Military Review

Multimode hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle "Hammer"

76



Currently, NPO Molniya on the subject of research and development work Molot is developing a multi-mode hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle. This UAV is considered as a prototype demonstrator of the technology of a hypersonic unmanned propeller with a combined screen turbo-ramjet power plant. The key technology of the prototype is the use of a ramjet engine (ramjet) with a subsonic combustion chamber and a screen intake device.

Calculated and experimental parameters of the prototype demonstrator:
Mach cruise numbers M = 1.8 ... 4
- flight heights from small to Н = 20 000 m,
- flying weight up to 530 kg.
- ground start with a launcher, using a solid-fuel accelerator.




The history of this SRW was a project of a multi-mode supersonic unmanned aerial vehicle (MSBLA) developed by NPO Molniya, which determined the aerodynamic shape of a promising unmanned or manned accelerator. The key technology of MSBLA is the use of a ramjet engine (ramjet) with a subsonic combustion chamber and a screen intake device. MSBLA design parameters: Mach cruising numbers M = 1.8 ... 4, flight altitude from low to H ≈ 20 000 m, starting weight up to 1000 kg.

The air intake layout investigated at the TsAGI booth of the SVS-2 showed low efficiency of the applied ventral wedge screen made “at the same time” with the fuselage (Fig. A) and a rectangular screen with a span equal to the width of the fuselage (Fig. B).

Multimode hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle "Hammer"


Both of them provided an approximate constancy of the coefficients for the restoration of the total pressure ν and the flow rate f in the angle of attack instead of increasing them.

Since the frontal screen of the type used on the X-90 rocket did not fit for the MSBLA as a prototype of the accelerating plane, it was decided on the basis of experimental studies of TsAGI of the early 80-s to develop the ventral screen, retaining the configuration with a two-stage central body obtained by test results.

During the two stages of experimental research at the TsAGI special CBC-2 test bench, December 2008 - February 2009 and March 2010, with an intermediate stage of numerical search studies, an on-screen air intake device (EVF) was developed with a two-stage conical body having different calculated numbers Mach steps, which allowed us to obtain acceptable thrust in a wide range of Mach numbers.



The screen effect is to increase the consumption and recovery coefficients as the angle of attack increases at Mach numbers M> 2.5. The magnitude of the positive gradient of both characteristics increases with increasing Mach number.



The EVZU was first developed and applied on the X-90 hypersonic experimental aircraft developed by Raduga (a cruise missile, according to the NATO classification AS-19 Koala)



As a result, the aerodynamic configuration of the prototype was developed according to the “hybrid” scheme called by the authors, with the integration of the ESU into the carrier system.



The hybrid scheme has features of both a “duck” scheme (by the number and location of the bearing surfaces) and a tailless scheme (by the type of longitudinal control organs). A typical MSBLA trajectory includes launching from a ground-based launcher, acceleration by a solid-fuel accelerator to supersonic ramjet launch speed, a flight according to a predetermined program with a horizontal segment, and braking to a low subsonic speed with a soft landing on a parachute.



It can be seen that the hybrid layout due to the larger screen effect and optimization of the aerodynamic layout under the minimum drag when α = 1.2 ° ... 1.4 ° realizes significantly higher maximum flight Mach numbers M ≈ 4.3 in a wide height range H = 11 ... 21 km. The “duck” and “tailless” schemes reach the maximum value of the number M = 3.72 ... 3.74 at the height H = 11 km. At the same time, the hybrid scheme has a small gain due to the shift of the minimum of resistance and at low Mach numbers, having the range of flight numbers M = 11 ... 1.6 at the height H ≈ 4.25 km. The smallest equilibrium flight region is realized in the “duck” scheme.

The table shows the calculated flight technical data on the developed layouts for typical flight paths.


Flight distances, having the same level for all MSBLA variants, showed the possibility of successfully creating a spreader with a slightly increased relative reserve of kerosene fuel with supersonic flight ranges of the order of 1500 – 2000 km to return to the home airfield. At the same time, the developed hybrid layout, which is a consequence of the deep integration of the aerodynamic scheme and the screen intake device of a ramjet engine, had a clear advantage in flight speed limits and the altitude range in which speed limits are realized. The absolute values ​​of Mach number and flight altitude, reaching Mmax = 4.3 at Hmax Mmax = 20 500 m, suggest the feasibility of existing reusable aerospace systems in Russia with a hypersonic high-altitude spreader, which provides for weight and, accordingly, cost reduction space disposable stage in 6 – 8 times compared to start from the ground.

This aerodynamic layout was the final option for considering a reusable multi-mode unmanned aircraft of high supersonic flight speeds.

Concept and overall layout


A distinctive requirement for a spreader, as compared to its small-sized prototype, is takeoff / landing on an aircraft from existing aerodromes and the need to make a flight at Mach numbers lower than Mach launching the ramjet M <1.8 ... 2. This determines the type and composition of the combined power plant of the aircraft-razgonschika, which incorporates ramjet propulsion and turbojet engines with afterburner (TRDF).



On the basis of this, the technical layout and general layout of the spreader aircraft for a light-class transport space system with a design payload of the order of 1000 kg to a low near-earth orbit 200 km was formed. The weight parameters of the two-stage orbital stage were estimated based on the RD-0124 oxygen-kerosene engine using the characteristic velocity method with integral losses, based on the starting conditions from the accelerator.



At the first stage, an RD-0124 engine (30 000 hollow thrust, kg, specific impulse 359 с) is installed, but with a reduced frame diameter and closely spaced cameras, or an RD-0124М engine (differs from the base one by a single camera and a new nozzle of a larger diameter); at the second stage, the engine with a single camera from the RD-0124 (adopted void thrust 7 500 kg). Based on the obtained weight summary of the orbital stage with the total weight of 18 508 kg, its configuration was developed, and on its basis the layout of the hypersonic accelerating aircraft for the take-off weight of 74 000 kg with a combined power plant (CSU).



LCP includes:
• ramjet engine with a similar prototype of the ESD, type and layout of the combustion chamber;

• Three turbojet two-circuit afterburner engines AL-31F М1



TRDF and ramjet engine are arranged in a vertical package that allows you to mount and maintain each of them separately. To accommodate the ramjet with an ESD of maximum size and, accordingly, thrust, the entire length of the vehicle was used. The maximum take-off weight of the machine 74 t. Empty weight - 31 t.

The section shows an orbital stage - a two-stage liquid PH weighing 18,5 tons, bringing the 1000 KL to the low-Earth orbit 200 km. Also seen are 3 TRDDF AL-31FM1.


Experimental testing of a ramjet of this size is supposed to be carried out directly in flight tests, using overclocking turbofan engines. When developing a single air intake system, the following basic principles were adopted:
• Minimum of moving parts with minimum power loads on them;
• Full preservation of the theoretical geometry of the prototype ramjet internal memory device.


Implemented by separating ducts for TRDF and ramjet at the supersonic part of the air intake and developing a simple-to-use transformer device that converts the “back and forth” supersonic part of the FEM to unregulated configurations, simultaneously switching the air supply between the channels. The ESD of the apparatus during takeoff works on TRDDF; when the speed is set to M = 2,0, it switches to a ramjet.



Behind the EVZU transformer device are a horizontal package, a payload compartment and main fuel tanks. The use of supplementary tanks is necessary for thermal isolation of the “hot” fuselage design and “cold” heat-insulated tanks with kerosene. The payload compartment houses the TRDF compartment, which has flow channels for cooling the engine nozzles, the design of the compartment, and the upper flap of the ramjet nozzle when the TRDF is in operation.

The principle of operation of the ESWU transformer of the accelerating plane excludes, with an accuracy to a small value, a force reaction to the moving part of the device from the side of the incident flow. This allows minimizing the relative mass of the air intake system by reducing the mass of the device itself and its drive in comparison with traditional adjustable rectangular air intakes. The ramjet engine has a fissionable stacking nozzle, which, when closed in operation, ensures continuous flow of the stream around the fuselage. When opening the stacker nozzle at the transition to the ramjet operation mode, the upper flap closes the bottom slice of the turbofan engine compartment. The ramjet nozzle, when opened, is a supersonic confuser and, with some degree of under-expansion of the ramjet jet, which is realized at large Mach numbers, provides an increase in thrust due to the longitudinal projection of pressure forces on the upper flap.

Compared with the prototype, the relative area of ​​the wing consoles is significantly increased due to the need for aircraft take-off / landing. Wing mechanization includes elevons only. Keels are equipped with rudders that can be used as brake flaps on landing. To ensure the continuity of flow at subsonic flight speeds, the screen has a deflectable toe. The landing gear's four-column landing gear is placed along the sides to prevent dirt and foreign objects from entering the air intake. Such a scheme has been worked out on an EPOS product, an analogue of an orbital plane, the Spiral system, which allows, like a bicycle chassis, to perform a squat on take-off.



To determine the flight weights, the position of the center of mass and the intrinsic moments of inertia of the spreader aircraft, a simplified solid-state model in a CAD environment was developed.


The design, power plant and equipment of the accelerating plane were divided into 28 elements, each of which was estimated by a statistical parameter (the specific weight of the above skin, etc.) and simulated by a geometrically similar solid-state element. For the design of the fuselage and bearing surfaces, weighted statistics on MiG-25 / MiG-31 aircraft was used. The mass of the AL-31F M1 engine is taken “after the fact”. Different percentages of kerosene pouring were modeled by truncated solid-state “casts” of the internal cavities of the fuel tanks.



A simplified solid-state model of the orbital stage was also developed. The masses of structural elements were taken on the basis of the data for the “I” unit (third stage of the Soyuz-2 launch vehicle and the prospective Angara launch vehicle), highlighting the fixed and variable components depending on the mass fuel.

Some features of the results of aerodynamics of the developed aircraft:


On the spreader plane, in order to increase the flight range, the planning mode is used when configuring under a ramjet, but without supplying fuel to it. In this mode, a nozzle-steamer is used, which reduces its solution when shutting down the ramjet to the duct area, which ensures flow in the ESW channel, such that the thrust of the channel's subsonic diffuser becomes equal to the nozzle resistance:
Ddif ewm = hss ramjet. Simply put, the principle of operation of a throttling device is used on installations for testing the OVC of the type SHS-2 TsAGI. A subassembly-nozzle-steamer opens the bottom section of the TRDF compartment, which begins to create its own bottom resistance, but less than the resistance of an off-stream ramjet with supersonic flow in the OVC channel. In the tests of the EVZU on the installation of the SVS-2 TsAGI was shown stable operation of the air intake with the Mach number M = 1.3, so it can be argued that the planning mode using the stacker nozzle as an ESD throttle in the 1.3 ≤ M ≤ Mmax range is possible.

Flight characteristics and typical flight path


The task of the spreader plane is to launch an orbital step from board in flight, at altitude, flight speed and trajectory angle, meeting the condition for maximum mass of the payload in the reference orbit. At the preliminary stage of research on the Hammer project, the task is to reach this aircraft at maximum altitude and flight speed when using the “hill” maneuver to create large positive trajectory angle values ​​on its ascending branch. In this case, a condition is set to minimize the velocity head at the stage separation for a corresponding reduction in the mass of the fairing and reduce the loads on the payload compartment in the open position.

The initial data on the operation of the engines were the flight traction-and-economic characteristics of the AL-31F, corrected from the bench data of the AL-31F M1 engine, as well as the characteristics of the prototype ramjet scaled in proportion to the combustion chamber and the screen installation angle.

In fig. The areas of horizontal steady flight of a hypersonic spreader in various operating modes of a combined power plant are shown.


Each zone is calculated for the average for the corresponding section of the “Hammer” project spreader for average masses over the sections of the flight mass trajectory of the device. It can be seen that the projectile reaches the maximum Mach number of flight M = 4.21; when flying on turbojet engines, the Mach number is limited to M = 2.23. It is important to note that the graph illustrates the need to provide the ramjet propulsion system with a wide range of Mach numbers, which was achieved and determined experimentally during the work on the screen air intake device of the prototype. Takeoff is carried out at the speed of separation V = 360 m / s - the bearing properties of the wing and the screen are sufficient without the use of takeoff and landing mechanization and hovering of elevons. After an optimal climb on the horizontal section H = 10 700 m, the aircraft of the projectile goes to supersonic Mach subsonic M = 0.9, switching the combined powerplant at M = 2 and preliminary acceleration to Vopt at M = 2.46. In the process of climbing on a ramjet, the spreader plane turns to the home airfield and reaches the height H0peak = 20 000 m with Mach number M = 3.73.

At this altitude, a dynamic maneuver begins to reach the maximum flight altitude and trajectory angle for launching the orbital stage. A gentle dive is performed with acceleration to M = 3.9 and the subsequent “slide” maneuver. The ramjet ends work at the height H ≈ 25000 m and the subsequent climb is due to the kinetic energy of the spreader. The launch of the orbital stage takes place on the ascending branch of the trajectory at the height H trigger = 44 049 m with Mach number M = 2.05 and the angle of the trajectory θ = 45 °. The spreader reaches a height of Hmax = 55 871 m on the “hill”. On the descending branch of the trajectory, when the Mach number M = 1.3 is reached, the ramjet → TRDF is switched to eliminate the ramjet air intake.

In the configuration of the TRDF, the spreader plans to reach the glide path, having a fuel supply onboard GGZT = 1000 kg.


In normal mode, the entire flight from the moment of shutdown of the ramjet before landing occurs without the use of engines with a reserve in the range of planning.

The change in the angular parameters of the step motion is shown in this figure.


When placed into a circular orbit H = 200 km at a height H = 114 878 m at a speed of V = 3 291 m / s, the accelerator of the first sub stage is separated. The mass of the second sub stage with a load in orbit H = 200 km is 1504 kg, of which the payload is mpg = 767 kg.
The application pattern and flight path of the hypersonic aircraft of the Molot project has an analogy with the American “university” project RASCAL, which is being created with the support of the government agency DARPA.


A distinctive feature of the Hammer and RASCAL projects is the use of a dynamic slide-type maneuver with a passive exit to high launch heights of the orbital stage N start ≈ ​​50 000 m with small head pressures, for the Hammer q start = 24 kg / m X NUMX. The altitude of the launch allows to reduce the gravitational losses and the time of flight of the expensive one-time orbital stage, that is, its total mass. Small start-up head pressures make it possible to minimize the mass of the fairing of the payload or to refuse it altogether in individual cases, which is essential for systems of the ultralight class (mpgN2 <200 kg).

Принципиальным преимуществом самолета-разгонщика проекта «Молот» по сравнению с RASCAL является отсутствие бортовых запасов жидкого кислорода, что упрощает и удешевляет его эксплуатацию и исключает неосвоенную технологию aviation многоразовых криогенных баков. Тяговооруженность в режиме работы ПВРД позволяет разгонщику «Молот» достигать на восходящей ветви «горки» «рабочих» для орбитальной ступени углов траектории θпуск ≈ 45°, в то время как разгонщик RASCAL обеспечивает своей орбитальной ступени стартовый угол траектории только θпуск ≈ 20° с последующими потерями из-за маневра доворота ступени.

The aerospace system with the Hammer hypersonic unmanned propeller surpasses the RASCAL system in terms of specific loading capacity: (mphN500 / mvzl) hammer = 0.93%, (mpnn486 / mvzl) rascal = 0.25%.

Thus, the technology of a direct-flow jet engine with a subsonic combustion chamber (the “key” of the Hammer project) developed and mastered by the domestic aerospace industry surpasses the effective American MIPCC technology of oxygen injection into the TRDF air intake system in terms of efficiency on hypersonic spreaders.

Hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle weighing 74 000 kg performs takeoff from the airfield, acceleration, climb along an optimized trajectory with an intermediate turn to the takeoff point to the height H = 20 000 m and M = 3.73, a dynamic slide-type maneuver with intermediate acceleration in the canopy dive to M = 3.9. At the ascending branch of the trajectory, when H = 44 047 m, M = 2, a two-stage orbital stage with a mass 18 508 kg, designed on the basis of the RD-0124 engine, is separated.
After passing the “slide” Hmax = 55 871 m in the planning mode, the accelerator flies to the airfield, with a guaranteed supply of 1000 kg of fuel and a landing weight of 36 579 kg. The orbital stage puts into a circular orbit H = 200 km a payload of mass mpg = 767 kg, on H = 500 km mbg = 686 kg.

Help.

1. The laboratory and testing base of NPO Molniya includes the following laboratory complexes:
Laboratory of static strength tests

Laboratory dynamic tests

Cryotherm Vacuum Test Laboratory

Climate Test Laboratory
Laboratory of Tribological Testing


2.A this is a project of a high-speed civilian aircraft HEXAFLY-INT

Which is one of the largest international cooperation projects. It involves the leading European (ESA, ONERA, DLR, CIRA, and others), Russian (TsAGI, CIAM, LII, MIPT) and Australian (The University of Sydney, etc.) organizations.




3. Rostec did not allow the bankruptcy of the company that developed the space shuttle "Buran"
Note: The 3-D model at the beginning of the article has nothing to do with the Hammer R & D.

Article based work:
The “Hammer” project of a hypersonic unmanned propeller with a combined screen turbo-ramjet power plant
/ Makeich G.S., Tyukaev M.Yu. (Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Volokolamskoye Highway, 4, Moscow, A-80, GSP-3, 125993, Russia), Chibisov Ya. N. (JSC Scientific Production Association "Lightning") /


Used materials, photos and videos
http://www.mai.ru/
http://www.ciam.ru/
http://www.npomolniya.ru/
http://en.avia.pro/
http://www.darpa.mil/
www.youtube.com
http://otvaga2004.ru/
http://www.3dmir.ru/forum/read/5075.html
http://www.globalsecurity.org/
http://36on.ru/news/economics/64320-v-sovete-federatsii-proshli-dni-voronezhskoy-oblast
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  1. Banishing liberoids
    Banishing liberoids 4 February 2017 08: 30 New
    +9
    Anton, thanks for the article, it’s a pity that, as always, this device will not be built because everything good is quickly “put under the cloth”!
    1. cap
      cap 4 February 2017 11: 07 New
      +4
      Quote: Expelling Liberoids
      Anton, thanks for the article, it’s a pity that, as always, this device will not be built because everything good is quickly “put under the cloth”!


      There is another option, fuse "to the left," for "inefficiency." I’m not even going to tell anyone, you can guess. I can imagine how much money this work cost.
      And for the article, consider the whole lecture, my respect to the author.
  2. demiurg
    demiurg 4 February 2017 09: 09 New
    +7
    Thank you for the article.
    We wondered how much one launch and one kilogram would cost?
    1. opus
      7 February 2017 21: 44 New
      +3
      Quote: demiurg
      We wondered how much one launch and one kilogram would cost?

      Americans in 2002 calculation:
      $ 750 to deliver 000 kg payload to the DOE.
      those. $ 10 / kg

      Quote: Author
      Specific load aerospace system with a Hammer hypersonic unmanned accelerator surpasses RASCAL system: (mpnH500 / mvzl) hammer = 0.93%, (mpnN486 / mvzl) rascal = 0.25%.

      0,93%: 0,25% = 3,72
      we can assume that we have: 3-4000 $ / kg
  3. 501Legion
    501Legion 4 February 2017 09: 25 New
    +6
    Great article, thanks
  4. Old26
    Old26 4 February 2017 09: 31 New
    15
    Anton. Thank you for the article. The topic is quite interesting. But there are a few questions on the topic.
    1. The state of research, whether it is completed and what is the further fate of the work (if you know)
    2. I carefully read the article, even twice, but in none of your graphs did I find confirmation of the heading for the HYPER SOUND accelerator. The maximum parameters you specify are within 4,5M. Do not specify this item?
    3. This is more a clarification than a question. The figure shows the X-90 hypersonic missile (USSR). Here are some minor complaints
    At MAKS, it was simply called GELA (a hypersonic experimental aircraft), without all these names hypersonic rocket X-90. I am afraid that this name appeared in the midst of journalism. not AS-19 Koala, but AS-Х-19 Koala). And the very designation of the X-90 hypersonic experimental aircraft developed by the Rainbow NGO is also somewhat incorrect. In the notation system of our technology, the notation Х air-to-surface missiles are already given after adopting them. But this is so, already my nit-picking about the accuracy of notation. Thanks again for the article.
    1. Bongo
      Bongo 4 February 2017 11: 04 New
      11
      Quote: Old26
      Anton. Thank you for the article. The topic is quite interesting.

      Join us! good Unfortunately, Anton writes very rarely, albeit aptly! However, publications that are very competent and confirmed by graphs and calculations, unfortunately, are in little demand recently.
      request
      Quote: Old26
      I carefully read the article, even twice, but in none of your graphs did I find confirmation of the heading for the HYPER SOUND accelerator. The maximum parameters you specify are within 4,5M. Do not specify this item?

      I also had this question.
      1. opus
        7 February 2017 22: 16 New
        +2
        Quote: Bongo
        Anton. Thank you for the article. The topic is quite interesting. But there are a few questions on the topic.

        Quote: Bongo
        Join us!

        Hi "friends before (or beyond) retirement age." And thank you, and everyone who read the same.
        Do not think that I was arrogant or swelling with snobbery.
        I was stupidly banned until 07.02.17/17/XNUMX to XNUMX

        Toko-sho sanctions lifted.
        Sales did not know "for sho" (schA learned)
        Quote: Old26
        The state of research, whether it is completed and what is the further fate of the work (if you know)

        The Lightning nearly went bankrupt.
        I think the project will be closed, the demonstrator (multi-mode supersonic unmanned aerial vehicle (IASL)) will probably go to weapons.
        Really, who did not pay attention to the performance characteristics of the demonstrator?

        1500 - 2000 km at 4,31 M with warheads under 400 kg ... strange
        “Lightning” almost went bankrupt, times, customs, materials changed, but the achievements will not be lost.

        Quote: Old26
        I carefully read the article, even twice, but in none of your graphs did I find confirmation of the heading for the HYPER SOUND overclocker


        Quote: Bongo
        I also had this question.

        Here you are both corrosive.
        1. "hyper", meaning "above something", "exceeding any norm",Synonyms of super-, super-. Supersound is a synonym for hypersound (because it is said at times, but at what time "at times" it is not stipulated.
        at the expense of M = 5. Well, let’s say, like MAI, we believe that everything that is faster than the SR-71 record for an aircraft equipped with ramjet engine is hyper sound.
        2.A seriously, then

        highlighted in green.
        - they simply did not have enough time, money, or a stand for M> 5.

        But the potential of M should be greater than 5 (but another OT and EVZU)
        -they had a large run-up of alignments, at hcm → 19.88 m and a small degree of static instability in the ranges M <1 and M = 4 ... 5
        -Settlement and experimental prototype demonstrator parameters:
        cruising Mach numbers M = 1.8 ... 4
        ... a supersonic confuser and with some degree of under-expansion of the ramjet jet, realized on large Mach numbers, provides an increase in thrust due to the longitudinal projection of pressure forces on the upper sash. In this work, however, it does not count since the numerical calculation of the expiration of a jet from a ramjet requires experimental verification.
        -A distinctive feature of the hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle-accelerator of the Hammer project is based only on existing and mastered technologies, and primarily in terms of the power plant, which includes serial engines AL-31F M1 (about it in RASCAL)
        -Absolute values ​​of the Mach number and flight altitude, reaching Mmax = 4.3 at Нmax Mmax = 20 m, allow talk about the feasibility at the level of existing technologies in Russia of a reusable aerospace system with hypersonic high-altitude booster, providing weight reduction

        - and yet (then the issue of wasps was not resolved by supersonic combustion and with something else)


        I mean, without SUIT (or KOIS)
        Well, you understand, to write all this (and more) in an article on topvar means to pass for the lunatic. what
        Quote: Old26
        X-90 (USSR). Here are some minor complaints

        Well, I took the picture from the drum, from an Internet.
        but in general MAI and Lightning call it:
        1. Cat man null
          Cat man null 7 February 2017 22: 25 New
          +3
          Anton, I welcome you hi

          Clean, yes, from the "bath" (well .. I’m just a day like from the same bath, I’ve insulted some kind of "author" (literally) there, it turns out belay )

          Anton, your posts are always long, and a lot of words and numbers ..

          I was taught that everything is always explained at the level of the fingers of one hand ... well, the edge of two ...

          Am I out of date, or am I missing something?
          1. opus
            7 February 2017 22: 53 New
            +2
            Quote: Cat Man Null
            Anton, your posts are always long, and a lot of words and numbers ..

            Hello. Dufffno did not write off.
            Quote: Cat Man Null
            Am I out of date, or am I missing something?

            Yes, I’ve already taken out all of Moscow.
            No one is hearing me: the wife says fuck off, the older one dumped her to write a diploma, the younger one studies and I still need to talk with him on Xamarin (such dregs, brains), there’s no work (and the subordinates are still ladies), moonshine caught up, berries they didn’t ripen, you don’t need to water the cucumbers, you’re already sick of the tanks (you can’t overcome your own record at 11 or how, LBZ is done)



            what to do then?
            There is not even snow.
            it is boring. good
            1. Cat man null
              Cat man null 7 February 2017 22: 58 New
              +1
              Quote: opus
              There is not even snow.

              - where is it???
              - I even have mnu in Zamkadye ... I have frozen dogs today, grit, "I want to go home, my feet are freezing" laughing good

              Well, animals ... what do you get from them :)
              1. opus
                7 February 2017 23: 44 New
                +1
                Quote: Cat Man Null
                - even mnu in Zamkadia has ...

                Well, I don’t have the same for the Ring Road. Well, see 10-20 And then it fell about 10 days ago. I kept the snowman under the film from 30.12, the rain didn’t
                And in St. Petersburg, well, see 3, in some places
                I have a shovel (sc *** - then no more, or else ...) - I have completely lost my fear. The owner will not know.
                Quote: Cat Man Null
                my dogs are cold today, grit, "I want to go home, my feet are freezing"

                the same thing for 2 days, my wife cut foolishly, says spring anyway soon.
                I have a car of "dogs" (or I’m a deer) - I washed 3 days ago, the day before yesterday -20.
                Well, I enter / exit through the rear passenger door on the 2nd day.
                it’s especially cool at the exit in front of the barrier (magnetic card), they’re looking at me as if they’re 1/2 smart. They say: “if this fool hired a driver, then what the hell he is rushing to the barrier with a card "Well, or some other paradox.
                1. Falcon5555
                  Falcon5555 8 February 2017 02: 43 New
                  +1
                  In the summer in St. Petersburg (and to the north) - a resort. And in winter, frosts are everywhere (except for all Egypt and Florida).
                  1. opus
                    8 February 2017 12: 55 New
                    +1
                    Quote: Falcon5555
                    In the summer in St. Petersburg (and to the north) - a resort.

                    To the north of that, yes. Karelia, above the Svir River.
                    and in St. Petersburg, fi.
                    swamp (God blessed the Emperor in this place staked)
                    Humidity 99% (or my digital hygrometer is lying), rarely 85%
                    And the summer has not been seen for 3 in a row.
                    There is no sun, rains for a week, and the grass (parasite) is just rushing.

                    lawn mower - my best friend, I see more often than with ladies (maybe age?).
                    there are no cows, the compost box does not have time to recycle
                    THE GRASS IS NOT NEEDED IN SUMMER?
                    beveled, I will give for a gift (pickup however)
                    Huh?
                    And so it happened under 32grs
                    "frost in St. Petersburg" -25, tolerated worse than -45 in Yakutsk.
                    humidity, and even the breeze under 20m / s in general drastically changes situevina.
                    I don’t know how everywhere, but

                    we have every day the Ministry of Emergencies about ice and a storm every other day.
                    Ban them for spam?
                    what
                    1. Falcon5555
                      Falcon5555 8 February 2017 15: 47 New
                      +1
                      To the north of that, yes. Karelia, above the Svir River.

                      Well yes, it's good there. When I visited there, I was surprised, although I had known for a long time that there were a lot of interesting things there.
                      And why didn’t the simple Karelian Isthmus qualify you?
                      and in St. Petersburg, fi.
                      swamp (God blessed the Emperor in this place staked)

                      Before the "Emperor" in this place a lot of people lived and swamps were not everywhere. There was, in fact, a city and many villages nearby, which Russian historiography preferred to forget about, although at times it belonged to the Novgorodians (probably because they preferred not to recall the Novgorod Republic too often), the Novgorodians fought for it with the Swedes:
                      https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9D%D0%B8%D0%B5%
                      D0%BD%D1%88%D0%B0%D0%BD%D1%86
                      If you don’t like the plain (the swamps where they were, drained 3 centuries ago, what to remember about them), then settle, for example, in Koltushi - this, by the way, is also an old Finno-Ugric settlement, either in Yucca or Pulkovo and surroundings
                      Humidity 99% (or my digital hygrometer is lying), rarely 85%
                      I also had it, but it broke. They are apparently prone to breakdowns. Measuring humidity is tricky.
                      And the summer has not been seen for 3 in a row.

                      As far as I remember, 2014 had a great summer, and the following were not bad.
                      we have every day the Ministry of Emergencies about ice and a storm every other day.

                      Well, in January there seemed to be a couple of warnings, both of which, without special need, might have tested the system.
                      1. opus
                        9 February 2017 01: 59 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Falcon5555
                        As far as I remember, 2014 had a great summer, and the following were not bad.

                        Well yes...

                        In July 2014, the air temperature averaged 21 ° С. At that while the norm is 17,7 ° C
                        Directly swollen from the heat in 2014 (although compared to 2015,2016 it’s a paradise)
                        “He likes pumpkin, and his wife cucumbers”, G. R. Derzhavin (“Vision of Murza):
                        2013 was chic

                        Quote: Falcon5555
                        Well, in January there seemed to be a couple of warnings, both of which, without special need, might have tested the system.

                        Well, I have every day.
                        I can send screenshots
        2. opus
          7 February 2017 22: 32 New
          +1
          Quote: Bongo
          Unfortunately, Anton writes very rarely, albeit aptly!

          at the expense of aptly bent you (I realized it was a carrot, with fear I expect a “stick”)
          but I write a little, they don’t print me (I am illiterate), I often get:

          moreover, it’s somehow “strange”: when Dude “checks” Duvakin, the completion of the article comes in 30-150 minutes, when the others, it takes 5-7 days to check.
          I think he doesn’t read the article.
          however, the editor-in-chief of "TopVar" is not going anywhere!

          I have an intimate question for you.

          almost 300 articles (You have not yet surpassed professor Kaptsov)
          really according to http://olegchuvakin.ru/editor

          are you heading for?
          wink
          Just kidding, just kidding, of course (and now again in the sanctions for 14 days already), this moratorium affected me for 7 days.
          I understand that you just have brains (you can’t use the word mosk, Smirnov will ban) better: we then smelt smelt and then once a year (in the spring), and you all sorts of coho salmon, Nerka, Chavycha, Golets, Mikizha, and the sun with us a little (almost 60 parallels yet, 13 months overcast, the rest of the time the sun + swamps)

          all for now, no offense, if anyone offended.
        3. opus
          7 February 2017 22: 34 New
          +1
          Quote: opus
          Quote: Bongo
          Anton. Thank you for the article. The topic is quite interesting. But there are a few questions on the topic.

          nakosyachil (hands are crooked)
          of course "Old" №26
          wink
          True to read [quote =Old26] Anton. Thank you for the article. The topic is quite interesting. But there are a few questions on the topic. [/ Quote]
        4. Arkady Gaidar
          Arkady Gaidar 16 May 2017 18: 22 New
          0
          Opus! Hello! I am not an expert on this topic and I confess I read everything with interest, but I did not understand everything. Therefore, I have another question: “If this program is closed, can it be quickly revived in about 3-5 years? And how fast will it happen? (Civilian launches of the orbiting cargoes are meant. Namely, the complete completion of design work for the finished And without enormous funding, at best with an average).
          Now I can’t explain everything, but to say that the project is being prepared, when our authorities will have to develop many such topics, is already being worked out at the final stage. Yours faithfully!
  5. Vadim237
    Vadim237 4 February 2017 10: 21 New
    +1
    It was possible to do one ramjet, the speed of 4000 kilometers per hour on it really achieved.
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 4 February 2017 13: 31 New
      +2
      How many seconds can you reach this speed. The Q aspects should be considered before creating an aircraft. In addition, without having the basic foundations of understanding what is happening and why, of the same heating of the case, the designers will solve problems after the problem, which will stop them from moving towards a real result. Look at the same Anton (opus) is a man with a huge potential for knowledge, but he is not able to analyze this array of knowledge and therefore uses only what it presents statistics, but does not offer optimal logical and reasonable ideas based on the analysis of large amounts of information
    2. opus
      7 February 2017 22: 55 New
      +1
      Quote: Vadim237
      It was possible to do one ramjet, the speed of 4000 kilometers per hour on it really achieved.

      unreal
  6. gridasov
    gridasov 4 February 2017 12: 51 New
    +1
    What nonsense! Humanity will not soon fly in the same way as its dreams! Everything is complicated, confusing, and therefore uncontrollable. There is a lack of systemic knowledge about physical processes in the environment and in materials. Any acute angle or shape will always exhibit diffraction effects, and with a high degree of ionization will be destroyed under the influence of high EMF. There is no system knowledge in the analysis of processes. The depravity of man consists in lying to himself and trying to convince everyone else of what he himself is ignorant of.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 4 February 2017 14: 00 New
      +1
      "There is no system knowledge in process analysis." For that is, the systems for designing and modeling aircraft, engines and everything else - and VIAM is engaged in materials for us, they know exactly what materials to use and how to test them.
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 4 February 2017 14: 19 New
        0
        You apparently do not fully understand that computers create not only the augmented reality on which all your modeling and design systems are built, but also create a distorted reality. Computers are not capable of binary code and the impossibility of an endless increase in the number of processors (I hope you know what the processors are for) to recreate a model equivalent to reality. By the way, this distorted reality is very capable of creating distortions and the real work of the human brain. Statistics on the growth of inadequacy in human perception of real events are confirmation of this.
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 4 February 2017 14: 50 New
          0
          It is important to realize that an analysis method based on blowing small scale models in wind tunnels with a laminar flow cannot then be transformed as a mathematical model for a real airplane and in flows with turbulent parameters. Why? Because the system is changing in the capacity of transformation of those physical events that we could predict and express as a mathematical model. Scientists have simply banal computational modeling without the possibility of increasing the capacitive parameters of the analysis. What can we say about hyperspeed flight processes, when each aircraft point has its own parameters of interaction with the environment and the difference in potential can destroy them even at lower speeds, especially when changing angles of attack in any plane. Therefore, the general view of the aircraft should be maximally optimized precisely in the distribution of magnetic force processes due to ionization of the discharge surfaces. In general, there is no concept of engines and propulsion in transition phases of flight, nor an understanding of what the forms of aircraft should be,
  7. Operator
    Operator 4 February 2017 12: 57 New
    +3
    The reusable Hammer is a stillborn project (specific payload 1% compared to 5% single-use launch vehicle).
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 4 February 2017 14: 02 New
      +1
      But this device can be used several times, unlike a one-time rocket carrier for 8 - 10 billion rubles.
      1. Operator
        Operator 4 February 2017 14: 20 New
        +1
        How much is a booster rocket with a starting weight of 15 tons and a payload of 767 kg?
        1. Vadim237
          Vadim237 4 February 2017 21: 27 New
          0
          20 times cheaper than conventional rocket launcher
  8. gridasov
    gridasov 4 February 2017 13: 15 New
    +1
    In the photo of the HEXAFLY-INT project, in the background the rotor of an aircraft turbine and no one sees the physical process in the dynamics of how the transformation of air flow occurs. They simply ran into their stupid unconscious rightness and did not want to see anything. At the same time, just an elementary change transforms the quality of the process of the outflow of hydro-gas-dynamic flow into the exact opposite. Not just the opposite, but into new incredibly wide possibilities. Therefore, we can only observe how they will "crush the water in the mortar" and still come to a unique logical result.
    1. Falcon5555
      Falcon5555 4 February 2017 14: 44 New
      +3
      Gridasov, so what is the result?
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 4 February 2017 14: 57 New
        0
        The result is that before “in a dark room a person opens the door he has found, he must open the one that will lead him to the path that is optimal and corresponds to the person’s desire to follow it and that this path corresponds to the stage of its successive development. "
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 4 February 2017 15: 02 New
          0
          But actually you are very right. The situation is such that I cannot jump out of my space in order to be accepted and useful, while others cannot and do not want to accept new knowledge. It’s like in the Egyptian pyramids, the found sources of low potential current could not be accepted at a time when there were no cumulative reasons for their adoption, and knowledge already existed. Therefore, what should happen.
          1. Falcon5555
            Falcon5555 4 February 2017 15: 17 New
            +1
            And what am I right about? I didn’t say anything. I just asked what, in fact, the result. What is the result?
            1. gridasov
              gridasov 4 February 2017 15: 41 New
              0
              You see, but I teach my loved ones not only in word, but in what they bear in content. I will give you an example of a task. How can they talk, let's say two people who know everything about everything. I believe that they will talk by determining the direction of the dialogue partner's reasoning. Therefore, your question was addressed to me, but I must put it to myself. In this, you are already right that my competencies do not extend to what others do, but this does not mean that I cannot express my opinion on this matter. Moreover, these issues are submitted to the public. And even if I am right a thousand times, but there are no conditions for communication, then everything will remain at its former level. Therefore, I note that at my level, the results are obvious in the fact that modern scientists set themselves tasks that need to be solved by the level of compliance of the task and its solution. But they solve problems at the level of the nineteenth century. The fundamentals of mathematics and analysis are old and correspond to the capabilities of the analysis of low-potential processes. not high potential and hyper speed.
              1. Falcon5555
                Falcon5555 4 February 2017 16: 42 New
                +3
                Do you have loved ones? And do you teach them? belay
                Here it is - you better get some rest. laughing And let them rest. Do not bother too much. laughing There is no need for fanaticism in this matter. Perhaps they themselves will learn everything that they need. And you better teach me. I have already asked you how much, I’m leaving for the “unconscious” as partisans. Not good! Here, for example, what is the "only logical result", you have not explained. no
                1. gridasov
                  gridasov 4 February 2017 17: 51 New
                  0
                  A person can develop his fantasies, but they also have a limit. That which is not characteristic of perception is considered impossible by people and rests with all their might. Therefore, I regard such statements as Chinese sages of antiquity. "You can’t be offended by a stone that you stumbled upon." Therefore, even the elementary knowledge of what the mover should be, you respected do not know, while others know and no matter how much sarcasm and irony are added, you still remain who you are and will be.
                  1. Falcon5555
                    Falcon5555 4 February 2017 19: 46 New
                    0
                    Well, you told me and everyone about a lot, but what is all the same a “only logical result” that you will come to anyway?
                    1. Thunderbolt
                      Thunderbolt 4 February 2017 20: 19 New
                      +2
                      Quote: Falcon5555
                      what, after all, is the "only logical result" to which they come anyway?

                      The only logical result is the death and destruction of the physical world, this knowledge multiplies our sorrows, therefore we must console ourselves and silently listen to what the spirit tells us --- ignorance of the restful peace and serenity))).
                    2. gridasov
                      gridasov 4 February 2017 20: 50 New
                      0
                      You can and are able to imagine in your imagination that the rotor blades form the centrifugal processes of the movement of the hydro-gas-dynamic medium in which they are located and which are called flows. All without deepening into the processes of understanding what patterns in these flows or jets occur. And how they are transformed. Centrifugal processes are movement along a certain trajectory from the axis to the periphery. Is this understandable at a primitive level? And now the main thing. fluid flow has kinetic energy. What is the kinetic energy of a body or elastic flow? I think heed. But!!! water or air is a substance having properties that transform with a change in speed. And these properties change according to algorithms. This means not only changing progressively, but also changing their quantitative and vectorial parameters and potential relative to those parts of the flow that have replaced those parts that are already moved along their regular processes of movement. In other words, the flow in the transformation of precisely its parameters of matter already shows potential energy. But the potential energy of a substance also has quantitative parameters and vectors and potential. And this potential of the converted flow substance reaches its maximum at certain parts of the centrifugal rotation of the blade and the screw and turbine. This means that this potential can be used to spin the turbine or screw not only from the drive on the shaft, but also additionally on the periphery. This is clear?
                      There is such an experience in extracting energy after "shooting" for example with grains of sand on the target. But the effect itself is, and its development is not, to make it endless. But the same thing happens with the hydro-gas-dynamic flow during the centrifugal process. How can this process be continued? This is what we are talking about. A device that is designed to replace all existing screws and, accordingly, turbines is the same simple device, but the result of the process of its work is radically new quality. And this new quality does not allow the blades to collapse because there is a change in the polarization vector of the blade. That is, figuratively speaking, the depolarization of the blade occurs, which reduces its EMF in it. This allows you to significantly increase the speed of rotation of the blades, and thus increase productivity. But this allows you to increase the radius or length of the blade overcoming the thresholds of destruction. Why this happens is already a system of knowledge that you ignore. If you didn’t understand this and didn’t make you think, then I must still learn to express myself. Therefore, everything that we position and are ready to show under certain conditions is optimized so that there is nothing superfluous that is not involved in the process, and that it cannot be analyzed. But this can only be done on the basis of new methods of analysis, which can link everything and everything together as a complex system of interactions.
                      1. Falcon5555
                        Falcon5555 4 February 2017 22: 08 New
                        +2
                        If you didn’t understand this and didn’t make you think, then I must still learn to express myself.

                        Nah, I don’t understand. Are the blades polarized? Did not know. laughing But still, what is the result that will come? And then you are somehow foggy. That can be, then can not be analyzed. That "the blades of the screw form the centrifugal processes of the movement of the hydro-gas-dynamic medium in which they are located and which are called flows." - Does the screw have blades? And the men didn’t know! laughing Briefly and concretely - the result?
  9. Falcon5555
    Falcon5555 4 February 2017 14: 59 New
    +2
    Herr Professor opus, i.e.Anton,
    This thing is probably a type of reusable booster? And with a maneuver. That's right - you need to develop. The truth is not entirely clear if this is better than vertical steps with the return of the Mask type. Probably both of these are competing technologies that a large country should have and develop. They, ideally, will compete and bring down the price of each other, which is also useful.
    It is very good that the Lightning was not allowed to close. But what really remains there - FIG knows.
    1. opus
      7 February 2017 23: 14 New
      +1
      Quote: Falcon5555
      Herr Professor opus, i.e.Anton,
      This thing is probably a type of reusable booster? And with a maneuver. That's right - you need to develop. The truth is not entirely clear if this is better than vertical steps with the return of the Mask type.


      1. Well, what kind of "professor" am I, this is to Comrade Oleg.
      2. A booster is an accelerator, a rule of the solid rocket engine.
      This is the type of "first" stage of the launch vehicle, or air launch platform.
      Agree to call NASA's B-52 "Booster", and the current L-1011 Traistar in the Pegasus project is somehow not comme il faut


      The main customer of a similar project of the Americans (I wrote an article about it geektimes) was USAir Force, in the colloquial words of the US Air Force. I will give arguments for them
      - As a rule, this system (or part of it) is reusable with low cost of withdrawal of PN * to the IEO. This is due to the fact that the technically most difficult first stage is also the most expensive;

      - It uses what is "freebie" given to us by the universe, and specifically the atmosphere. Rather, the properties of the atmosphere during the movement or presence of physical bodies in it: lifting force and / or Archimedean force, i.e. those factors that are a hindrance for conventional vertical launch vehicles;
      - The aircraft system is not tied to the launch complex (SK) or launch position (SP), roughly speaking to an expensive spaceport with all the infrastructure. And accordingly there is no reference to the breadth of launch (a headache of the USSR and now Russia).
      The fact is that there is such an unpleasant physical law:

      The initial inclination of the orbit cannot be less than the width of the cosmodrome.

      and building SK everywhere (joint ventures, spaceports) is expensive.
      Runway covered almost the entire globe.
      And theoretically, you can use an aircraft carrier.

      In fact, any runway can be used, both military and civilian, of the necessary category;
      total take-off weight of the VKS system is not more than 60 tons (and up to 40)

      Boeing 737-800 gross take-off weight of 79 tons.
      Runways capable of accepting 737-800, only civilians for 13000 (we have about 300), with military runways - under (or already for) 15 runways
      The aerospace launch system is several times less critical to weather conditions than the vertical launch vehicle (it cannot maneuver in range, it is sensitive to wind; the speed of the engine is 500 tons vertical from 0 km / s to 5 km / s at altitudes of 120 km, atmospheric pressure (cut nozzle) affects the thrust / UI, etc.)
      The media can return to the start place, or to the service, or to boot
      - interval of starts 1 time in 24 hours
      Worldwide, I’m not mistaken. I think for 100.
      nothing to build
      - A distinctive feature of the Hammer hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle-accelerator is based only on existing and mastered technologies, and primarily in the part of the power plant, which includes serial AL-31F M1 engines (more about this in RASCAL)
      - Logistics (all elements, including carrier-transport vehicles), fuel components - conventional fuel components for aircraft of our time;
      the videoconferencing system, in fact, doesn’t need to “bring a rocket, do PRR and so on, and the MIC is essentially not needed

      The aircraft flies to the manufacturer's factory, there they install the product PROFESSIONALLY, test, verify, the aircraft flies to the launching point (runway) and there it gains altitude, at the echelon 12-15 it carries out refueling, acceleration, slide and launches the aircraft into orbit.
      Well, that was the case with the ASM-135 ASAT anyway. And any satellite (any inclination of the orbit) was too tough for him.
      - Efficiency;
      - Low cost of system components and well-established commercial production;
      - The environmental aspect (exclusion zones under the falling stages of the launch vehicle);
      -There is a category of satellites that cannot leave the territory of the country of the satellite manufacturer or customer (launch latitude)

      for a citizen: satellites have been nanonizing for a long time (everything is smaller and smaller in size and mass).
      (Cube-Sat).

      Any university (and in the future, an oligarch) can afford to launch here and now for $ 400 and where you need to ... or
      or wait for a big pH and pay there (and almost the same)

      Well, and so on.
      the "hammer" in this guise will not be realized.
      it's a pity
      Although we are not used to - chickens do not eat money
      We could have launched Ishim for a long time 9 if the remaining MIG-31D hadn’t gone to Kazakhstan, like TU -160 Ukraine)



      The first domestic successful test from a carrier aircraft: the experimental publication “07-2” with the suspension of a standard rocket “79M6”, from airborne Saryshagan over a group of Bet-Pak Dala training grounds. July 26, 1991
      1. Falcon5555
        Falcon5555 8 February 2017 02: 19 New
        +1
        Good article, Anton!
        And if you scale this hyper-plane (you say it’s not a booster, then I propose another very beautiful name - hyper-fly) to normal payloads of about 10-20 times more (Union, etc.), then this will not be 60 tons ( and your article - 74 tons, not 60), and about 500-1500 tons, if the weight is scaled proportionally. But the idea of ​​making an airplane of 500-1500 tons will raise doubts ... Varied .. 500 can and can, but 1500? It will not be a hammer, but a sledgehammer. laughing
        Cones in ramjet air intakes why, you know? Slow down the flow? Increase pressure?
        Aufiderhehren!
        1. opus
          8 February 2017 02: 31 New
          +1
          Quote: Falcon5555
          And if you scale this hyper-plane

          here is the whole cimus
          Quote: opus
          --Distinctive feature of the Hammer hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle-accelerator aircraft is based only on existing and mastered technologyx, and primarily in terms of the power plant, including serial engines AL-31F M1 (about it in RASCAL)
          Well, the chassis from the "Spiral"
          + based on weight statistics for MiG-25 / MiG-31 aircraft
          Threat I continued to squeeze the article (to celebrate after the lifting of the embargo)

          mb will print


          Quote: Falcon5555
          Cones in ramjet air intakes why, you know? Slow down the flow? Increase pressure?


          “Bow + screen of the landing gear”, in order to increase the recovery coefficient of the total pressure ν and flow rate f by the angle of attack for large numbers M> 3 while maintaining the initial level of drag.

          jet nozzle + horse racing

          a two-stage conical body with different calculated Mach numbers in steps, which made it possible to obtain acceptable thrusts in a wide range of Mach numbers.
          what
          1. Falcon5555
            Falcon5555 8 February 2017 16: 00 New
            0
            "to increase the recovery coefficient of the total pressure ν and flow rate f by the angle of attack" - their niht!
            1. opus
              8 February 2017 20: 16 New
              +1
              Quote: Falcon5555
              their fershty niht!

              it was necessary not to skip the "gas dynamics" class in the 7 class
              I can only offer
              1. Rozhitsky S.I., Strokin V.N. On braking of a supersonic flow in
              channel when burning. Pioneers of space exploration and modernity. Sat scientific works. M .: Science, 1988, s
              2. Tretyakov P.K. Determination of heat supply to the flow in a channel with a pseudo-jump. FGV, t.29, No.3, 1993,
              3. Tretyakov P.K. Pseudoscapical combustion mode. // FGV, t.29, No. 6,1993
              4. Krechetnikov R.V., Lipatov I.I. Disturbance propagation in spatial
              supersonic boundary layers // Applied Mathematics and Technical Physics.
              - 1999. - T. 40
        2. gridasov
          gridasov 8 February 2017 23: 08 New
          0
          There are simple methods for how, not just not to slow down the hydro-gas-dynamic flow in the air intake, but also to dramatically increase the area of ​​the air intakes themselves, but also to increase the flow density. Moreover, if we move away from the concept of direct-flow flow in a turbine, then the dimension along the radius can be used as a way to radically increase the efficiency of the turbine.
          1. gridasov
            gridasov 8 February 2017 23: 14 New
            0
            It can be stated that neither these authors nor in other countries consider complex methods of analysis of what is happening in the laminar flow, in the transition process to turbulent and further to sonoluminescent. It is worth noting that the regime of sonoluminescent processes in a hydro-gas-dynamic flow is a photon engine, but of a fundamentally different concept of creating these high-potential physical effects. If they knew the methodology, they would see all the flaws of modern turbines and aircraft engines. They would see simple solutions.
  10. Old26
    Old26 4 February 2017 15: 29 New
    +3
    Quote: gridasov
    but he’s not able to analyze this body of knowledge and therefore uses only the fact that he presents statistics,

    Does he need it? A man wrote an article for VO, a good, solid one. The article does not pose the problem of analyzing this array of knowledge. If a person engages in “brainwashing” (that is, analysis within the framework of general educational articles) - such an article NO ONE читать CAN NOTbecause they don’t understand
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 4 February 2017 20: 58 New
      0
      Of course you need! Only the conversation is not only about the article. To remind you that the Internet was created by the NSA to collect information. Now there is so much of this information that it is necessary to analyze not only the information itself, but also its flows. Why? Then, that rapidly changing events are so fleeting that you need to be able to simulate at least a close perspective. Not to mention the middle and far. Therefore, Anton showed more than an exhaustive state of aviation development in the direction of mastering hyper speed. But which will lead to a dead end and still have to start all over again. Under certain circumstances, we can corny give an opportunity to get acquainted with technologies that did not exist before and therefore be ahead of all competitors. And after all, many already at a subconscious level understand that modern approaches will not allow finding the right solutions.
  11. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 4 February 2017 15: 40 New
    +1
    Remove the title picture, for bullshit. What is the CBS on a hypersonic device? :)
    1. opus
      7 February 2017 23: 32 New
      +2
      Quote: Bersaglieri
      Remove the title picture, for bullshit. What is the CBS on a hypersonic device? :)

      1.You are not careful

      http://ipic.su/img/img7/fs/ss.1486499653.png
      2. Here about the CBS is a moot point.
      I understand you are talking about the phenomenon of aerodynamic divergence (but this is because when maneuvering with a high aerodynamic load, it does not threaten the VSC)
      Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University) and Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute prof. N.E. Zhukovsky are working (or have already worked) on the topic
      KIOS fuselage (Variable Reverse Sweep Wing)
      something like this idea

      After all
  12. Old26
    Old26 4 February 2017 22: 02 New
    +1
    Quote: gridasov
    Of course you need! Only the conversation is not only about the article. To remind you that the Internet was created by the NSA to collect information. Now there is so much of this information that it is necessary to analyze not only the information itself, but also its flows. Why? Then, that rapidly changing events are so fleeting that you need to be able to simulate at least a close perspective. Not to mention the middle and far. Therefore, Anton showed more than an exhaustive state of aviation development in the direction of mastering hyper speed. But which will lead to a dead end and still have to start all over again. Under certain circumstances, we can corny give an opportunity to get acquainted with technologies that did not exist before and therefore be ahead of all competitors. And after all, many already at a subconscious level understand that modern approaches will not allow finding the right solutions.

    Not necessary. The VO resource is not a resource where there is a need to analyze something, especially in real time. In addition, if you are already turning to history, then it would be useful to know this story. The Internet was not created by the National Security Agency. Initially, this project originated in the bowels of an agency like DARPA. And the original ARPANET network brought together the computers of several research centers at US universities. And then the intelligence services of various countries, primarily the NSA, laid the paw on this network, because the network was born in the USA.
    There really is a lot of information, a gigantic amount, here you have "not discovered America." But just to repeat, we are not in a structure engaged in the analysis of information flows, their speed and other details. For this resource, it is enough that the author gives a summary in the form of an article, and should not have an analytical conference here on a single, separate topic.
    The information that I saw in Anton's article is sufficient for me. Some questions arise, but they, by and large, are not important either for me or for the majority of readers, I think.

    Anton did not show development trends, did not engage in long-term forecasting. He specifically outlined the situation with a specific R&D Hammer. That's it, point. Everything else, in principle, is not so significant for the article and whether this is a dead end study will show the result of this research work. And that’s all.
    There is no need to show promising technologies and all that.
    First, the article will be “abstruse”, designed for reading 1-1% of those who are in the subject, secondly large and difficult to read. And for VO readers, it is not the process of burning fuel in the engine, or increasing the speed of the product, that is interesting. and the result. Where and at what speed this product can deliver a payload.
    The solution of the question, subconscious or conscious, whether modern methods will find the necessary solutions and approaches, let's leave for another level and other structures. Moreover, one cannot always say everything. painting everything as you suggest, you can accidentally touch those materials and parts that are closed ...
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 4 February 2017 22: 33 New
      0
      You did not wonder why I stuck to VO. Think about it. Analysis is a good thing.
  13. gridasov
    gridasov 4 February 2017 22: 30 New
    0
    Falcon5555,
    I have a definite conclusion that you are not the one to talk to at all. If you do not understand. Since the rotor blade at the rotor shaft has an exaggerated zero speed, and at the periphery of the radius is maximum, this causes a potential difference. Therefore, the tips of the helicopter blades light up. Therefore, closer to the point. What do you want from me. ?
    1. Falcon5555
      Falcon5555 4 February 2017 22: 54 New
      +2
      Are you talking about helicopter propellers? I thought that you are about the screw that is screwed with a screwdriver or wrench. Oh well. And what does the helicopter have to do with it? It seems that the conversation was about something else. The turbojet engine has turbine blades. Their inlet compressors must also have vanes. Well, let's say that they can be called blades, but not of a screw, but of a compressor! And where does the glow? And do the ends of the helicopter blades generally shine? Anyway. So, nevertheless, closer to the point, in which I completely agree with you, and have been urging you to this for a long time, what will be the only logical result?
  14. Old26
    Old26 5 February 2017 00: 51 New
    +5
    Quote: gridasov
    You did not wonder why I stuck to VO. Think about it. Analysis is a good thing.

    I do not think or intend. Frankly, this is not interesting to me. All your abstruse posts in completely different topics. To some extent, I agree with the words of Sherlock Holmes that the human brain is an empty attic and you should not drag everything in there.
    For example, I do not understand armored vehicles, no, of course I know something, but not deep. The same in the details of small arms I am a complete layman. Partially in the navy and aviation. Well, I don’t have deep knowledge. Although the history of the same armor, or fleet and aircraft is interesting to me.
    Therefore, why are you here - I do not know, and to be honest, I’m not interested how your posts are not interesting. They apologize for snobbery ...
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 5 February 2017 22: 17 New
      0
      And you are right. And supporting you in the same tone that "you cannot force a donkey to be a wolf." . However, the "ostrich position to put his head in the sand" and that means there are no problems, it will not work. In addition, I would not tell anyone about my tasks and goals. And as they say, that from "chatter does not become more satisfying."
  15. mitrich
    mitrich 5 February 2017 14: 17 New
    0
    The article, of course, is large, detailed, with graphs and charts. But apart from Soviet, forgotten and abandoned developments and futuristic pictures, as it will be in ... the eleventh year, there is nothing.
    Here we have for how many years shock UAV only in articles, plans and models of papier-mache. Now about it will be added. Do-write. And then one talking room.
  16. Puss in Boots
    Puss in Boots 6 February 2017 01: 06 New
    +6
    the article is quite comprehensive, thanks to the author! I would like to see everything in metal, but I think that if it does not happen soon.
  17. Recoil
    Recoil 6 February 2017 13: 12 New
    0
    Isn't work classified?
    Already sold in China?
    1. opus
      7 February 2017 23: 16 New
      +1
      Quote: Rollback
      Isn't work classified?

      no
    2. gridasov
      gridasov 9 February 2017 21: 31 New
      0
      Why keep her secret? Everyone is at an impasse and do not know what to do. Take the same computer algebra. In theory, it should create methods of mathematical analysis not through computational processes, but through the processes of constructing analysis. Because events all occur as different dynamics or each according to its own algorithms. But again, everything is at an impasse, because it is necessary for a complete analysis to use such properties of numbers that they are not able to see. That hyperspeed is not able to perceive as a dynamic process in its algorithms. Without methods. The analysis of such capacious and complex processes can not be kept secret.
  18. Ustinov 055 055
    Ustinov 055 055 6 February 2017 16: 21 New
    0
    Falcon5555,
    Mr. Gridasov, and you are interestingly texting, only he SUSPENS water in a mortar and is vague
    1. Falcon5555
      Falcon5555 6 February 2017 20: 40 New
      +3
      Hazily expressed? Yeah! laughing
      Those who have not followed this forum before, but who are interested in "Gridasianism" (or "Gridasianism"), can familiarize themselves, for example, with the discussion under this article and with another link that is there:
      https://topwar.ru/97700-ryad-gosudarstv-dobivaets
      ya-zapreta-na-razrabatyvaemye-v-rossii-yadernye-d
      vigateli-dlya-kosmicheskih-apparatov.html
    2. gridasov
      gridasov 9 February 2017 21: 33 New
      0
      I'm sorry, but you yourself have to guess about the causes of the nebula in expressions. This is fundamental knowledge that determines priority in the rapid development of a state. This is the future.
      1. Ustinov 055 055
        Ustinov 055 055 10 February 2017 10: 15 New
        0
        Oil no matter what layer you put on a sandwich, it will remain with oil. Hazy means hazy.
      2. Falcon5555
        Falcon5555 10 February 2017 23: 48 New
        +1
        Gridasov, I quote your words (above): "I must still learn to speak." And now what should we guess? Explain.
  19. Operator
    Operator 7 February 2017 22: 54 New
    0
    NGO "Lightning" is lying like breathing laughing

    Hypersound:

    "The determination of the lower limit of hypersonic speed is associated with the beginning of the processes of ionization of air molecules in the boundary layer near the aircraft, which begins to occur at 5 M (1,5 km / s or 5400 km / h).
    This speed is also characterized by the fact that the ramjet engine with subsonic combustion of fuel becomes useless due to the high friction that occurs when braking the passing air. In the hypersonic speed range, only ramjet ramps with supersonic fuel combustion may be used to continue the flight. "
    1. Cat man null
      Cat man null 7 February 2017 23: 05 New
      +3
      Quote: Operator
      ... near the aircraft, what is starting to happen ...

      - To quote you - do not respect yourself request
      - You, like, a system programmer? Task manager, system programmers?
      - I wouldn’t be able to stop you for a day ... You’re specifically blowing away, starting from the roof .. the director ... (censorship) is not the best negative
      1. Operator
        Operator 7 February 2017 23: 11 New
        +1
        I wouldn’t even take you to the unemployed - for what quotes are used in the text and you don’t understand laughing
        1. Cat man null
          Cat man null 9 February 2017 12: 06 New
          +2
          Quote: Operator
          what are quotation marks used in the text

          - a literal, or what? wassat
          1. Operator
            Operator 9 February 2017 13: 24 New
            0
            Quote, such as: "Meow" laughing
  20. Ktor
    Ktor 10 February 2017 20: 07 New
    +2
    Directly swollen from the heat in 2014 (although compared to 2015,2016 it’s a paradise)
    It depends on where. 2010 also broke many records: the maximum daily temperature for forty in areas of the Southern region lasted up to 12 days (in July and August). And 2014-2016 - even very cold - there were 1-2 such days, and then not everywhere