Military Review

Poisoned feather. Comes this way, or where it all began ... (part of 1)

73
“... and worshiped the beast, saying, Who is like the beast, and who can fight with them? And lips were given to him, speaking proudly and blasphemous ... And it was given to him to make war with the saints and to conquer them; And power was given him over every tribe, and people, and language, and nation. ”
(Revelations of St. John the Divine 4: 7)



We often argue about the role and place of information in stories of our society. But how do we argue? “You are a dreamer! This simply cannot be! ”- an allegation is made in response to the thesis, confirmed (!) By reference to the source of information. Moreover, the data archive or a solid monograph. Of course, a person has the right to doubt. But you need to oppose not a statement, but at least something similar. But where is the counter argument with the same reference to the source? Unfortunately, the fact that the pen is the same bayonet, and to them as weapons need to be able to use and learn this, still not everyone understands.

Meanwhile, it turned out that for many years my colleagues and I had to work with Soviet (and Russian, including pre-revolutionary) newspapers, that is, an important source of information about the past. For example, I personally had to read all the local newspapers Gubernskiye Vedomosti from 1861 to 1917 a year, then my graduate student studied all the local newspapers, including the Diocesan Gazette from 1884 to 1917 a year, and graduate student S. Timoshina did the same with print media Penza and the USSR from 1921 to 1953 year. During the years of the Great Patriotic War, the newspaper Pravda has undergone the most careful study, and this work continues now, then all local newspapers of the era of perestroika were studied and up to the year 2005. All this made it possible to accumulate a considerable amount of information, and most importantly, to draw interesting conclusions and write a monograph “The Poisoned Pen or journalists of the Russian empire against Russia, journalists of the USSR - against the USSR”. However, the publication of such a monograph is a difficult and lengthy business, so an idea appeared to introduce TOPWAR readers to it in the form of individual articles, which nevertheless completely convey its content.

IN. Shpakovsky

Poisoned feather. Comes this way, or where it all began ... (part of 1)

"Irkutsk provincial news" 1904 of the year (48-th year of publication!) - it looks already quite modern edition. The announcement of theatrical performances is in the most visible place, because there were no television sets at that time, and people regularly went to the theater!

It hardly makes sense to convince anyone that the whole reality surrounding us, although it exists, in general, independently of us (in any case, it is explained to us by scholarly philosophers), is really only that each of sees and understands us. That is, any person is the Universe and when he dies, then ... together with him she dies. There was no Ice Slaughter with us, but someone wrote about him, that's why we know about him! We were also not at the foot of Angel Falls, but we know about it, firstly, because information about it is available in various magazines, encyclopedias and also on Wikipedia, and secondly - “it was shown on TV”.

Well, in the past, people had to get information much more difficult. She was brought with them “pedestrians”, transported messengers and yanked out on the squares, and then it was time for the first printed newspapers and magazines. Everything published in them was extremely subjective, and it became even more subjective when reflected in the minds of their readers, who were not very literate either. But the authorities quickly realized the power of the printed word, and realized that the printed form of information dissemination allows it to easily change the picture of the world according to its own arbitrariness and thus change public opinion, because, without having a support on it, it would not have lasted a day . In this way, the authorities acted both in the West and in the East, and it was exactly the same here in Russia. That is, it was realized that delicate tyranny is not always effective. And so it was a step towards the management of public opinion with the help of information. Moreover, this happened exactly when mass circulation newspapers appeared in Russia, although the then Russian authorities were not able to use it effectively.

Why do we write about all this? Yes, because nothing is so simple and does not appear from scratch. And the journalists, who with their articles also had a hand in the collapse of the USSR, also got completely “not from damp” in our country, but were brought up in families, received a certain education, read books, in a word, absorbed the mentality of the people to whom same and belong. Modern sociologists have proven that in order to radically change the views of a large group of people, we need a life of at least three generations, and the life of three generations is a century. That is, some events that took place, well, for example, in 1917, their roots go to 1817, and if in 1937, then they should be searched for in 1837. And, by the way, it was just the year when the authorities in Russia finally realized the meaning of the printed word, having established the “Highest Commandment” from 3 June, the newspaper “Gubernskiye vedomosti”. Already in January, 1838, Vedomosti went out in the 42 provinces of Russia, i.e. The coverage area of ​​this edition of the state was very high. Thus, this did not happen at the initiative of individuals or the interest of local readers, but at the will of the government. But, like all that in Russia came out (and comes out!) From the hands of the government, and this “press” turned out to be some kind of obviously “unfinished to the mind”.


Same edition, but in Tambov, 1847 year. Bored, is not it?

Here is what the editor of the unofficial part of the Nizhny Novgorod provincial Gazette wrote, and also the official for special assignments under Governor A.A. Odintsov A.S. Gatsiysky: “Having begun to read the provincial bulletin, you see the poverty and the poverty of the content. In addition to lacking full interest in local statistics, in addition to information on the progress of the case on the introduction of statutory instruments in the province, some provincial resolutions on peasant affairs, and government orders on the peasant issue, there is almost nothing. The provincial statements are different from all the existing in the world statements, that they are not read by anyone of their own accord and of their own accord ... ”And such newspapers were published in Russia almost everywhere!

In the Penza province, the “Penza provincial news” were published in 1838 on January 7, and consisted of two parts, as everywhere else: official - they printed instructions from central and local authorities, and the unofficial one, which mostly included ads, there is an advertisement. And it's all! There was no journalism in it! The size of a sheet of small format, the font "blind" is small, so it was not even so much a newspaper as ... an information sheet, the use of which was the bare minimum. In 1845, a nationwide part appeared, the same for all provincial newspapers, as well as censorship "white spots". From January 1, the Penza diocesan lists began to appear in the provinces. "The Penza provincial Gazette" first went out only once a week, in the 1866 year already twice, and only from 1873-oh - daily. But we too ran ahead.

In the meantime, you need to tell you what Russia was like at that time, so that it is easier to imagine who in those years was a consumer of information from domestic newspapers.


What a miserable life, isn't it? But ... someone like this misery. “Russia was so strong that, having covered the face of the bradybug, like a dove in holy ignorance, she offered up prayers!” Who said that?

And to do this best of all based on the opinion of the “outsider”, for example, the French envoy Baron Prosper de Barant. He was in Russia just from 1835 to 1841 a year, that is, when we introduced this very “provincial press”, and left behind interesting notes that were called “Notes on Russia” and which his son-in-law published later in 1875.

It is interesting - and it is very important that Baron de Barant did not idealize Russia at all, but he managed to see the main thing in it: in his opinion, Russia at that time had already embarked on the path of modernization and was slowly (albeit steadily!) Moving in the same direction with Europe . He further wrote that Russia 1801 of the year (Russia of Paul I) and Russia 1837 of the year (Russia of Emperor Nicholas) are essentially two different countries, although the form of government is the same. Baron saw a difference in the strengthening of the power of public opinion, which was aroused by his acquaintance with Europe during the campaigns of the Russian army to the West during the Napoleonic wars. At the same time, Nicholas I’s Russia to a French diplomat was not at all represented by that police state as Herzen saw her, and where the free word was immediately stopped at the root.


"Tula provincial Gazette" 1914 year.

Barant wrote that in Russia, absolute power was no longer based on the "personal fantasies" of its overlord and was not a visible embodiment of "eastern barbarism and despotism." The monarchy was still absolute, but "feeling its duty towards the country."

But not only power has changed, people themselves have changed. The monarch was forced to take into account the factor of public opinion; public opinion has already appeared, although it did not have “tribunes and newspapers”; the working population, yes, still far from public life, but having all the potential for this — this was Barantu, a policy of the most liberal type, that Russia then saw. As for the need to abolish serfdom, in his opinion, only a madman could demand a sudden reform in this direction, which would be a real disaster for the country ... - the diplomat believed.


And this is a “special interest publication.” See how whimsical and diligently it is decorated. Well, why, and the year is already 1888!

The main drawback of the Russian education system, according to De Barant, was the narrow-profile training system created by Peter I. But Nicholas I was also a supporter of such a system. “It is necessary,” he said to the ambassador, “to teach everyone what he should be able to do in accordance with the place prepared by God for him,” which greatly saddened Barant. In his opinion, where there was no public education, there can be no public; there is no public opinion, science and literature do not develop, there is no that intelligent atmosphere that a desk scientist needs, and an erudite who is completely immersed in his scientific books. Most try to learn their craft, that's all. But at the same time he was amazed that many representatives of the lower strata of society in Moscow and St. Petersburg were able to read, and these were coachmen ... fiakres or even men dressed in rags, but with a book in their hands. But the book publishing business in Russia was one of the best signs. And if thirty years ago there were one or two bookstores in Moscow and St. Petersburg and that was all, then "today it has become a big business."

He further noted that there are two directions in the development of culture and spirituality in the country: education by the government as it understood it. And at the same time his own social movement, expressed in the desire to develop his mind and acquire new knowledge. However, both of these movements makes it difficult for the Russian character, which is apathetic and lacks the spirit of competition. That is, a Russian man understands that with his work he can improve his position, but very often he is just ... lazy!

The reason for this, in his opinion, was the fact that Russia chose an Eastern, that is, Byzantine type of Christianity, in which the idea of ​​progress was initially absent. Therefore, what is called free or liberal professions in Europe has never taken place in Russia. Since Peter I, as it has already paid attention, limited only to the education that allowed the country to receive only narrow specialists, and nothing more.


In Germany, interest in the Russian provincial pre-revolutionary press is so high that they publish such monographs there ...

Barant regretted that the Russian merchants, as the most active stratum of the Russian population, did not have those advantages and social rights in Russia as the nobility, and noticed that the problem that the Russian emperor is trying to solve is that he wants Russia and trade with industry developed, and the budget grew, and for Russia to be equal to Europe, but at the same time, so that merchants remain submissive and manageable - this is just the current situation in Russia, isn't it ?! That is, the Russian emperor dreamed of “reforms without reforms,” and following the European fashion, and even more so a way of life, they were considered to be perhaps the most important cause of all the misfortunes and troubles in Russia.

To be continued ...
Author:
73 comments
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  1. Cartalon
    Cartalon 2 February 2017 06: 20
    +3
    It is somehow strange to draw a conclusion about the wretchedness of life in a huge empire in one photo, and so the authors are pushing for something, which is not clear.
    1. kalibr
      2 February 2017 08: 06
      +2
      Do you think this is one such photo? There is a wonderful book by Mama-Sibiryak "Brokeback Bear." If you haven’t read it, be sure to read it ...
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon 2 February 2017 09: 30
        +2
        There are a lot of photos and they are different, I’m rather judging by Brockhaus and Efron there are a lot of statistics about the standard of living in Russia, but you just brought one photo with a comment.
        1. kalibr
          2 February 2017 09: 37
          +2
          This is an article, huh? And not Brockhaus ... And there is also the publication "Picturesque Russia" edited by Academician Semenov-Tyanshansky ... and there are statistics and photos, and engravings. You can also read this. There are 20 volumes if I am not mistaken. Three volumes of photographs of only one of my Penza ...
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 2 February 2017 09: 43
        +7
        Quote: kalibr
        Do you think this is one such photo? There is a wonderful book by Mama-Sibiryak "The Brokeback Bear


        There are wonderful collections colored photographs of Prokudin-Gorsky at the beginning of the 20th century with shots of cities, weights and people of Russia. And it should be noted that many cities at the beginning of this century looked better than they are today.
        1. V.ic
          V.ic 2 February 2017 10: 04
          +2
          Quote: Olgovich
          And it should be noted that many cities at the beginning of this century looked better than they are today.

          ... applaud! I suspect that the cesspool wagons in those days were fragrant with violets, not cesspools.
        2. kalibr
          2 February 2017 11: 20
          +1
          Well, my Penza looked just awful. There is a photo on the net!
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 2 February 2017 11: 50
            +3
            Quote: kalibr
            Well, my Penza looked just awful. There is a photo on the net!


            I recommend "Traveling along the Volga" Prokudin-Gorsky: Russia at the beginning of the last century in color in the photo is just a fairy tale, you will visit the time machine in the past.
          2. Oleg NSK
            Oleg NSK 3 February 2017 10: 38
            +1
            my Penza looked just awful. There is a photo on the net!

            ... everything is relative .... London is our time:
      3. baudolino
        baudolino 3 February 2017 08: 21
        +1
        If you remove the "architectural exoticism of our lands", then many types of Europe of the XIX century. comparable in mood with similar types of Russia. And Britain, Normandy, Scandinavia - sometimes just the height of gloom and hopelessness. And the press in Europe, if it wasn’t specially focused on the sensation and the struggle for the minds, with its local problems is not much more interesting for the modern reader than the Russian one.
  2. V.ic
    V.ic 2 February 2017 06: 32
    +4
    (C) “Russia was so strong that, covering her face with shame, like a dove in holy ignorance, offered prayers!” Who said that?

    A certain bearded character in the movie "Peter the Great" said, exhorting Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich ...
    (C) Russia chose the eastern, that is, the Byzantine type of Christianity, in which the idea of ​​progress was initially absent.

    ... well, stupid hryntsyuz! The type of Christianity indicated by him was not chosen by Russia, which did not exist in 988, but by the Kiev Kagan Vladimir Svyatoslavich ...
  3. samarin1969
    samarin1969 2 February 2017 07: 06
    +5
    Another article (as well as school books), convincing that all the problems of Russia from the fact that it is "not European enough."
    1. kalibr
      2 February 2017 08: 01
      +2
      Do you like serfdom so much?
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. brn521
        brn521 2 February 2017 10: 13
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        Do you like serfdom so much?

        In this matter, does Russia somehow stand out in a special way?
        1. kalibr
          2 February 2017 11: 15
          0
          Sure! When it was canceled in England, in France, in Germany ... and with us. And this is not only the economy. This is the generation of slave consciousness. Sociology says that to change consciousness, it takes 3 generations, that is, 100 years! Moreover, a stable life, ensure continuity. And then what ... the 17th revolution was made by the hands of yesterday’s serf children! Those born in 1861 were in the 17th 56 years. Not youth, but maturity. Even old age in those days. But who brought them up, formed a civic position and culture? Yesterday's serfs! And who did they bring up, living in a semi-feudal society? And from pedagogy it is known that a child under 5 years old learns about life more than for the rest of his life. So count. That is, the consciousness of Russians would change from slave to some other only ... by 1961 !!! And this is without shocks and wars!
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 2 February 2017 12: 56
            +3
            When it was canceled in England, in France, in Germany ... and with us.
            ..When it was canceled in France and Germany, in England .. It was already formed .. In Russia it was just forming .. It took shape in the middle of the 17th century .. In the middle of the 18th century the authorities understood the perniciousness of serfdom .. understood that the brake on the development of the country ... was canceled when the peasant revolution was already knocking on the door ...
            1. kalibr
              2 February 2017 19: 54
              +1
              Yeah. In 1378, an uprising of the Chompi pre-proletariat broke out in Italy under the slogan "All people are brothers." And in 1377 we had a battle on Drunk!
              1. parusnik
                parusnik 2 February 2017 20: 30
                +2
                It’s quite logical .. they already had a base in the form of the inheritance of the Roman Empire .. The Russians didn’t get such a legacy ... They all served as a shield for Europe ... and from Europe ..
            2. brn521
              brn521 3 February 2017 10: 02
              0
              Quote: parusnik
              When it was canceled in France and in Germany

              The "second edition of serfdom" has not gone away. And it covered a lot of German lands. Historically, this is almost on par with RI. And in general, this is the historical standard. As soon as it is planned to strain the food, enslave and rob the farmers.
          2. brn521
            brn521 2 February 2017 13: 42
            +2
            Quote: kalibr
            That is, the consciousness of Russians would change from slave to some other only ... by 1961 !!!

            In this situation, many others do not have much time for the deadline either. Germans of various kinds, Austrians, Hungarians, Bulgarians, Serbs with Croats. As a result, the same Schweik recall as a caricature of Austria-Hungary during the WWII. But to the stronghold of future equality and the inevitable progress on this basis will have to reckon the same Spaniards. How did they deal with progress in general and with newspapers in particular?
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 2 February 2017 13: 56
              +2
              How did they deal with progress in general and with newspapers in particular?

              they had progress with the Inquisition, but fellow Which once again emphasizes that extremes are harmful - any.
            2. kalibr
              2 February 2017 16: 35
              +1
              Quote: brn521
              In this situation, many others do not have much time for the deadline either.

              Yes of course! And who says that "we are the worst and most backward"? There are many countries and peoples that by some parameters overtook us, some overtook us. Where we are to be adopted, where we are to rejoice, appreciate and increase. Where and when did I write differently? And stupidity must be fought by all means. Only fools are everywhere everywhere, both here and in Spain!
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 2 February 2017 07: 28
    +2
    Hmm .. I look forward to continuing ... I won’t draw conclusions yet ...
  5. kalibr
    2 February 2017 08: 07
    +2
    Quote: V.ic
    Some bearded character said

    The rating is excellent! You are well done!
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 3 February 2017 07: 35
      0
      Quote: kalibr
      You are well done!

      ... well, what are you, what are you ... I can also "cross stitch" ...
  6. Mikado
    Mikado 2 February 2017 09: 26
    +2
    article makes you think. The newspaper information is wonderful. hi
    Let's wait for the continuation, today's article is just a preamble. It seems that with the advent of Alexander II, everything should change.
    1. kalibr
      2 February 2017 09: 34
      +3
      This is only the first chapter ... and thereafter the second and ... To rush to conclusions, it is like a blind man to evaluate an elephant, right?
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 2 February 2017 09: 36
        +1
        if only to the touch! laughing admit hastened hi
      2. ruskih
        ruskih 2 February 2017 11: 08
        +4
        You are right, you should not rush. Interesting. One thing I can say, I saw some important accents that had previously (as it seemed to me) been missed here. We look forward to continuing.
  7. novel66
    novel66 2 February 2017 09: 51
    +2
    straight about tsarism - "and get a pen for it"
  8. Vladislav 73
    Vladislav 73 2 February 2017 10: 08
    +3
    Mdaaa ... belay Instead of a stroller and a horse, insert some rusty shushlayka, and you're done - a photo of today's Russian hinterland! belay Nothing changes... request
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 2 February 2017 11: 03
      +1
      the streets didn’t. Now it’s clear why the Wehrmacht stalled in the fall. In rainy weather, with a large flow of cars, such a street quickly turned into a grave for vehicles. And taking into account the fact that the Germans until the end of the 41st "changed" our railway track to their own, they obviously had problems with supply.
      1. kalibr
        2 February 2017 11: 09
        +3
        From 1977 to 1980 he worked as a rural teacher in a modern Soviet village. It was a stone's throw from my house to school - 200 meters ... and to the kindergarten. But the daughter of 3,4,5 years went there only on my shoulders. She could not cross the road! Dirt and ruts were above her knees! I had boots above my knees and then ... barely crossed this road. And so every spring and autumn!
        1. Vladislav 73
          Vladislav 73 2 February 2017 11: 22
          +3
          Quote: kalibr
          She could not cross the road! Dirt and ruts were above her knees! I had boots above my knees and then ... barely crossed this road. And so every spring and autumn!

          Yes, it was once, but is it better now? I live in the suburbs of Chelyabinsk, but for the last couple of years something has changed, but before that the horror was happening! Yes, the most common shoes for fall-spring-rubber boots. everything, otherwise, no way. We once went to the homeland of my wife-Safakulevsky district, Chelyabinsk region. While you are going, the melancholy is green from half-empty villages, and everything is just like in this photo “St. Zima, Bazarnaya Street”, only dirt more yes houses abandoned a bunch! requestA visual aid, like "life has become better, life has become more fun," as we are told by the zombie man.
        2. ruskih
          ruskih 2 February 2017 11: 32
          +5
          I read comments about the road and can not resist, I'm sorry that off topic but smile.]
          1. kalibr
            2 February 2017 11: 53
            +2
            I always liked this song!
          2. Vladislav 73
            Vladislav 73 2 February 2017 11: 55
            +3
            laughing good For Russian destinations! drinks
            1. ruskih
              ruskih 2 February 2017 11: 57
              +2
              No objection, in the morning, so in the morning. drinks
              1. Vladislav 73
                Vladislav 73 2 February 2017 12: 05
                +2
                Quote: ruskih
                No objection, in the morning, so in the morning.

                And it’s not morning with us anymore, the Admiral’s Hour has long passed! wink yes
                1. ruskih
                  ruskih 2 February 2017 12: 10
                  +2
                  Sorry repeat not taken into account fellow ("Admiral's hour" from 11.00 to 12.00?)
                  1. Vladislav 73
                    Vladislav 73 2 February 2017 13: 18
                    +3
                    Quote: ruskih
                    ("Admiral's hour" from 11.00 to 12.00?)

                    Noon wink Like, the name came from Peter I (lunch break with libations), but when they started babbling from a cannon from Petropavlovka, then it became an official synonym for half a day. hi
                    1. ruskih
                      ruskih 2 February 2017 21: 01
                      +1
                      And I had this information: wink "The pre-dinner break at 11 o'clock, which was announced daily in the Navy and at the Admiralty College so that sailors and officers could have a drink and a bite before lunch. Introduced by order of Peter I." link: http: //www.korabel.ru/dictionary/detail/25
                      .html Whatever we are for love drinks
                      1. Vladislav 73
                        Vladislav 73 3 February 2017 09: 58
                        +1
                        Quote: ruskih
                        Whatever we are for

                        Indeed, however winked we as pioneers are always ready! wink drinks
      2. Vladislav 73
        Vladislav 73 2 February 2017 11: 15
        +1
        Quote: Mikado
        the streets didn’t. Now it’s clear why the Wehrmacht stalled in the fall. In rainy weather, with a large flow of cars, such a street quickly turned into a grave for vehicles

        So then it is request In Russia, it’s not the road, but the direction ... and “conquer it!” Only this is a two-edged sword, one on the enemy and the other on its head! And then, it’s not war. And how to listen to the communication of the GDP with the people, most of all complaints are caused by the condition of (roads) directions! belay Already on central news, then they talked: "the authorities, after the residents of such and such a village / town appealed .... finally began to repair the road ...." belay So I say nothing changes .... request
        1. kalibr
          2 February 2017 11: 32
          +3
          Well, now we are going through Penza finishing the federal highway, so it’s just a shine! Lights with solar panels at the bridges! Smooth ... like in the USA! But here on the country road as you turn off ... and begins ... "battle on the way."
          1. Vladislav 73
            Vladislav 73 2 February 2017 11: 50
            +3
            Quote: kalibr
            Well, now we are going through Penza finishing the federal highway, so it’s just a shine! Lights with solar panels at the bridges! Smooth ... like in the USA! But here on the country road as you turn off ... and begins ... "battle on the way."

            We have a federal highway within the city, of course, it’s shamanized, and the interchanges and all the bells and whistles. And in the city center there are normal sections, but closer to the "working outskirts" ... By Putin's arrival 8 years ago, the highway was laid with a sparkle "as you put it, and built a bridge ... Well, like 3 years this highway lasted (to the delight of bikers and night racers, how many of them beat there belay ), and then ... the patch is on the patch, it bulges in the middle in some places, so that in the rain everything flows to the edges, the oceans (they forgot to lay a shower! request ) .Bridge, well, on occasion, the suspension can be gouged, everything flies off in pieces, they put patches before, and then they just waved a hand! And about the country road ... here you will turn off the main courtyards, and you can not get there at all! belay Last year, I wrote off a Ryazan trucker, so he bluntly said that Chelyabinsk was going round by the side, or you could get stuck in some places!
        2. Mikado
          Mikado 2 February 2017 12: 07
          +3
          ah, we have the same thing in the Leningrad region. Federal still nothing, but regional .. Shaman every year, a year will pass - again rut. The biggest entertainment is to shift the roundabout.
          In 2012, he was driving from Pskov to Novgorod, turned off the Pskov highway to Novgorod in a place called Feofilova Pustyn. Next - the so-called highway of regional importance. After the first couple of kilometers, my mood vanished. Expensively widespread, but ... as if it was paved before the war, during the war the Germans bombed it, and then it was not restored. 60 kilometers on the sidelines in 1-2 gears (the sidelines are also the same). The places are sparsely populated, the first three villages go at intervals of 8-10 kilometers each, it seems that one and a half pensioners live in each village. Around the road there is a dense forest, the mobile phone does not catch. It was a fabulous, still vivid memory. wassat In general, a standard set for starting an American horror movie.
          1. Vladislav 73
            Vladislav 73 2 February 2017 12: 15
            +2
            Quote: Mikado
            It was a fabulous, still vivid memory. In general, a standard set for starting an American horror movie.

            laughing good Yes, how much props disappear! We have around Chelyabinsk full of all sorts of quarries, opencasts, dumps, somewhere else they mined, somewhere abandoned! Around the city plants, pipes, smoke generator! From a distance you look, as if somewhere then they bombed it! No, I’m lying nearby, sometimes you can’t even make out from afar! belay
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 2 February 2017 12: 40
              +2
              I saw a similar thing in Cherepovets. There are also a lot of enterprises. There is no smoke, but there are more than enough emissions. They say there is still the city of Dzerzhinsk - there is generally darkness.
              1. ruskih
                ruskih 2 February 2017 12: 56
                +3
                In, about Cherepovets I like, especially the proximity of residential buildings to the fence of the plant. Out of ignorance, the clothes were hung out on the balcony in the evening, it was dirty pink in the morning. (probably the 81st year). How people live there was surprising.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 2 February 2017 13: 15
                  +2
                  and live like that. True, in China, India and South Africa, poor neighborhoods are even worse.
                2. Vladislav 73
                  Vladislav 73 2 February 2017 13: 29
                  +2
                  Quote: ruskih
                  In, about Cherepovets I like, especially the proximity of residential buildings to the fence of the plant. Out of ignorance, the clothes were hung out on the balcony in the evening, it was dirty pink in the morning. (probably the 81st year). How people live there was surprising.

                  In Chelyabinsk, this is very close. Most of the enterprises are evacuated. Well, housing was built almost adjacent to the factory, and it just happened. Even now, how many years later, there were only villages around, at least in conversation. then not everyone will answer, but ask the village of Selmash, the village of KPZiS, the village of the Meat Processing Plant — anyone will immediately understand! We even have our own village Shanghai! laughing (unofficially of course). What can I say! Give the number of the clinic, they don’t understand! And tell me, the KPZiSovskaya polyclinic, or ZEMovskaya, everything is clear to everyone! Chelyabinsk is a clean center, one sleeping area, and the rest is “working outskirts”, smoke exhaust, and endless dirt and dullness! request
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 2 February 2017 13: 46
                    0
                    Now all new enterprises are moving outside the city. At least with us. Already good. Of the old ones, half were rented out for rent - yes, damn it, I'm sitting in the former design bureau. They used to work for the defense industry, now they are trying to survive on a lease - they have profiled everything during the period of "democracy", including two buildings .. No. Shipbuilders - here they are building, that’s clear. soldier
                    1. Vladislav 73
                      Vladislav 73 2 February 2017 14: 35
                      +2
                      Quote: Mikado
                      Of the old ones, half were rented out for rent - yes, damn it, I'm sitting in the former design bureau. They used to work for the defense industry, now they are trying to survive on a lease - they have profiled everything during the period of "democracy", including two buildings ..

                      Yes, probably everywhere like that ... request We also have factories where everything is rented out, the production itself or not at all, or it is minimized. We have one place here, that's where you shoot films about the apocalypse, you don’t need to build anything! There was such a plant .Sergo Ordzhonikidze), defensive. You can’t walk in half a day just like a good area in the city, old-timers said when workers transported official vehicles to remote workshops for 40 minutes or more what Well, in short. The devil somehow brought me to this territory — not a soul, empty boxes of workshops without windows, without equipment .... in the afternoon it was a matter of 20 minutes, and "walked" there, somehow it somehow became uncomfortable ... sad Private shops rent some shops right now, but in general ... request
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado 2 February 2017 15: 07
                        +3
                        Not far from me there is the Red Triangle factory. A huge territory still of royal construction, under the USSR they produced galoshes and other rubber products, now everything is leased, old brick buildings, half of the buildings are boarded up. So: there in the 2000s they shot the film "Bunker" (the famous "Hitler's Opinion" from there, on YouTube you can watch). Old-timers say - during the filming of the street cordoned off, almost the Germans drove motorcycles. The joke itself: in the 15th year it was necessary to buy one piece. It’s Saturday, we’re at work with a friend, we are searching the Internet, we’ve found an office on the Red Triangle, they’re working today, come and take it. Arrived, we go through the plant to the desired building, I look - there is a black "Emka" in good condition. I think for miracles. Then I look again - a trolley with the inscription "ice cream", but now they are not released. He raised his head - the people of about 50 in clothes of the 30-40s, but without jackets and other outerwear (and the weather - April), shrink, freeze laughing . The film is shot, a break! This factory is our first facility in the city for filming films about the war. Somehow they even drove the engine. good
        3. Bastinda
          Bastinda 2 February 2017 22: 02
          +2
          Called - crisis management. When there is no normal governance, people are dissatisfied, they write to the president ... and then OH comes out! All in white GDP! And by his own will mends the road ... Sad.
    2. Bastinda
      Bastinda 2 February 2017 17: 51
      +3
      Slander! Above the brick building, there will be the flag of Russia (City Hall), the boards will be stolen. Well, the road will remain so. In the shed on the left, there will be a sign “Hypermarket” on the fence of the “target” of United Russia candidates.
  9. brn521
    brn521 2 February 2017 11: 53
    +3
    The start is clearly unsuccessful. In the first part, it was necessary to outline the main points and how their evidence and illustrative part will be decomposed into articles. The first paragraph assumes that the author is going to refer to some scientific works. Because of what, some incomprehensible fuss of the author was puzzled around the photograph of a typical village of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. And a link to Barant, too. If the thought spreads along the tree, then the matter will never reach scientific work. Or does the author intend to convey to us his private impressions based on archival materials? Then again he started from the wrong end. Or the text was divided into parts somehow completely unsuccessfully.
  10. kalibr
    2 February 2017 11: 59
    +1
    Quote: brn521
    Because of what, some incomprehensible fuss of the author was puzzled around the photograph of a typical village of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

    Is there fussing in the text around the photo? Further ... about any scholarly works to which references are planned at the beginning of the text there is NOT ONE WORD, where did you read this? Let's wait, how will the "events" develop further ...
  11. Vitalson
    Vitalson 2 February 2017 14: 13
    +1
    Quote: V.ic
    ... applaud! I suspect that the cesspool wagons in those days were fragrant with violets, not cesspools.

    sewage carts in France at the beginning of the 20th century did not blow violets, and the contents of night peas in the "enlightened" geyrope only recently unlearned onto the heads of passers-by from windows. So when you do not zealously applaud, you’ll bend off your tender palms, and then you’ll choke on the keyboard ....
  12. Dekabrist
    Dekabrist 2 February 2017 14: 40
    +3
    To get started on Wikipedia. So.
    1. "In 1838, 38 of the weekly Provincial Gazette and 2 [b] [/ b] daily (Penza and Kharkov) were released."
    2. The Kharkiv Provincial News is the official newspaper that has been published in Kharkov (Russian Empire) since the 1838 of the year. The newspaper was published in Russian first weekly, from 1866 of the year twice a week, from 1868 of the year three times, from 1870 of the year four times, from 1874 of the year came out daily.
  13. Dekabrist
    Dekabrist 2 February 2017 15: 24
    +3
    Honestly, you, Vyacheslav Olegovich, have puzzled me. What awaits us? According to the content of the first part, you can expect anything further - from "The History of Official Periodicals of the Russian Empire" to "The History of the Development of Capitalism in Russia by the Example of the Development of Journalism". And what? Journalism as a special area of ​​social activity arose in every nation at a fairly high level of social development. Feudal society with its disunity and subsistence farming practically did not need a wide exchange of information. Only with the growth of capitalist relations - commodity exchange or, at least, the development of elements of the capitalist structure within the framework of feudalism - did modern methods of disseminating information through the circulation of news on a machine basis appear, journalism is emerging. The aging of these conditions falls in different countries at different times - the end of the XVI, XVII, XVIII centuries. In Russia, journalism as an information industry appeared at the beginning of the 18th century. From this angle, the theme can be developed. In a word, the viewer is guessing.
    1. kalibr
      2 February 2017 16: 26
      +2
      This is what awaits you: when, day after day, THREE DIFFERENT PERSONS READ APPROXIMATELY (APPROXIMATELY!) The same newspapers, they have a certain general vision of their content. Do you agree? Further ... From this general vision, a certain view of the object is born, which is confirmed by these newspapers. Do you agree? Next is the accumulation of statistics. Statistics corroborate the hypotheses born of this shared vision. That's all! This is what awaits everyone in the future. It is important how it will be served.
      1. Bastinda
        Bastinda 2 February 2017 17: 58
        +3
        Totally agree with you! If the sheep explain where we are going, then they themselves will go! It is a pity that the article will not affect television. Who owns the information - owns the world!
        1. kalibr
          2 February 2017 19: 46
          0
          I have about television in one of the books on PR. There is a very interesting article about people meters. You need to find and publish it here.
    2. kalibr
      2 February 2017 19: 48
      +2
      Oh, and what smart newspapers were in ancient Rome ?! On gypsum boards, and then on parchment sheets, the emperors themselves edited them. One even wrote that a siren had flown to him and had a conversation, but the Romans did not really believe. Now I don’t remember who it is, but it was!
      1. ruskih
        ruskih 2 February 2017 21: 09
        +1
        Ah yes the emperor! That's about the siren it is strong, well written! laughing Look at those who could object to him, looking in the eyes. wink
        1. Bastinda
          Bastinda 2 February 2017 21: 52
          +2
          I don’t remember exactly what his name was, the name is very long, but among the people he remained, like, GDP.
        2. kalibr
          3 February 2017 07: 43
          +1
          Somewhere I had a lecture on the history of newspapers. There it was. But now I do not read this course. You need to find and write, if interested.
          1. ruskih
            ruskih 3 February 2017 09: 59
            +1
            I think it will be interesting. Be sure to write.
  14. Vladislav 73
    Vladislav 73 2 February 2017 18: 23
    +1
    Mikado,
    Quote: Mikado
    Somehow they even drove the engine.
    Yes, yes! The locomotives are all those who are more or less on the go, everyone is on conservation, "suddenly if that." He didn’t attach any importance to this ... We have a railway station in the city center, a lot of transport around. Well, I'm going on some new route, past some kind of dead end, I look, a lot of steam locomotives are standing, like in a movie - black with red stars, I immediately remembered the story of the road builder. And it would be fun to see the engine "on the go"! laughing
    1. ruskih
      ruskih 2 February 2017 21: 17
      +1
      We also have a museum of steam locomotives in our city, on the site in the spring there was a good article by Roman with photographs, most of which are also valid.
    2. Dekabrist
      Dekabrist 2 February 2017 21: 19
      +2
      Unlike England and Europe, there are practically no historical railways in the territory of the former USSR.
      There is little in Moscow.
      Locomotive weekend walk from the Moscow-Riga station to the Podmoskovnaya station (Krasny Baltiets stopping point). Next to the open-air train station building, there is the Museum of Railway Engineering, where a group guided tour is free at noon, and then a steam train leaves. Upon arrival, sightseers lead to a turntable where the steam locomotive is deployed. Then it is allowed to climb a steam locomotive. Also, before the tour, you can visit the exhibition center in the building of the Riga Station, where there are real models of railway equipment and their reduced prototypes.
      Tourist route Kievsky railway station - MKMZHD (with a stop at Belokamennaya station) - Riga railway station.
      Moscow (Kazan station) - Ryazan I, with a sightseeing tour of the following cities.
      On Railway Day on the Experimental Ring of VNIIZhT in the city of Shcherbinka, a “retro walk” is often arranged. In some years, “racing” with a steam locomotive, the CP3-1668 electric train traveled around the ring.
      On Victory Day, a festive retro train leaves from the Kiev station to Poklonnaya Gora (Moscow-Sortirovochnaya-Kievskaya station).