Soviet SAU of times of war (part 4) - Su-85

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Until the spring of 1943, the Soviet T-34 and KV tanks, there were no serious opponents among the Wehrmacht armored vehicles. Our tanks were superior to the enemy in armor protection and had sufficient armor penetration, but with the appearance of the new German Tiger and Panther tanks, all the advantages of Soviet tanks were lost. Although German armored vehicles had significant drawbacks: low mobility, large mass and, as a consequence, low maneuverability, difficulty in production, their appearance on the battlefield became a serious problem for the Soviet troops.

Considering the prevailing circumstances, the GKO of the USSR already 15 on April 1943 of the year outlined a series of measures to increase the firepower and armor protection of newly created models of armored vehicles. At the same time in April 1943, the artillery committee of the SAU of the Red Army sent tactical and tactical requirements to Uralmash to create a new SAU armed with an 85-mm cannon. In the shortest possible time, the factory created a new ACS SU-85, based on the base of the SU-122 machine. New self-propelled gun stood on the conveyor in August 1943 year and was made until June 1944 year. In all, 2329 SU-85 self-propelled guns were assembled during this time. After the production was completed, it was replaced with a new ACS SU-100, but due to the delay in the release of 100-mm armor-piercing shells and the discontinuation of production of armor corpses for SU-85 until December 1944, a transitional version of the SU-85M was released until December 100. In fact, it was the SU-5, only with the D85-C85 gun installed. From SU-315, such a model was distinguished by a large armor reservation of the hull and increased ammunition. A total of XNUMX such SAUs were assembled at the plant.
Soviet SAU of times of war (part 4) - Su-85

SAU SU-85 possessed the following features:

1. The ACS was created on the basis of the units and components of the T-34 tank and had high compatibility with it.

2. The undercarriage of the car, the engine, the units and the transmission assemblies were fully borrowed from the T-34 medium tank. Since the combat mass of the self-propelled gun did not exceed the combat mass of the medium tank T-34, the reliability of these nodes did not cause any doubts.

3. A new 85-mm cannon was mounted in the armored SAU armor, which used shots from an 85-mm anti-aircraft gun. The gun was installed in the SAU case using a frame structure that was attached to the upper front plate. The working conditions of the gun did not constrain the crew jobs.

4. The armor penetration capability of the 85-mm D-5-85 cannon projectile was 75% higher than the armor-piercing performance of a similar 76-mm cannon mounted on T-34 tanks and 45% higher than that of the 122-mm cannon-projectile XUUM-mm guns. All this made it possible to increase the effective range of fire on enemy armored vehicles 122 times. Possessing better mobility than heavy tanks and enemy assault guns, the SU-1,5 could withstand them even with a lower level of armor protection.

5. 73% parts of the ACS were borrowed from the medium tank T-34, 7% from the ACS SU-122 and only 20% parts were made anew.

Design features

The SU-85 ACS was a turretless, fully armored vehicle, with more powerful weapons than the T-34-76 medium tank, on the basis of which it was designed. At the same time, the nose of the hull was improved, and the height of the SAU relative to the tank was reduced. The conning tower was located in front of the hull and was made in the form of an experienced ACS SU-122M felling. SU-85 had a spate booking, the thickness of the frontal armor reached 45 mm, the angle of inclination was 50 degrees. The thickness of the weapon mask armor was 60 mm. The crew of the SAU was 4 person. At the same time, the control and combat compartments were combined. The driver and gunner were located to the left of the gun, the rear loader was located, the car commander was located to the right of the gun. On the right on the roof of the wheelhouse was a commander's turret with a panoramic view without an access hatch. The commander's turret was used by the SAU commander to observe the terrain and adjust the fire.

To observe the battlefield in the roof of the deckhouse, mirrored viewing instruments were installed on both sides, which were protected by special armored caps. Embarkation / disembarkation of the crew in self-propelled guns was carried out through the hatch of the driver and the double hatch located in the rear part of the roof and the aft sheet of the cabin building. The driver's hatch cover and the inspection devices installed in it were identical to the thirty-four hatch covers.

As the main weapons The ACS was a X-NUMX-mm rifled gun, the D-85C-5, or the D-85C-5А mounted in the front sheet of the armored shell. The length of the gun was 85 caliber. The weight of the gun without reservation was 48,8 kg. (D-1230C-5А - kg 85). The maximum length of the rollback was 1370 mm. The gun was equipped with a wedge gate with semiautomatic coponir type. The recoil devices, consisting of a hydropneumatic knurler and a hydraulic recoil brake, were located above the gun barrel - on the left is the recoil brake, on the right is the winder. The gun's rate of fire was 320-6 shots per minute. The angles of the vertical pickup ranged from -8 to + 5 degrees, the angles of the horizontal pickup 25 degrees (20 in each direction).

Ammunition guns consisted of 48 shells. The 17 shots were located in the ammunition in the left-side niche (besides this, two additional armor-piercing projectiles could be added here). 10 shots were placed in a vertical rack at the motor partition, 1 shot in a vertical rack at the left side. 14 shots were in a box under the gun (in addition to this, 4 armor-piercing shells could be additionally placed in the box's nests). For self-defense, the crew of the ACS used PPSh submachine guns and F-1 hand grenades.

For direct fire, the 10Т-15 telescopic sight was used (on a small part of the TSH-1 machines). The direct shot range was 3800 meters, the longest range of firing 13 600 meters. For firing were used regular ammunition 85-mm anti-aircraft guns 1939 samples of the year. In 1944, a new sub-caliber projectile, the BR-85P, was included in the SAU SU-365 ammunition.

In the engine compartment of the self-propelled guns on the under-frame, along the longitudinal axis of the hull, there was a B-2-34 diesel engine with a power 500 hp. On the engine were placed: fuel filter, fuel priming pump, fuel pump NK-1, high pressure fuel lines, oil filter, water pump and generator. As on the base medium tank, the 2 centrifugal air cleaner "Cyclone" mounted in the transmission compartment was installed on the ACS. The fuel system of the tank included 8 tanks with a total capacity of 465 liters. In addition to the internal tanks on the SAU case, it was possible to place 3 external fuel tanks with a capacity of 90 liters each.

Combat application

For its time, the ACS SU-85, armed with a powerful 85-mm cannon, was a formidable fighting machine, while the KV-85 tank, which was very limited in series, was armed with the same gun at that time. Self-propelled gun allowed her to fight with the German tanks "Tiger" and "Panther" at distances in 600-800 meters.

With the increase in production, the number of SAUs in the troops increased and from October 1943 to February 1944, all the regiments were transferred to the new state. According to the new staff, the self-propelled artillery regiment consisted of an 21 machine — the 4 battery according to 5 installations and the 1 machine the regiment commander. Additionally, the regiment received a company of machine gunners and a squad of sappers. In addition to individual self-propelled artillery regiments, new self-propelled guns were in service with regiments that were part of specially created anti-tank brigades.

With shortcomings and mistakes in the combat use of self-propelled guns was a serious struggle in all instances. In the orders of the front commanders, tank and all-arms commanders were instructed that in no case should the use of SAU in the role of tanks be permitted. In addition, it was forbidden to use self-propelled artillery regiments, which were part of anti-tank brigades, to escort tanks and infantry in isolation from the rest of the brigade units. These regiments most often had to serve as an artillery-anti-tank reserve.

The new ACS SU-85 in the troops was well received and was used quite effectively. Although the power of the high-explosive 85-mm projectile was sometimes not enough to destroy the enemy’s field fortifications, the SAU fought against the German tanks with sufficient confidence. At the same time, along with positive reviews, there were also parts from the parts and suggestions for improvements in the design of the ACS. For example, the commander of the 7 mechanized corps, Major General Katkov, evaluating the car, said: “The Su-85 self-propelled gun is currently quite an effective means of fighting Wehrmacht heavy tanks. In terms of maneuverability and maneuverability, it is not inferior to the T-34 tank, and with the new 85-mm gun it shows itself in combat fairly well. However, using the fire and armor of their tanks "Tiger", "Panther" and self-propelled guns "Ferdinand", the Germans are trying to impose a battle at long distances - 1500-2000 meters. In such conditions, the power of 85-mm guns and frontal armor of ACS SU-85 are insufficient. It is necessary to strengthen the booking and most importantly equip the self-propelled gun with a new weapon with increased armor penetration, so that it can confidently fight the “Tigers” at a distance of 1500 meters. ” The wishes of the military to increase the firepower of the ACS were taken into account, and a new self-propelled gun, armed with a 100-mm gun, the SU-100, was born.

Performance characteristics: SU-85

Mass: 29,2 t.
Length 8,13 m., Width 3,0 m., Height 2,33 m.
Crew: 4 people.
Reservations: from 20 to 45 mm.
Armament: X-NUMX mm D-85C-5 cannon
Ammunition: 48 shells
Engine: a twelve-cylinder V-shaped diesel engine B-2-34 horsepower 500.
Maximum speed: on the highway - 47 km / h
Power reserve: on the highway - 400 km.

Sources used:
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  1. grizzlir
    4 February 2012 08: 33
    The most balanced anti-tank SU of the USSR during the Second World War. The advantages include the possibility of evacuation through the hatch of the driver’s mechanic, it was impossible to do this on previous self-propelled guns. A more effective SU-100 appeared later.
  2. +2
    4 February 2012 10: 05
    There are continuous contradictions in the text.
    In principle, she wondered only because the 85 mm gun could not be placed in the linear T-34 tower for a long time and it was urgent to strengthen the artillery.
    1. Scythian Turanian
      4 February 2012 11: 02

      Three kids for armor beat the Fritz from the barrel
      1. Scythian Turanian
        5 February 2012 13: 46
        Jews are my humor minusanuli. Come on with a minus. Bl..d such narrow-minded on the site just graze and troll just how much I do not like. Jews in one word settled on the resources of RU. and trolls, trolls
        1. Kibb
          10 February 2012 12: 17
          Well, what did you want to say? I’m a Jew, I served in the IDF, I live in Ukraine now, my late father is an officer of the SA, awarded the KZ for Egypt (he fought as you understand against the IDF), you can’t tolerate such creatures, regardless of nationality
          - meet on the Galans?
          1. Kibb
            10 February 2012 12: 40
            Take off then my koment pliz
    2. Kibb
      4 February 2012 15: 26
      Compared to all sorts of "Marders" a big step forward, with armor, it was probably possible to come up with something, but the front rollers are already overloaded, although in the end they made the same on the same chassis.
      In short, unlike our dispute on su122, I agree ...
    3. 0
      6 June 2017 12: 01
      I agree. Only in 1944, machines capable of handling the increased shoulder straps of the T-34-85 tank were brought from the USA to the USSR to the Lend-Lease tank plants, there was no sense in further upgrading the T-34-85 at the end of 1944 when the T-34- 85 went to the army en masse, already stood on the conveyor in a small series of T-44, the development of which became an even more powerful T-54
  3. 0
    4 February 2012 11: 40
    German tankers were afraid of the Su-100 like fire. The reason for this is the power and accuracy of the gun.
    1. Kibb
      4 February 2012 15: 31
      when did they manage to get so scared of them?
      1. 0
        6 June 2017 12: 10
        For example, in the battle of Balaton, read about the actions there of 1951 and 1953 of self-propelled artillery regiments of the 209th brigade, where self-propelled guns on the SU-100 burned a lot of German panzer-wunderwafers near the 6th SS Panzer Army judging by the fact that only 6 attempts failed to break through our defense
  4. Odesit
    4 February 2012 13: 41
    Self-propelled guns are normal.
    Not worse than the Hans' "ersatz" and in many respects superior to them.
  5. +2
    4 February 2012 14: 41
    The 85 SU is really normal, but we need better, even if we didn’t have time with the 100 mm gun, but we could immediately increase the armor.
    1. Odesit
      4 February 2012 17: 48
      Yes, 40 millimeters in the frontal projection would not hurt to add.
      I agree with you.
      But how would this affect the overall dynamics of the machine?
      Perhaps that is why the designers did not do it then.
      1. +1
        4 February 2012 18: 10
        Quote: Odess
        But how would this affect the overall dynamics of the machine?

        Screen video with the characteristics of the control 100 --- 75 mm and the speaker is about the same.

        But it’s easy to talk and speak the best way from our bell tower (I’m especially to myself)

        It's just that I'm interested in armor, the glue of the model is mostly modern - but there are also a few of the second world --- from the Soviet SU 100 and SU 152

        And in principle it was possible to apply the principle of exploded armor, like the German three of the latest modifications.
  6. 755962
    5 February 2012 12: 18
    So I remembered -: "Come on, Malezhkin! Press, Malezhkin! Well done, Malezhkin!" - in the words of the Soviet actor Zamansky, from the famous and immortal film "IN WAR, AS IN WAR"
  7. +1
    7 February 2012 22: 03
    "The tank loved the self-propelled gun, took her for a walk in the forest. From such a roman the whole grove was broken." From the same movie. One of my favorites. )))
  8. Jupiter
    11 February 2012 18: 58
    And then on the T-34-85 installed the same gun?

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