“... and worshiped the beast, saying, Who is like the beast, and who can fight with them? And lips were given to him, speaking proudly and blasphemous ... And it was given to him to make war with the saints and to conquer them; And power was given him over every tribe, and people, and language, and nation. ”
(Revelations of St. John the Divine 4: 7)
(Revelations of St. John the Divine 4: 7)
We often argue about the role and place of information in stories of our society. But how do we argue? “You are a dreamer! This simply cannot be! ”- an allegation is made in response to the thesis, confirmed (!) By reference to the source of information. Moreover, the data archive or a solid monograph. Of course, a person has the right to doubt. But you need to oppose not a statement, but at least something similar. But where is the counter argument with the same reference to the source? Unfortunately, the fact that the pen is the same bayonet, and to them as weapons need to be able to use and learn this, still not everyone understands.
Meanwhile, it turned out that for many years my colleagues and I had to work with Soviet (and Russian, including pre-revolutionary) newspapers, that is, an important source of information about the past. For example, I personally had to read all the local newspapers Gubernskiye Vedomosti from 1861 to 1917 a year, then my graduate student studied all the local newspapers, including the Diocesan Gazette from 1884 to 1917 a year, and graduate student S. Timoshina did the same with print media Penza and the USSR from 1921 to 1953 year. During the years of the Great Patriotic War, the newspaper Pravda has undergone the most careful study, and this work continues now, then all local newspapers of the era of perestroika were studied and up to the year 2005. All this made it possible to accumulate a considerable amount of information, and most importantly, to draw interesting conclusions and write a monograph “The Poisoned Pen or journalists of the Russian empire against Russia, journalists of the USSR - against the USSR”. However, the publication of such a monograph is a difficult and lengthy business, so an idea appeared to introduce TOPWAR readers to it in the form of individual articles, which nevertheless completely convey its content.
"Irkutsk provincial news" 1904 of the year (48-th year of publication!) - it looks already quite modern edition. The announcement of theatrical performances is in the most visible place, because there were no television sets at that time, and people regularly went to the theater!
It hardly makes sense to convince anyone that the whole reality surrounding us, although it exists, in general, independently of us (in any case, it is explained to us by scholarly philosophers), is really only that each of sees and understands us. That is, any person is the Universe and when he dies, then ... together with him she dies. There was no Ice Slaughter with us, but someone wrote about him, that's why we know about him! We were also not at the foot of Angel Falls, but we know about it, firstly, because information about it is available in various magazines, encyclopedias and also on Wikipedia, and secondly - “it was shown on TV”.
Well, in the past, people had to get information much more difficult. She was brought with them “pedestrians”, transported messengers and yanked out on the squares, and then it was time for the first printed newspapers and magazines. Everything published in them was extremely subjective, and it became even more subjective when reflected in the minds of their readers, who were not very literate either. But the authorities quickly realized the power of the printed word, and realized that the printed form of information dissemination allows it to easily change the picture of the world according to its own arbitrariness and thus change public opinion, because, without having a support on it, it would not have lasted a day . In this way, the authorities acted both in the West and in the East, and it was exactly the same here in Russia. That is, it was realized that delicate tyranny is not always effective. And so it was a step towards the management of public opinion with the help of information. Moreover, this happened exactly when mass circulation newspapers appeared in Russia, although the then Russian authorities were not able to use it effectively.
Why do we write about all this? Yes, because nothing is so simple and does not appear from scratch. And the journalists, who with their articles also had a hand in the collapse of the USSR, also got completely “not from damp” in our country, but were brought up in families, received a certain education, read books, in a word, absorbed the mentality of the people to whom same and belong. Modern sociologists have proven that in order to radically change the views of a large group of people, we need a life of at least three generations, and the life of three generations is a century. That is, some events that took place, well, for example, in 1917, their roots go to 1817, and if in 1937, then they should be searched for in 1837. And, by the way, it was just the year when the authorities in Russia finally realized the meaning of the printed word, having established the “Highest Commandment” from 3 June, the newspaper “Gubernskiye vedomosti”. Already in January, 1838, Vedomosti went out in the 42 provinces of Russia, i.e. The coverage area of this edition of the state was very high. Thus, this did not happen at the initiative of individuals or the interest of local readers, but at the will of the government. But, like all that in Russia came out (and comes out!) From the hands of the government, and this “press” turned out to be some kind of obviously “unfinished to the mind”.
Same edition, but in Tambov, 1847 year. Bored, is not it?
Here is what the editor of the unofficial part of the Nizhny Novgorod provincial Gazette wrote, and also the official for special assignments under Governor A.A. Odintsov A.S. Gatsiysky: “Having begun to read the provincial bulletin, you see the poverty and the poverty of the content. In addition to lacking full interest in local statistics, in addition to information on the progress of the case on the introduction of statutory instruments in the province, some provincial resolutions on peasant affairs, and government orders on the peasant issue, there is almost nothing. The provincial statements are different from all the existing in the world statements, that they are not read by anyone of their own accord and of their own accord ... ”And such newspapers were published in Russia almost everywhere!
In the Penza province, the “Penza provincial news” were published in 1838 on January 7, and consisted of two parts, as everywhere else: official - they printed instructions from central and local authorities, and the unofficial one, which mostly included ads, there is an advertisement. And it's all! There was no journalism in it! The size of a sheet of small format, the font "blind" is small, so it was not even so much a newspaper as ... an information sheet, the use of which was the bare minimum. In 1845, a nationwide part appeared, the same for all provincial newspapers, as well as censorship "white spots". From January 1, the Penza diocesan lists began to appear in the provinces. "The Penza provincial Gazette" first went out only once a week, in the 1866 year already twice, and only from 1873-oh - daily. But we too ran ahead.
In the meantime, you need to tell you what Russia was like at that time, so that it is easier to imagine who in those years was a consumer of information from domestic newspapers.
What a miserable life, isn't it? But ... someone like this misery. “Russia was so strong that, having covered the face of the bradybug, like a dove in holy ignorance, she offered up prayers!” Who said that?
And to do this best of all based on the opinion of the “outsider”, for example, the French envoy Baron Prosper de Barant. He was in Russia just from 1835 to 1841 a year, that is, when we introduced this very “provincial press”, and left behind interesting notes that were called “Notes on Russia” and which his son-in-law published later in 1875.
It is interesting - and it is very important that Baron de Barant did not idealize Russia at all, but he managed to see the main thing in it: in his opinion, Russia at that time had already embarked on the path of modernization and was slowly (albeit steadily!) Moving in the same direction with Europe . He further wrote that Russia 1801 of the year (Russia of Paul I) and Russia 1837 of the year (Russia of Emperor Nicholas) are essentially two different countries, although the form of government is the same. Baron saw a difference in the strengthening of the power of public opinion, which was aroused by his acquaintance with Europe during the campaigns of the Russian army to the West during the Napoleonic wars. At the same time, Nicholas I’s Russia to a French diplomat was not at all represented by that police state as Herzen saw her, and where the free word was immediately stopped at the root.
"Tula provincial Gazette" 1914 year.
Barant wrote that in Russia, absolute power was no longer based on the "personal fantasies" of its overlord and was not a visible embodiment of "eastern barbarism and despotism." The monarchy was still absolute, but "feeling its duty towards the country."
But not only power has changed, people themselves have changed. The monarch was forced to take into account the factor of public opinion; public opinion has already appeared, although it did not have “tribunes and newspapers”; the working population, yes, still far from public life, but having all the potential for this — this was Barantu, a policy of the most liberal type, that Russia then saw. As for the need to abolish serfdom, in his opinion, only a madman could demand a sudden reform in this direction, which would be a real disaster for the country ... - the diplomat believed.
And this is a “special interest publication.” See how whimsical and diligently it is decorated. Well, why, and the year is already 1888!
The main drawback of the Russian education system, according to De Barant, was the narrow-profile training system created by Peter I. But Nicholas I was also a supporter of such a system. “It is necessary,” he said to the ambassador, “to teach everyone what he should be able to do in accordance with the place prepared by God for him,” which greatly saddened Barant. In his opinion, where there was no public education, there can be no public; there is no public opinion, science and literature do not develop, there is no that intelligent atmosphere that a desk scientist needs, and an erudite who is completely immersed in his scientific books. Most try to learn their craft, that's all. But at the same time he was amazed that many representatives of the lower strata of society in Moscow and St. Petersburg were able to read, and these were coachmen ... fiakres or even men dressed in rags, but with a book in their hands. But the book publishing business in Russia was one of the best signs. And if thirty years ago there were one or two bookstores in Moscow and St. Petersburg and that was all, then "today it has become a big business."
He further noted that there are two directions in the development of culture and spirituality in the country: education by the government as it understood it. And at the same time his own social movement, expressed in the desire to develop his mind and acquire new knowledge. However, both of these movements makes it difficult for the Russian character, which is apathetic and lacks the spirit of competition. That is, a Russian man understands that with his work he can improve his position, but very often he is just ... lazy!
The reason for this, in his opinion, was the fact that Russia chose an Eastern, that is, Byzantine type of Christianity, in which the idea of progress was initially absent. Therefore, what is called free or liberal professions in Europe has never taken place in Russia. Since Peter I, as it has already paid attention, limited only to the education that allowed the country to receive only narrow specialists, and nothing more.
In Germany, interest in the Russian provincial pre-revolutionary press is so high that they publish such monographs there ...
Barant regretted that the Russian merchants, as the most active stratum of the Russian population, did not have those advantages and social rights in Russia as the nobility, and noticed that the problem that the Russian emperor is trying to solve is that he wants Russia and trade with industry developed, and the budget grew, and for Russia to be equal to Europe, but at the same time, so that merchants remain submissive and manageable - this is just the current situation in Russia, isn't it ?! That is, the Russian emperor dreamed of “reforms without reforms,” and following the European fashion, and even more so a way of life, they were considered to be perhaps the most important cause of all the misfortunes and troubles in Russia.
To be continued ...