevsky led to the disaster. He managed not to establish military intelligence and ... lost the opposing part of the Polish army. All, just for 4 weeks. But he seemed to be in Minsk with complete confidence that someday, somewhere, she’ll find it and will certainly break it. According to his memoirs. But the Poles found it and defeated it by performing the “Miracle on the Vistula”, so that the horse corps of Guy was forced to intern even in Germany and his personal steamers the composition was exported to the RSFSR, and wines ovat of course in everything .... Stalin and the First Horse, led by future, "horse" marshals Budyonny and Voroshilov. wassat
      1. iz odessy
        iz odessy 7 February 2017 23: 34
        0
        and what is Stalin’s “military fault”? in my opinion he was a simple "PMA" front. without headquarters and intelligence
  4. Roman 11
    Roman 11 6 February 2017 18: 53
    +3
    1. SM Budyonny, commander of the 1 th Cavalry Army. Photos 1930's
    Photo is definitely not the 30th year! Take a closer look - MARSHAL STARS on the buttonholes!

    This is the emnip of August 1937, when Semyon Mikhailovich headed the Moscow Military District, just in the midst of the “massacre” in the Red Army. On important sites, Stalin needed his own people, and Budyonny was devotedly devoted to him. Although, according to the memoirs of Kosarev’s wife, at the 38th November gala dinner (a year after the picture was taken), the first cavalryman of the country didn’t get along with the leader and then all of Moscow whispered that his days were numbered ... but this sad fate befell the first Komsomol member of the country. Just at that dinner, when, after the toast, Kosarev, according to tradition, came to clink glasses with Stalin, he casually whispered in his ear with a smile - if you betray, I will kill! The Kosarevs couple quickly left the festive feast, and the wife then naively complained - "Sasha, but you are not going to betray him!" laughing
    For something he constantly kept saying the same thing - it would be necessary in the NKVD and Stalin himself would be forced to admit to betrayal ... the leader knew how to make fun of people - tossed a black mark on them, and then enjoyed watching how doomed victims hopelessly tried to snatch the last pieces of air, which are worth only confrontations with tortured Primakov, Radek, Pyatnitsky, Belov and others on the list. Almost a half of the Politburo! Maybe the truth is that Russia lives better under the rule of the paranoid ??

    As for the operation - a classic, shine .. everything is 5.
    1. soldier
      soldier 6 February 2017 18: 58
      18
      When it is written not Mr. and Mr. G. - means years. That is, the photo is not in 1930, but in 1930. Like so
      1. moskowit
        moskowit 6 February 2017 20: 12
        +6
        Photos of the People's Hero can be attributed by form and awards. Semyon Mikhailovich received the second Order of the Battle Red Banner in 1923, the third in 1930 ....
        During the Soviet-Polish war, the future Marshal looked like this ...
        1. moskowit
          moskowit 6 February 2017 20: 31
          +3
          Honorary revolutionary weapon (checker with the Order of the Battle of the Red Banner). Awarded in November 1919 of the year for actions against the troops of Mamontov and Shkuro ...
  5. moskowit
    moskowit 6 February 2017 19: 39
    +6
    "... On the Don and in Zamosc
    smoldering white bones
    breezes circling above the bones.
    Remember the ataman dogs
    remember the polish pans
    our konarmeysky blades ... "(A. Surkov)
  6. Bat
    Bat 6 February 2017 22: 52
    0
    All I ask myself is the question FUCKING MY GRANDFACE, with his comrades, shed his blood, freeing Poland?
    It was necessary not to rush with the liberation of the Warsaw ghetto.
    1. Uncle Murzik
      Uncle Murzik 7 February 2017 07: 17
      0
      Bat is a logical question! wassat
    2. moskowit
      moskowit 7 February 2017 20: 15
      +4
      My Father destroyed fascism, fighting on the territory of Poland, in order to finish off the enemy then on its territory. What can be done, such is the geography .... If Poland were in Australia, I would not have to shed so much blood of the Soviet People.
  7. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 7 February 2017 22: 10
    +2
    Good article, respect to the author. And what about the Eastern Front and the liberation of Orenburg in January 1919, will there be work? Later, Orenburg for the defense was awarded the honorary banner of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. For the Civil War all 3 cities were so awarded - Petrograd, Tsaritsyn and Orenburg. In fact, it is a hero city of the Civil War.
  8. The comment was deleted.