Military Review

“What courage!” As Napoleon’s army nearly defeated at Preussish-Eylau

33
The beginning of the battle. The defeat of the corps Auger


On the morning of January 27, following the instructions of Napoleon, the French army began to move. The Russians noticed the movement of the enemy troops, and the artillery of the right wing opened fire. The French troops responded with artillery fire from the Soult Corps and the Guard. Napoleon attacked his left wing. As the deployment of troops to attack artillery fire increased.

Soult's divisions, supported by 150 gun fire, delivered a distracting blow to the troops of Tuchkov. Napoleon ordered several Russian strongholds to be seized on the right flank of the Russians in order to divert their attention from the movement of the Davout corps. The Russians repulsed Soult’s attacks, then Major-General Fock counterattacked with the infantry and the dragoons and rejected the enemy.

The fire of several hundred guns lasted for about three hours, when around 10 hours the French headquarters received a report about the approach of Davout troops. The French emperor Napoleon ordered Soult to maintain his position and Eylau, his right wing, the St. Iller division, moved to the right and had to join the Davout corps when it came out to Serpalen. The corps of Augereau also had to move to the right and then turn left a little, keeping the message with St. Iller and distracting the Russians, covering Davout’s flank maneuver. The cavalry shifted behind the infantry. Part of the reserve cavalry and guards occupied the positions left by the corps of Augereau.

However, the movement of troops took place during the blizzard began. Augereau's troops strayed from the road and, during the clearing of the weather, appeared, unexpectedly for themselves and for us, in front of the batteries of the Russian center. As soon as the Moscow and Shlisselburg regiments, covering the artillery, parted, the entire central battery opened at close range, destroying cartel fire. A sudden blow of fire stunned the French. They suffered great losses. Marshal Augereau and his two divisional commanders, Desjardins and Gödele (Edle), were seriously injured and were taken to the rear. In a few minutes the French lost several thousand people. Taking advantage of the enemy's confusion, the Moscow Grenadier, Shlisselburg, Vladimir and other regiments rushed into a bayonet attack. There was an amazing and unprecedented fight. As the military historian Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky wrote: “More than 20 000 from both sides thrust a triangular edge into each other, were cut without mercy. Parts of the French rushed forward, grabbed our guns, instantly seized them, and emitted the breath under bayonets, butts and bannits. Piles of bodies fell, showered with fresh piles. " In the end, during the most severe hand-to-hand slaughter, the French corps was actually crushed, suffered huge losses and began to retreat.

St. Iller’s division was also lost in a blizzard and was nearly crushed. She went to the very Serpalena and when she turned back, she was attacked by our cavalry under the command of Major General Kakhovsky - Little Russian Cuirassier and Horse-Polish regiments. They crushed the 55 th linear regiment.

In pursuit of the enemy, the Russians developed an attack. The victory inspired our troops. Napoleon’s rate was on the Cemetery in Preussisch-Eylau that day. From the command post, the emperor saw the regiments of Russian soldiers go ahead in an avalanche, overturning the French. Russian cavalry broke through to its headquarters, driving before the enemy. The battalion of the Russian infantry was a hundred steps from Napoleon’s headquarters, but the French guards and cavalry scattered him. Around Napoleon went to the core and grenades. Looking at the attack of the Russians, the emperor said: “What courage!” Napoleon always believed that the commander in chief should not risk his life without the most urgent need. However, here, under Eylau, he saw that again, as under Lodi or under Arcola, it was precisely this urgent necessity that came. Napoleon stayed in place to force his infantry to withstand the blow of the enemy. The personal presence of the emperor, whom the French soldiers loved, restrained them from fleeing. At his feet lay the corpses of soldiers and officers, but he stood, seeing this, the French infantry held on. Infantry companies, initially surrounding the emperor, were gradually exterminated by Russian fire and replaced by suitable rangers, guard grenadiers, and cuirassiers. Napoleon continued to give orders in cold blood, although the Russian cavalry was already close, and the emperor himself could be killed or captured.

Napoleon, in order to rectify the situation and save the corps of Augereau from complete annihilation, threw a reserve cavalry of Murat into the offensive, which was supported by Bessiere's cavalry guards. Murat sent Klein's dragoon division to the right flank, to help the St. Iller division, he led two divisions (the dragoons Grushi and the cuirassiers of Hopult). Murat's cavalry bypassed the unsuccessfully operating St. Iller troops and attacked the Russian cavalry. A new slaughter began, in which no one wanted to yield. The battle proceeded with varying success. The French overturned the Russian cavalry, which pursued Corps Augereau. However, our cavalry regrouped and struck the flanks of the French dragoons, they turned back. In this attack, the Courland Dragoon and Order cuirassier regiments especially distinguished themselves. The French dragoons came to the aid of the cuirassiers, who crumpled and pursued our cavalry to the Russian infantry. The French were met with gunfire, the cuirassiers fled, our cavalry pursued them. Then Bessier entered the battle with the Guards Cavalry, and the French again crushed the Russian cavalry. In the heat of battle, several French squadrons broke through the two lines of our infantry and reached the reserve. Here they were greeted with a powerful salvo. The Elisavetgrad hussar regiment of Yurkovsky, several squadrons of the Pavlograd hussar regiment and the Cossacks finally dispersed the French. Most of the French brave men who invaded the middle of the Russian army died. Only a few made their way through the rear to their own.

As a result, the cavalry battle ended with heavy losses for both sides. Divisional generals died in these fights: the commander of the cuirassiers Gopul, the commander of the guard horse rangers Dalman, the adjutant general of the emperor Corbino. Corps Augereau was broken. However, the brilliant attack of Murat's cavalry saved the position of the French army. The opposing sides have withdrawn their forces to their original positions, regrouped, and restored orders. Bennigsen strengthened the battle line with most of the Dokhturov reserve. The armies temporarily stopped the battle, only the artillery continued the exchange of fire.



Attack of the Davout Corps

At noon, Davout's corps finally entered the battle. He attacked the Russian left flank. Ahead was Friant’s infantry division, supported by light cavalry; in the second line was the division of Moran, followed by the division of Gudin. Seeing Davou's troops, Napoleon ordered the St. Iller divisions to attack the Russians in Serpalene and form the left wing of the Davout troops. Two dragoon divisions followed St. Iller. All these forces began to develop an offensive against the left flank of the Russians. During this movement, the artillery of the Russian left wing inflicted heavy damage on the enemy.

The Baggovut detachment, attacked simultaneously from three sides by superior enemy forces, began to retreat to Southgarten. Meanwhile, Bennigsen, understood where the enemy was leading the main attack, and ordered Lestoc's corps to go to the left flank, and not to the right, as before. Also, the Russian commander-in-chief strengthened the Baggovut detachment on the left flank of the 14 division of Kamensky from the reserve of the left wing.

A new fight ensued, which also took place with varying success. First, the French began to push the Russian troops. Entering into battle reserve connections Russian did not correct the situation. Davu's troops attacked Baggovut and Kamensky’s detachments at Sausgarten. The French broke into the village. But the Ryazan regiment threw the enemy. A stubborn fight began to boil near the village. Sausgarten changed hands several times. The divisions of Gudin and Moran went on the offensive. Russian and French artillery slid down on a carte shot. The Russian cavalry attacked the division of Moran and forced her to retreat. To the rescue of Moran came the dragoon division of Klein, and the French went forward again.

Count Osterman ordered to leave Southgarten. Our troops slowly retreated. Lieutenant Colonel Yermolov described this moment in his memoirs: “The attack on the left flank was successful. Neither the prudent orders of General Baron Saken, nor the resistance of the intrepid Major General Count Osterman-Tolstoy did not stop him. The left flank moved back and made an almost right angle with the army line. ” Dokhturov strengthened the left wing with the last remaining reserve, but this was not enough, the troops of Osterman-Tolstoy still moved back. The French broke into Auklapen, then came out to Cushiten (Kuchitten).

Davout built troops in parallel with Count Osterman, and sought to reach the Russians with his right wing. He placed the artillery on the Craig Mountain and she trashed the Russian order. Napoleon pushed forward the remaining troops of Augereau (the corps led by Kompana), and part of the reserve cavalry. Our troops were almost under the crossfire of the center and the right flank of the French army. At the same time, the Russian army remained without commander in chief for some time. Bennigsen went to Lestoc to speed up the movement of his body and got lost. Seeing that the army was bypassed from the flank, there was a threat of the enemy going to the rear and that the troops suffered heavy losses from crossfire, Saken was ready to order a retreat in order to save the army.

However, the critical situation was straightened by the artillery commander of the right wing Kutaisov, who, seeing that the French were not attacking in his direction and were limited to artillery firing, was bored. He wanted action. The general went to the center of the position and noticed that Osterman's troops were in a dangerous position. General Kutaisov sent three cavalry-artillery companies from his flank to Auklapen under the command of Yashvil, Yermolov and Bogdanov. Total 36 guns. Upon arrival, the gunners found the Russian troops bleeding and holding their last strength. By the 36 fire of the guns, the battery in time dropped the French infantry and began to smash the enemy guns. The French quivered, hit by grapeshot and ran. Cheered up by the Russians, they again seized Auklapen and established themselves in it. This allowed Saken and Osterman to restore order in the troops.

However, the confusion of the French was short. Strengthening the artillery, Davou again threw the troops into the attack. The French attacked Auklapen, but could not take it, held back by Russian artillery fire. The battle was still fierce. Its participant, Denis Davydov, wrote in his essay: “The devil knows what clouds of nuclei flew, fell, jumped around me, dormant masses of our troops dug in all directions, and what clouds of grenades burst over my head and under my feet! It was a wide hurricane of death, which shattered and wiped everything that fell under its shattering breath into smithereens. ”

Russian troops held tight. Osterman only needed fresh reinforcements in order to throw away the body of Davout, which suffered serious losses and stretched its orders too far towards Cushiten. And reinforcements came up. In 17 hours on the battlefield appeared advanced parts of the Prussian corps of Lestocq. The Prussian corps marched in the morning and, hiding behind a barrier from the troops of Ney, who was supposed to intercept Lestocq, was able to connect with the Russians. Bennigsen met with the Allies and led them to Cushiten.

Coming to the aid of the troops of Osterman-Tolstoy, the Prussians (about 5,5 thousand people) went on the attack. In the head of the Prussian detachment followed our Vyborg regiment. Our soldiers broke into Cushiten and almost completely interrupted the French 51 line regiment and four companies of the 108, and beat off three Russian guns that the French had previously captured. Following the Vyborg Regiment, Prussian troops entered the village, Platov with the Cossacks and the Prussian Light Regiment. The French fled, and the Cossacks strengthened their rout. Then the Prussians and Russians drove the French out of the grove in which the enemy was trying to hold on. As a result, the French were bypassed from their right flank. Davu threw Friant's division into the counterattack. But the attack of the Russian-Prussian troops was already supported by the Russian cavalry. The troops of Baggovut and Kamensky cheered and found the strength to go forward. Friant's division was shot down, Davout began to withdraw his troops and hastily placed them at Southgarten, reinforcing them with artillery.

Thus, on all points of the Russian left wing the French were rejected; they could hardly resist only at Sausgarten, from where they could not be dislodged. At this battle at Preyssish-Eylau actually ended. Up to an hour of 21, an artillery skirmish continued on both sides, but the bloodless and weary armies no longer thought about resuming the bout. It was quickly getting dark. Napoleon was waiting for Ney, but his body arrived only by 10 hours of the evening. French troops retreated to the starting line. Napoleon, in view of the arrival of Russian reinforcements and the depletion of ammunition, was ready to withdraw his troops in order to join up with Ney and Bernadotte corps. He was waiting for the actions of the Russian army, whether Bennigsen would go ahead or stop.

Bennigsen did not dare to attack, although the right flank of our army retained its combat capability. In addition, he was embarrassed by the shooting in our rear, at Schmoditen, where the Prussian barrier entered into battle with Ney’s advance guard. Bennigsen sent reinforcements to Schmoditen, they knocked out the French from the village, and learned from the prisoners about the approach of Nei's corps. As a result, Bennigsen abandoned the idea of ​​a night strike on Napoleon’s army, which was on the verge of defeat. In the 1813 year, talking to our officers about the battle of Preussisch-Eylau, Bernadot said: “Happiness never again favored Napoleon, as under Eylau. Hit Bennigsen in the evening, he would have taken at least the 150 guns under which the horses were killed. ”

Some Russian generals demanded an attack. But Bennigsen decided to retreat to Konigsberg. At night, Russian troops began to retreat. The French no longer had the strength to prevent this. The whole battlefield was littered with dead. The fact that Napoleon stood on the battlefield of the 8 days speaks of the grave condition of the French army. Then he began a hasty retreat in the opposite direction. Apparently, if a more decisive and skillful commander, like A. Suvorov, were in Bennigsen's place, the French would not have escaped defeat.



Results

The battle of Preussisch-Eylau was one of the bloodiest battles of the 19th century, and in this respect surpassed almost all the battles previously given by Napoleon. At the same time the battle ended in a draw. The total losses of the Russian and French armies were about 50 thousand people. In the snow, there were left to lie until 20-26 thousand Russian and 22-29 thousand French. The corps of Augereau suffered such losses that it was disbanded, distributing the remaining soldiers under other corps. The witness of this terrible day recalled: “Never before have so many corpses littered such a small space. Everything was covered in blood. The snow that fell and continued to fall hid little by little from the depressed look of the people ... Going through one field, we immediately found ourselves on another one, also littered with corpses. ”

The French army led by Napoleon lost the image of invincibility. Napoleon directly led the battle. He carefully considered and developed a battle plan, proving that his commanding gift was as strong as before; with him were his best commanders — Davout, Soult, Murat, Augereau. The soldiers fought bravely and stubbornly, believing in the star of their emperor. And yet, despite the best efforts of Napoleon, the efforts of the marshals and generals, the courage of the soldiers, the battle was not won by the French. Augereau was defeated, Nei did not have time to fight, the attack of Davou did not bring victory.

In the Battle of Preussisch-Eylau, the Russian army dealt a strong blow to Napoleon’s previously invincible army. Bennigsen also did not win the battle, as he hurried to report back to Petersburg (although he had good chances to win). But even the fact that the French emperor did not emerge as the undisputed winner gave the Russians a feeling of major success. The Tsar replied to Bennigsen Alexander I’s victorious report: “You won the glory of defeating someone who was never defeated,” and sent a letter to the “invincible winner” about awarding him with the Order of Andrew the First-Called and a lifetime pension in 12 thousand rubles. . An officer medal was instituted in honor of the battle.

All public opinion converged on one thing: the battle of Preussisch-Eylau proved that Napoleon could not always win. He had not yet been defeated, but he had already ceased to be an invincible commander. Schlieffen, analyzing the emperor's strategic art, wrote: “The day of the battle at Preussish-Eylau means a turn in Napoleon’s commanding life. A series of successful battles of destruction, which were Marengo, Ulm, Austerlitz, Jena, no longer repeated. "

The French emperor in his bulletins also spoke about the victory. I embellished it with a lie about 15, thousands of Russian prisoners and 18 flags (the Russians didn’t lose any guns or banners, there were several hundred prisoners on both sides). But he, of course, was well aware that although Bennigsen had lost almost a third of his army in battle, the Russian troops remained operational and ready for new battles. If Napoleon had in fact defeated the Russian army, he could have finished it easily, and took Konigsberg, which would complete the rout of Prussia. However, he took the army back, and after fierce winter battles, there was a three-month lull caused by the need to take a breath, replenish and arrange the troops, as well as bad weather (spring thaw). Napoleon himself in 1809, in a conversation with the Russian envoy Chernyshev, said: "If I called myself a winner under Eylau, then this is only because you wanted to retreat."

At the direction of Napoleon, French diplomacy repeated the proposal for a peace treaty. However, Bennigsen declared to General Bertrand that he refuses to start negotiations, since he was "set by the sovereign to wage war". Emperor Alexander agreed with Bennigsen’s statement, and the opportunity to end the war in which Russia fought for the interests of Prussia and England was missed. To a large extent, Russia's position was explained by the hope of supporting the allies. Sweden promised to intensify its actions in Pomerania, and England - to land the 20-thousandth landing between the Elbe and the Oder.

“What courage!” As Napoleon’s army nearly defeated at Preussish-Eylau


Cross “For victory at Preussisch-Eylau”

Bloodbath Eylau. When draw is worse than defeat

Despite the fact that Napoleon eventually won the First Polish company 1806-1807, one of her decisive battles - under Preussis-Eylau, without any reservations, can be considered a failure of a great commander. The first failure in the battles on the fields of Europe. In his reports, the emperor of the French, of course, tried to give Eylau for the victory, and the Russian generals, led by Leonty Bennigsen, didn’t really want to win. Just because they still had to retreat.

But historians are still ready to argue what this slaughter in the snow turned out to be for the Russian army - a victory or a draw. One thing is clear, about the defeat, the one that Napoleon wanted, was out of the question. And let the French stubbornly assert that the Russian army left the battlefield. The French didn't even try to chase her.

Under Eylau, Napoleon almost for the first time failed to truly outperform his opponent in some way as a commander in chief. And this is despite the fact that Bennigsen did not do anything supernatural, and the fact that he personally went to meet the Prussian column Lestocq did not take into account for any particular military achievement. The Prussians of Lestocq managed to escape from the corps of Marshal Ney who was pursuing them, and with a powerful attack they threw away the corps of Davout, which had already almost crushed the left wing of the Russian army.

And yet, you could imagine Napoleon, going to meet Pears under Waterloo? No, the emperor merely limited himself to the famous reprimand of Marshal Soult, who replaced the indispensable Berthier at the head of his headquarters. Napoleon at the decisive moment of the battle asked the Duke of Dalmat (Soult) what news about Pears, and having received the answer that the chief of staff sent a courier there, irritably threw him: “Berthier would send four!”

At the same time, it is not surprising that Bennigsen’s subordinates managed, if not to surpass, then certainly not to yield to Napoleon’s marshals and generals. The French commanders were pretty tired by the lingering company, they wanted to take the winter apartments as soon as possible, but the annoying Russians repeatedly beat them apart from each other.

It must be admitted that under Eylau von Lestok, he surpassed Ney, Osterman and Saken did not lose to Davout. Auger was just a bit, as, indeed, Murat's cavalry, and even Bagration, who was left without a specific command, did not get lost on the battlefield. Well, the Russian artillerymen Kutaisov and Yermolov did not give in to the glorified Napoleonic “masters of fire”, who are practically not mentioned by researchers not only from the Russian, but also from the French side.

The Russian army itself, of course, turned out to be better prepared than the French for fighting in the winter, and even in such a kind of theater as East Prussia. However, the Russians had not so long-term experience of the war with Polish insurgents Tadeusz Kosciuszko in conditions no less difficult, however, in fact, in terms of combat experience, the French were hardly in many respects inferior to Russians.

But is it worth remembering “General Moroz” again, when the Russian army had much more significant advantages? First of all, it is necessary to recall the short communications, because behind the back of the army Bennigsen was Koenigsberg with its port, with its dimensionless warehouses and shops. At that time, this was the most important factor, but one should not forget the loyalty of the local Prussian population, which, unlike the Poles, did not experience any enthusiasm either for the French liberators or for Napoleon himself.

However, the weather also played against the French army. Powerful snow charges struck the attacking columns directly in the face, many of which came under fire from the Russians as they left the narrow streets of Eylau. It seems that having led his advance guard out of town on the night of 7 on 8 in February, General Bennigsen did not make a serious mistake, as is commonly believed, but seemed to foresee wisely what awaits everyone in the morning.

The role of the commanders will be discussed in more detail in our next essay, already from the series “They defeated Napoleon”. There we will briefly dwell not only on what he managed to do to win, or, if you will, on an honorable draw, General Bennigsen, but also on the actions of von Lestoc, about which one of the modern historians said that "he crushed Napoleon" . In addition, as far as possible, let us pay tribute to the Russian generals, although not to everyone, as well as to the soldiers and officers who managed to withstand, and those who were forced to retreat. But only by order.

Alexey Podymov
22.03.2019
Author:
Articles from this series:
Russian-Prussian-French War 1806 – 1807

Russian-Prussian-French War 1806 – 1807.
As a military psychosis led Prussia to a military-political catastrophe
How Napoleon destroyed the Prussian army
Campaign in Poland. How Napoleon tried to crush the Russian army
Battles at Sokhochin-Kolosomb and Charnovo
The victory of the Russian army in Pultusk
Battle of Golymin
Start of the 1807 campaign of the year. Battle of Morungen
Battle of Bergfried
Rearguard battles of the Russian army. The Battle of Goth
The decisive battle of Preussisch-Eylau
33 comments
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 30 January 2017 07: 33
    +5
    To a large extent, Russia's position was explained by hope for the support of the allies.
    ... the Allies threw again ...
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 30 January 2017 09: 41
      0
      Which allies threw? How did you throw it?
    2. Kenneth
      Kenneth 30 January 2017 19: 15
      +1
      And the Lestock building.
  2. ukoft
    ukoft 30 January 2017 09: 18
    +3
    the fact that the benisgen did not let himself be broken already speaks of him as a good general. and it’s so easy to say that if only he attacked, then he won. they did not know what was happening in the French part. caution is justified. had she come earlier, or the blizzard would have been quieter .....
    and the fact that the war with France was not in the interests of Russia is also a big question. such a hegemon in Europe, if he had somehow finished off the British, he would not have brought anything good for Russia. standard policy, do not let one of the players strengthen. be it Germany, Russia, France or England. others immediately held back.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 30 January 2017 10: 09
      +4
      Bennigsen was a very ambiguous personality. His take-off began with the fact that he participated in the murder of Paul I (an important fact: Paul at this moment stopped talking to him, and the sovereign was a straightforward man). In fact, Bennigsen led the regicide column to the castle. Pavel began to bicker with Zubov about abdication, at a time when confusion began among the conspirators (just a bunch of drunken obtrusive majors), it was Benigsen who said the phrase: “It’s about us, if he is saved, we are gone,” which prompts the conspirators to further actions. Further more interesting: he, in his own words, goes to the next room to bring candles, at the time of his absence, Paul is killed. That is, he, as it were, is not at work! Convenient, isn't it?
      I suspect Bennigsen was an extremely cunning man who pursued his own interest. I will try to give a definition: Landsknecht, hired general. Of course, he was a good enough military leader, but .. not Suvorov. Fridland, he scorned with a bang, as far as I read, the disposition before the battle was already unsuccessful.
      1. ukoft
        ukoft 30 January 2017 11: 45
        +1
        don't you think that dividing everything into white and black is not right. praise some (without noticing punctures) and extinguish others. there really is a lot of gray in our life. much more than black and white. often noticed that the risks that only generals took (if it turned out) were praised as talent. while for others, the corresponding risks (with an unsuccessful outcome of events) were shown as stupidity or something like that of this general. Suvorov also had mistakes. found the key to the victories of Napoleon.

        not confused, Kutuzov also cautious and not in vain. maybe I missed the points and who knew how they could end these risks.

        and it is necessary to remember Suvorov still more tactics when Napoleon and Kutuzov strategists.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 30 January 2017 14: 52
          +6
          and it is necessary to remember Suvorov still more tactics when Napoleon and Kutuzov strategists.

          I would not say that only tactics. He had a whole theory of driving troops. Suvorov was a genius of his time, just fate and history ordered that he should die before meeting with Napoleon. Therefore, we perceive the beginning of the 19th century through the Napoleonic wars.
          By the way, Kutuzov was more of a diplomat, if by and large to take. But what he did is brilliant. And about the reconciliation with Turkey, and about the fact that he did everything so that the "Great Army" perished itself under its own weight. Our army had to be protected, because by the time of the campaign of 1813 Napoleon was able to recruit a huge army again - the population density of Europe is higher.
          For some reason, I had the opinion that Bennigsen was simply alien to us in spirit, and did not burn with love for Russia. Therefore, we remember Kutuzov and Barclay, but he is not. with respect, hi
          1. ukoft
            ukoft 30 January 2017 19: 33
            0
            the theory was a lot with anyone. bullet fool bayonet not. could end badly for him when meeting with the Napoleonic units, which at the main blow would have been more (Napoleon as a strategist would have tried). and he wouldn’t have mastered Kutuzov (although he lost the Kutuzov, no matter how they attributed it to emperors and Austrians - after all, he is also a man). against the irregular turkish yes. generals gerantophiles lineers from the seven-year war, living stamps of linear tactics, too.
            it just seems to me that such a recklessness and heroism (look at fairy tales) is cultivated in the national character and in education (there is no rationalism). only in most cases the Kutuzov win, who think through everything, supplying the army, without any heroism. they win before the start of the battle. or like Napoleon marches. there is aerobatics in Sunzi to fight without joining the battle.
            here the philosophy of the Cossacks is interesting: the Cossack is not the one who won, the Cossack is the one who got out. they did not consider it shameful to retreat or even run when necessary. but they could create enough problems.

            So you write "a stranger in spirit." if he won a couple of battles, he would also be a hero.
            and when Napoleon gathered a new army. this was not the same army. many recruits, although in Spain he had a lot of troops were good. not all laid in the snows of Russia. but the main thing, it seems to me, defeat inspired all his enemies. repeatedly beaten them. reform in the army of the Prussians. with the promotion of blucher to command posts. The Austrians, through bitter experience, revised their approaches.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 30 January 2017 21: 43
              +1
              bullet fool bayonet not. could end badly for him when meeting with the Napoleonic units, which at the main blow would have been more (Napoleon as a strategist would have tried).

              this was until the middle of the 19th century, before the appearance of rifles in the armies in large numbers. There was no other way to win the war. True, massing artillery bore fruit at critical moments in the battle. For example, in the battle of Leipzig, the French cavalry was swept away by the fire of Russian artillery under the command of I.A. Sukhozaneta (100 guns!)
              against the irregular turkish yes.

              and against regular too. And against the Poles. And against the French generals Moreau, MacDonald, Massen, who had so far preached on the Austrians as they wanted (it was Moreau who led Austria out of the war in 1800 by victory at the battle of Hohenlindenen. And Moreau called Suvorov’s march to Trebbia the pinnacle of military art). In total, not a single battle lost.
              It seems to me that you are unfair to Suvorov. He was more than rational. Stupid people do not win the battle. The best praise to him is the words of Massen beaten by him: "I would give all my victories in one Swiss campaign of Suvorov."
              The Austrians, through bitter experience, revised their approaches.

              depending on what is considered an approach. Austria over the next hundred years did not win a single war, excluding wars with Italians - these were generally fabulously armless.
              with respect, hi
              1. ukoft
                ukoft 31 January 2017 06: 54
                0
                the question is not justice. the question is that it is customary to idolize some, to belittle others. this applies not only to Suvorov and Benisgen.
                What's new in military affairs gave Suvorov? infantry columns on the breakthrough. quick hits. surprise. he is certainly a talented commander. but for Russia Kutuzov did more. it turns out the question of talent and not merit.

                By the way, a Swiss campaign, this is not a strategy at all. forced action. why does everyone think so? because it is customary to idolize him.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 31 January 2017 10: 24
                  +1
                  but for Russia Kutuzov did more.

                  Well, do not tell. It was Suvorov and Ushakov who finally broke the Turkish military power in the 18th century - they removed the threat from the south, at least temporarily. They resolved pressing issues, in Europe before the French Revolution it was relatively calm.
                  Napoleon simply attacked Russia precisely during Kutuzov. History has no subjunctive mood; everything happened at its moment in history. Each genius solves his tasks in due time.
                  What's new in military affairs gave Suvorov? infantry columns on the breakthrough. quick hits. surprise.

                  many others could not give it. Plus a system for training troops. Marshe Napoleon borrowed from him.
                  1. ukoft
                    ukoft 31 January 2017 11: 52
                    0
                    the power of the Turkish army. I don’t think that the Turks were so strong at that time, they were beaten in the 30s, it’s just that the minich had problems with logistics. and did not threaten Russia. and other not so outstanding generals could break them, which by the way was made by Kutuzov and others later. the army of Turkey became less or less regular only in the wake of the Crimean War and even later in 1877. as well as to drive siphas and janissaries, who by that time had become an analogue of the archers of the 17th century (semi-merchants, paramilitary) of a great mind inappropriately. and the warlords cheered up with the Ottomans. up came those who are closer to the body, so to speak. in general, the brilliant port no longer really shone, with the passionarity the problems went with the guys.
                    there the issue of expansion at the expense of Turkey was coming.

                    Napoleon went to Russia, burned Moscow. Kutuzov and other generals of his time were able to break a stronger opponent. although I don’t think that Napoleon would destroy Russia, he couldn’t. I just took the indemnity, I founded the Polish state, well, in general, I would have weakened it specifically.

                    Napoleon was a real strategist. he could concentrate superior forces in the direction he needed. even with a smaller total number. he also made mistakes. But no one describes Suvorov’s mistakes. called the greatest and more. and they were.
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 31 January 2017 12: 20
                      +1
                      although I don’t think that Napoleon would destroy Russia, he couldn’t.

                      Napoleon was not going to destroy Russia. He needed to destroy the Russian army, and then impose his peace terms. In order to assemble, arm, train a new army, it would take us years - Napoleon only eliminated a strong competitor. It was the defeat of our army by a stronger army, moreover, managed by a skilled commander, that Barclay sought to avoid first, then Kutuzov. The battle at Borodino of the "Great Army" suffered losses, after which on Russian territory she did not recover, therefore, could not conduct more or less successful offensive operations. Which was proved by subsequent events.
        2. Cat
          Cat 30 January 2017 17: 35
          +2
          A. Suvorov - a tactician?
          Interesting opinion, which is refuted only by the Italian company of the brightest!
          M.Kutuzov is a diplomat? First of all, the military!
          A. Suvorov also established himself in the diplomatic field. For example, a contract with kicking!
          Both of us are everything! Do not take away do not add!
          Regarding intrigue, the same Barclay de Tolly was also not liked by the Kutuzovs, but the story did not stop rebiailing his name!
      2. Cat
        Cat 30 January 2017 11: 47
        +2
        Nikolay, I support you with all your paws!
        On my own, I’ll supplement how the chief of the General Staff Bennigsen “frowned” not the first or not the last time.
        A supporter of standing on the Neman, the Drisvensky camp and the division of the Russian army into two in 1812, is just his idea! The choice of the battlefield of Borodino! A number of researchers consider it to be his culprit that we did not win.
        And another one near the village of Fili. Fortunately, Kutuzov ignored the attacks of Repin and Bennigsen and led the army to the south.
        The last nail in the company of 1812 was the battle of Torutino. Kutuzov was finally disappointed in him and would not let him in anymore.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 30 January 2017 12: 05
          +2
          A number of researchers consider it to be his culprit that we did not win.

          read the opinion that Kutuzov assigned part of the troops the role of a reserve in order to perform some cunning maneuver in the midst of the battle. Bennigsen, not knowing about this, put these units in a common line, so that the possibility of a "tricky strike" was thwarted.
          The last nail in the company of 1812 was the battle of Torutino. Kutuzov was finally disappointed in him and would not let him in anymore.

          there were some intrigues and undercover battles. Bennigsen about Kutuzov (somewhat reminiscent of the Kozlov-Mehlis tandem, no, not by talent, but in relation to each other) after this battle, he also poured a bowl of slops. Both "did not burn with love for each other." In such circumstances, leaving them together would mean ruining the common cause, and Alexander, the subtle intriguer himself, did the right thing.
        2. Kenneth
          Kenneth 30 January 2017 19: 24
          0
          Bvrklay suffered from Kutuzov’s intrigues
        3. moskowit
          moskowit 30 January 2017 20: 30
          +2
          Quote: Kotischa
          Drisvensky camp ..


          Driss Camp, Dear Colleague ...
          1. Cat
            Cat 30 January 2017 21: 17
            +2
            I apologize, I wrote in paws in the subway, I was a little oiled.
            1. Kenneth
              Kenneth 30 January 2017 23: 09
              0
              You'd better not climb with your paws at all. Here is what he wrote personally: "This position was cluttered with all sorts of field fortifications, poorly placed and poorly executed. There were epolements <...>, redoubts and batteries, located one next to others, ledges, regardless of whether they correspond to the terrain or not < ...>. And could it be otherwise if on the plan of this position, brought to General Pful from St. Petersburg, he sketched out various fortifications according to his imagination, without personally examining the area itself "
      3. Kenneth
        Kenneth 30 January 2017 19: 17
        +1
        Gored already the theme of the murder of Paul. We are talking about his leadership in battle.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 30 January 2017 20: 49
          +1
          right, I admit hi
  3. novel66
    novel66 30 January 2017 09: 27
    +3
    Is it not here that the phrase was born that it’s not enough to kill a Russian soldier?
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 30 January 2017 10: 48
      +4
      Quote: novel xnumx
      Is it not here that the phrase was born that it’s not enough to kill a Russian soldier?

      Half a century earlier, in the Seven Years War. Allegedly said "Der Grosse Frederick."
      1. novel66
        novel66 30 January 2017 11: 04
        +3
        and in some book attributed to Napoleon. writers ...
        1. Rastas
          Rastas 30 January 2017 13: 40
          +1
          Big personalities are credited with a lot of things.
        2. V.ic
          V.ic 30 January 2017 16: 46
          +1
          Quote: novel xnumx
          and in some book attributed to Napoleon. writers ..

          ... on their conscience.
          1. novel66
            novel66 30 January 2017 17: 39
            +2
            Well, the thought is true, more often it’s necessary to repeat
      2. Vladislav 73
        Vladislav 73 1 February 2017 23: 12
        0
        Quote: V.ic
        Allegedly said "Der Grosse Frederick."

        "Friedrich der Grosse", just like the dreadnought of the times of 1MB laughing good Memoirists and, in particular, the personal secretary of Friedrich der Gross, Henri de Catt, report that these words were spoken by Friedrich at the battle of Zorndorf, which was unusually cruel and bloody on both sides. There is an opinion that the Russian commander General Fermor fled with the Austrian representative at the beginning battle, and the Russian army actually fought without the commander in chief! belay This phrase has a continuation. It sounds completely like this: ““ It’s not enough to kill the Russian, the Russian must also be knocked down. I see the killed Russians, but I do not see the defeated Russians. ” hi
  4. Roman 11
    Roman 11 30 January 2017 19: 14
    0
    with him were his best generals - Davout, Soult, Murat, Augereau. The soldiers bravely and stubbornly fought, believing in the star of their emperor. And yet, despite all the efforts of Napoleon, the efforts of the marshals and generals, the courage of the soldiers, the battle was not won by the French. The necklace was defeated, Ney did not have time to battle, the attack on Davout did not bring victory.
    Napoleon was in a hurry, as always, but here his soldiers were no longer keeping up, probably winter ...
    Not to say that he drove his army to death, but they were exhausted more than ours, and in general they have continuous wars with almost no pauses, ours were fresher — hence the conclusion, the emperor was tired of the war, began to make gross errors, such as control over the physical and moral state of their troops. We also got lucky with a blizzard. On the whole, the French had better forces, we also had good forces, many of the past Suvorov wars, and the commanders were the same Platov, but the army was commanded by a incompetent general, rather of an average hand. Personal qualities played a big role in that battle .. Benigsen simply did not have time to "get used to" ..... although he would still lose later, as happened later. And here, indeed, because of the emperor’s mistakes, they could overturn the French.
  5. moskowit
    moskowit 30 January 2017 19: 59
    +2
    "... In honor of the battle, an officer medal was established ...."

    A golden cross was established on the St. George ribbon ... Not a medal at all ...
  6. moskowit
    moskowit 30 January 2017 20: 13
    +1
    "... In Russia, the news of the Preussisch-Eilausk battle inspired great enthusiasm. Bennigsen reported on him as a complete victory, as a result of which the" enemy was completely defeated "by 10. Captured French banners were piling around the streets of Petersburg with cavalry guards" with trumpet sounds "11 Unexpectedly generous awards were given to the participants of the battle, especially to the generals and officers. Bennigsen received the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called and an annual lifetime pension of 12 thousand rubles. The Order of St. George of the 3 degree was received by 18 people - by 4 people and more than subsequently for the battle of Borodino, and St. George of the 4 degree of the 33 officer — only two less than for the Borodino 12. However, the number of distinguished officers turned out to be so great that it was unthinkable for everyone to give the order. who did not receive the orders of St. George or St. Vladimir, it was decided to establish a special golden cross on the St. George ribbon.To award the distinguished lower ranks 13 February 1807 g., that is, a few days after receiving news of the battle in the capital, the Sign distinction ene 13, then became more than a century the main battle reward the lower ranks of the army and navy (Fig. 2). Although the need for its creation was caused not only by the Preisish-Eilauskoy battle, it was undoubtedly the immediate motive. One-third of the annual salary they received was awarded as a reward to all non-commissioned officers and privates who participated in the battle. The establishment of the officer’s golden cross for the battle of Preisis Eilau was not unusual in Russian award practice, since earlier crosses for the capture of Ochakov (established in 1789), Izmail (in 1792), and Prague (in 1795 g.), And later for the capture of Bazardzhik (in 1810 g.). Each of them was distinguished by its configuration and inscriptions, but all were worn on the St. George ribbon and gave similar benefits ... "
    http://medalirus.ru/stati/bartoshevich-krest-sraz
    henie-preisishjeilau.php
  7. Niccola Mack
    Niccola Mack 30 January 2017 20: 15
    +2
    All public opinion agreed on one thing: the battle of Preisis Eilau proved that Napoleon could not always win victories.

    Well, there are moments like that - reach out and take a victory, Suvorov would have done so - I'm sure.
    A thin line separates the genius commander from just a commander.
    An exciting description is pride in the Russian army.
    Emperor Alexander agreed with Bennigsen's statement, and the opportunity to end the war in which Russia fought for the interests of Prussia and England was missed.

    Here is another great example of the wretchedness of thinking - Catherine would not hesitate from this situation to tear Russia out of all the preferences without looking at her allies.