- The key role of the Strategic Missile Forces in ensuring the security of the country will continue until, as a result of scientific and technological progress or the changing nature of international relations, nuclear weapon will not lose its power. I believe that in the near future, reliance on nuclear deterrence should provide the necessary time margin and balance of power to create new systems and tools, give them qualitative characteristics that ensure a reliable reflection of aggression.
In this sense, both at the present stage and in the future, the strategic nuclear forces of Russia will most closely correspond to the geo-strategic and economic position of our country. With global reach and destructive power, without requiring huge maintenance costs, they significantly complement the capabilities of general-purpose forces.
In the current geopolitical situation, the SNF is the guarantor of the security of the Russian Federation and its allies, as well as the conduct of an independent foreign and domestic policy. Given these circumstances, their maintenance and development, including the grouping of the Strategic Missile Forces as a ground component, are a priority for the state. All necessary decisions have been taken to ensure the flexibility and multivariate development of a group of missile systems to adequately respond to existing and re-emerging threats.
The funds allocated and planned to be allocated under the State Armaments Program up to 2020 of the year make it possible to maintain the pace of troop rearmament and to ensure the preparation of the corresponding infrastructure of positional areas.
The emphasis in building a promising strike force of the Strategic Missile Forces will be made on its qualitative transformation and a significant increase in the share of modern missile systems. In the same period, along with the development of new RoK, there will be a qualitative improvement in the systems of combat command and control of troops and weapons.
As a result, the Strategic Missile Forces will have a balanced structure, and the armament will be the optimal number of missiles designed to solve the diverse tasks of nuclear deterrence.
- Sergey Viktorovich, to what extent the capabilities of the Strategic Missile Forces allow the ground grouping of SNF to solve nuclear deterrence tasks?
- The special role of the Strategic Missile Forces in the structure of the SNF is due to a number of objective factors. In many ways, it is determined by the largest quantitative composition of the carriers, the number, power of warheads and the capabilities of warheads.
The Strategic Missile Forces are capable of accomplishing the tasks largely due to the maximum dispersal of rocket weapons in Russia, the shortest possible time to destroy strategic facilities in remote theaters, and the high variability of the use of the involved launchers (missiles, warheads, warheads). In addition, a high degree of operational and technical readiness of the missile systems for combat use, their survivability under the conditions of the enemy's impact, the reliability of the combat control system of strategic weapons allow the Strategic Missile Forces to solve most of the tasks of the SNF.
- How many intercontinental ballistic missiles are there today in the Strategic Missile Forces?
- Order 400 MBR with nuclear warheads of various power classes. To perform combat missions, the Strategic Missile Forces concentrate more than 60 percent of carriers of strategic weapons and warheads of the Russian strategic nuclear forces. 99 percent of PU is maintained in combat state.
- If I understand correctly, when re-equipping the Strategic Missile Forces the main focus is on the mobile grouping or is it not?
- This impression could have been due to the fact that the Strategic Missile Forces began rearmament at Yarsy from divisions equipped with mobile ground-based missile systems of previous generations. This is largely due to economic factors. When rearming, the existing infrastructure of positional areas and military camps is largely used. The high degree of its use and compatibility with the existing combat control and communications system made it possible to halve the cost of putting the mobile RV Yars into the Strategic Missile Forces grouping approximately twice.
Of course, the high mobility of such complexes provides them with a significantly greater survivability compared to stationary ones, the coordinates of which are well known. But this does not mean at all that we prefer the mobile component. Today, the ratio of deployed launchers of stationary and mobile types of basing in the grouping is approximately equal, which allows the Strategic Missile Forces to perform the entire spectrum of nuclear deterrence tasks.
The structure of the promising missile grouping at the turn of 2020 – 2030 will be, as it is now, a two-component one, preserving stationary missile systems that have the power and high combat readiness for immediate use. Such an approach will allow, with minimal costs and risks, to provide an adequate response to emerging and foreseeable threats.
- How many Yars launchers have entered the Strategic Missile Forces? Can this missile system be called invulnerable to the existing and developed global missile defense systems?
- In accordance with the state defense order on the 2016 year, the VVST was purchased to equip and launch 23 launchers of the Yars RK in fixed and mobile versions. This made it possible to rearm five missile regiments with mobile launchers in Yoshkar-Ola, Irkutsk, Novosibirsk and Tagil rocket divisions. The Yarsy of the stationary base entered the Kozelsk missile division.
Estimations of specialists show that the existing missile defense systems abroad are not able to level the capabilities of domestic strategic nuclear forces. In "Yars" laid the options for anti-missile maneuver to evade interceptors of space-based missile defense.
Of course, the adoption of this complex and, in view of the development of the missile defense system of its upgraded versions, will in the future strengthen the combat capabilities of the strike force of the Strategic Missile Forces to overcome missile defense systems and strengthen the nuclear deterrence potential of the Russian strategic nuclear forces.
- In what year “Yars” will be the basis of the grouping of the Strategic Missile Forces?
- He has already greatly strengthened the mobile grouping of the Strategic Missile Forces and in the future, undoubtedly, he will have one of the key roles in solving the tasks of strategic deterrence assigned to him. Already in 2017, it is planned to transfer four missile regiments to the Yars RK, retrofitting will continue in the already mentioned Kozelsky, Yoshkar-Ola, Novosibirsk and Irkutsk Strategic Missile Forces.
- What is the difference between “Yars” and its predecessor “Topol”?
- With their external similarity, this is a fundamentally new RK. The possibilities for using the position area have significantly increased (it has increased both geographically and qualitatively). The design features of Yars allow launching from the sites where Topol could be on duty only after special engineering equipment. The characteristics of communications equipment and the base chassis have improved, and the rocket itself has become more powerful and, I repeat, practically invulnerable to the existing missile defense system of the enemy. The combat equipment of the RV Yars has changed in quality.
- Is it possible to develop a conversion space launch vehicle based on Topol, and have such options been worked out?
- Space rockets were originally designed on the basis of the ICBM. Suffice it to say that the prototype of the legendary RV "Vostok", which paved the way to space for humanity, was the first in the world ICBM P-7.
Russia has a wealth of experience in the use of intercontinental ballistic missiles for space purposes. Let us recall, at least, the “Rokot”, “Dnepr” and “Strela” carriers converted from military carriers.
Of course, all the missiles that are in service with the Strategic Missile Forces, both liquid and solid propellant, have conversion potential, and Topol is no exception. Moreover, from 1993 to 2006, the year of the program, called Start and Start-1, has already been implemented. They were intended to launch small-sized spacecraft into low near-Earth orbits. A total of seven such launches were completed.
It is noteworthy that история of the Russian cosmodrome Svobodny (now Vostochny) began with the launch of the Start-1 launch vehicle with the Zeya spacecraft onboard 4 March 1997 of the year from a Topol mobile launcher.
Now these programs are curtailed, but if the country's leadership makes the appropriate decision, the Topol space odyssey can be continued. It is no secret that the rocket was developed as a ballistic missile for combat mobile missile systems, and therefore the increase in the volume and mass of the payload is very limited, which reduces the range of its application.
- Mobile RK "Topol" has long been in service with the Strategic Missile Forces. What is the secret of their reliability and how long can they serve?
“Considering the ongoing research into the possibilities of extending the life of the Topol missile system, it is planned that it will serve until 2021 – 2022. There is no special secret in its reliability - RK was thoroughly worked out at the stages of design and creation, there were strict control over the manufacture of each element in mass production and daily systematic work on the operation in the troops.
In most cases, it is not fundamentally accurate for the carrier to test combat equipment, the main thing is that the test object is brought to the calculated point of the trajectory, and Topol successfully copes with this. Since the missiles used for this purpose were removed from combat duty, it is clear that such a launch is much cheaper. Reasonable savings of public funds are necessary even in such advanced activities as the testing of new combat equipment.
- What are the prospects for a conversion program for heavy intercontinental ballistic missiles?
- In April 2015, the President of the Russian Federation decided to complete the joint program for the elimination of the RS-20B (“Voevod”) ICBM by the launch method with launching spacecraft into space.
- When will the Sarmat missile system replace the Voivod?
- The reliability indicators of the Voyevoda complex after 28 operating years remain stable. The decisions will allow keeping it in the Strategic Missile Forces up to and including 2022. At the same time, it is planned to put into service with stationary mine-based missile complex “Sarmat” of a stationary mine base with a heavy-class liquid-propellant on combat duty. The approximate adoption date is 2019 – 2020 years.
- How many launches are done in 2016 year? What are their features in 2017?
- In the 2016 year, the Strategic Missile Forces conducted six rocket launches, four of which were experimental: the flight performance of new strategic missile systems was worked out, one to extend the service life of existing RKs, and another one to train combat.
This year, more than 10 launches are planned. They are aimed at testing promising missile systems, extending the life of existing ones. There will be combat training launches.
The Russian Federation, through the National Center for the Reduction of Nuclear Danger, informs the American side of any planned launch of an ICBM or SLBM. This is done no less than 24 hours before any launch of an ICBM or SLBM in accordance with the Agreement between the USSR and the USA on notifications of launches of intercontinental ballistic missiles and ballistic missiles of submarines 1988 of the year and the START Treaty. Such notification shall indicate the planned launch date, launch site and area of the fall of the warheads.
- Are there any restrictions stipulated by the treaties on the peculiarities of combat patrol routes of PGRK units? Can rocket complexes master new routes?
- There are no restrictions. Missile compound routes equipped with mobile Topols or Yarsami can run in several regions of the country. That is why during the exercises of the Strategic Missile Forces, which took place in 2016, mobile ground rocket complexes made maneuvers immediately in the 20 regions of the Russian Federation. I note that in 2017, new combat patrol areas will be mastered in the exercises.
- Are new approaches planned in the Strategic Missile Forces in the organization of combat training of troops?
- Radical changes in the organization of training of troops is not planned. Speech - only about the intensity of field outputs and other significant activities. They are primarily aimed at maintaining the basic principles of combat training of the Strategic Missile Forces. And new approaches will be introduced in the process of training when re-equipping with new HSCs with wide involvement of promising models in the exercises.
That is why in 2017, under my leadership, exercises will be held with Teikovsky and Novosibirsk connections, equipped with the latest PGRK "Yars". The practice of sudden inspections will continue.
- What tasks does Kapustin Yar perform today? What is the reason for the increased intensity of testing in recent years?
- The landfill is unique in its geographical location, which allows for the conduct of tests of the ATT at any time of the year, under various weather conditions. Geographically, the facilities of the experimental test base and combat fields are located in the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan.
The uniqueness of 4-GCMP is also in the fact that it is a research center with specialists who are able to provide comprehensive tests of weapons samples in the interests of different types and types of troops.
In 2016, about 160 weapons models passed through the test site. This is two times more than in 2015. In 2017, the modernization of the experimental test base will be completed there. It will significantly increase the intensity of testing, expand the range of topics.
- Can the landfill in the future become a cosmodrome?
“This is not necessary, since at present the Russian Federation has the 1-th state test space station Plesetsk, the creation of the Vostochny is being completed.
On the whole, the increase in the intensity of testing is associated with an increase in the state defense order for the development of the latest types of high-tech assembly, as well as plans for the development of the Russian Armed Forces aimed at maximally re-equipping and upgrading missile systems for various purposes.
- Is it possible to classify the fighting anti-sabotage machine "Typhoon-M" to the category of robotic complexes and systems?
- The creation of the Typhoon-M BPMD was the first step towards robotic systems, given that it is equipped with a UAV. In the 2017 year, the units rearming on the Yars missile system are expected to receive 12 BPDM. In the 2016-m compound RVSN received 14 such machines.
- What other promising models of weapons for the Yars missile system have already been transferred to the Strategic Missile Forces?
- The Strategic Missile Forces have long professed such an approach: the most promising, including the use of new physical phenomena, which can serve to strengthen their existing capabilities, should be among the troops. Machinery engineering and camouflage (MIOM), remote clearance "Foliage" - the first examples of innovative technology.
In 2016, the Strategic Missile Forces received a record number of engineering vehicles in history. Thus, a total of 12 engineering equipment and masking and remote clearance of the “Foliage” were received in four formations reequipped on the Yars missile system.
The Folding MDR was created within the framework of the Yars design and development work to increase the survivability and security of PGRK units on combat patrol routes and field positions, to demine sections of the movement of equipment from remotely controlled minefields, radio-controlled mines and land mines in 2013.
Machines passed the test of combat effectiveness in military conditions. The first samples have already been delivered to the missile compound.
- RK "Yars" is positioned as a mobile complex. But have there been any operations in the history of modern Russia for the transportation of such RKs using the newest pontoon-bridge parks?
- Figuratively speaking, modern ferry crossings allow large-sized equipment to "float" on any rivers that exist in positional areas of the connections. No exception and autonomous launchers "Yars", the mass of which exceeds one hundred tons.
With the help of the newest pontoon-bridge park, not only the launcher, but also the whole missile regiment PGRK can force any water barrier in the European part of the Russian Federation. It was not yet necessary to transport units across the RVSN over the rivers, but this is a matter of the very near future. The solution of this task will allow rocket troops to continue the development of new areas of combat patrols.
In the history of modern Russia, the operation to transport missile systems was first successfully carried out in May 2015, on the border of Vladimir and Nizhny Novgorod regions, in the Murom area during the exercise of engineering troops. Launcher PGRK "Yars" ferried to one of the widest (more than 250 meters) sections of the Oka.
Unique maneuvers were held this year. The autonomous PU of the mobile RK “Yars” has been shipped through the deep-water tributaries of the Volga. Forced areas ranged from 30 to 150 meters.
On wide rivers, special pontoon ferries were used to cross the units of the Yars PGRK, which moved at speeds up to 20 kilometers per hour using two tow-motor boats BMK-460. The design of the park on which the missile system was transported, allows you to assemble a double-width pontoon with a payload of more than 170 tons.
Along with this, the units of the PGRK also solved traditional tasks: crossing the river through a prepared ford. Cooperation with the engineering troops is planned to continue in the 2017 year, including during a command and staff exercise with the Teikov missile force (Ivanovo region). In the interests of the Strategic Missile Forces, a pontoon-bridge battalion (pontoon-bridge connection of central subordination) will be allocated.
- Are special installations for decontamination of the Yars missile system being developed for the RVSN?
- In the interests of the Strategic Missile Forces, a universal heat engine UTM-80 has been developed for decontamination, decontamination and disinfection of large-sized objects, weapons and military equipment. Currently organized its mass production. The kit allows you to perform special processing of large-sized military equipment, including autonomous launchers "Yars" with the operator's site moving along the processed object at a height of up to 20 meters.
- simulators for the Strategic Missile Forces allow you to conduct tactical exercises on a single plan?
- All incoming simulators in the Strategic Missile Forces are inherently unique, they can be used to train any specialist individually or as part of units (calculations).
In 80 – 90, the missile compound ranged from 10 to 15 training facilities, now it is more than 200. TCBs provide training for both duty shifts of missile regiments for interception on combat duty on a single tactical background, as well as for security units, and allow them to work out solutions to complex tactical tasks.
Over the past three years, more than 100 successful tests of promising training complexes have been conducted at the Strategic Missile Forces. On modern educational and training systems (TCB), rocket specialists are engaged in mobile and stationary groups. The newest training complex for the duty shift of the combat control of the Central Command Post of the Strategic Missile Forces is being tested. This will increase the pace of deliveries of TCB to the Rocket Forces in the next two years. In 2016 alone, more than a hundred prospective simulators were delivered to the units and military units of the Strategic Missile Forces.
- What are the outcomes of the 2016 school year at the Strategic Missile Forces? What is the 2017?
- Summing up the results of combat training in the Strategic Missile Forces, it can be said that the level of training of formations and military units provided the solution of the tasks set by the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation. Combat training plans are fully implemented.
In the 2016 school year, servicemen mastered the new equipment in the re-equipped units, and the missile regiments were retrained for the new Republic of Kazakhstan. Due to the intensity of measures of tactical and tactical and special training, including working out the tasks of carrying the database in the EIFH at the IBE, field training of personnel remains stable. The professionalism of the combat calculations of the launch, the driver of the multi-axle chassis allows you to perform the assigned tasks. As a result of inspections, all units and military units of the Strategic Missile Forces for the state of combat training received positive ratings.
The main efforts in 2017 will be aimed at complicating the requirements for the level of training of all categories of military personnel, maximally bringing combat training to the conditions of modern combat, as well as developing new types of weapons.