Military Review

Battleship will be sunk

Battleship will be sunkIn the spring of 1939, in the "walls" of the prison TsKB-29, where the repressed during the new wave of repression were sent aviation experts, under the leadership of Andrei Tupolev, the preliminary development of the “PB” dive bomber in two- and four-engine versions with pressurized crew cabins began.

The origins of the creation of this machine have not yet been discovered, but many authors agree that this was done at the insistence of Lawrence Beria. On the other hand, the historian of the A.N. Tupolev Vladimir Rigmant according to Andrey Nikolayevich claims that the idea of ​​"PB" belonged to the chief designer. Who is right is impossible to say yet, but it is alarming that Tupolev, while imprisoned, was unlikely to be initiated into the plans of the leader. The operational information about the desire of the British to get rid of the Soviets more quickly did not reach him. Therefore, apparently, the idea of ​​an anti-ship aircraft did not come from the aircraft designer, but from the Kremlin office.


But it was impossible to hide everything, and as Sergei Eger testified, who at that time worked with A.N. Tupolev, the aircraft was intended primarily to fight the British ships. Hence it was assumed that the bomb load increased to 3000 kg and the long range compared to the front dive bombers, reaching the 4000 km in the transshipment version.

But the military considered the demands made on the car too high and came to the conclusion that for a diving bomber a normal bomb load in 1000 kg and overload load - 2000 kg are enough. The requirements for flight range, which are limited to 1000 and 2000 km, depending on the type of vehicle loading, have changed. However, the requirements for maximum speed were still very high - 580 – 600 km / h, which would guarantee protection against fighters.

When the requirements for the car almost settled, the question arose about the choice of engines. The most suitable and promising then was considered a V-shaped 1800-strong, three-row, 18-cylinder liquid cooling engine M-120ТК designed by Vladimir Klimov, equipped with turbo compressors. This engine, "folded" of the three blocks of the serial M-105, was very attractive for its seemingly developed individual blocks. But in fact it turned out all wrong. Many designers then relied on him, but Tupolev, enriched with life experience, argued differently. Where it is safer to put on the car already tested engines. And their choice was small: air-cooled M-88 and M-63, as well as liquid-cooled M-105. The first ones are easier and more convenient to use, but the high frontal resistance did not allow them to realize a given speed, so we had to stop at 1050-strong M-105.

So gradually formed the appearance of "PB". In the final form, the aircraft was a two-winged high-glider with a crew of three. His defensive armament was planned from a pair of ShKAS machine guns in the bow installation and two ShVAK cannons behind the wing to protect the machine from enemy fighter attacks from the rear hemisphere.


When the intentions of Britain and France to strike our oil-bearing areas became apparent (NVO spoke about these plans earlier), on January 25, Chief of the Air Force Jacob Smushkevich and military commissar Philip Agaltsov told 1940 in January, in particular, told the people's commissar of defense Clement Voroshilov:

“... the proposal of the NKVD (Tupolev group) on the construction of a four-engined plane is necessary to accept and urgently build it. Such a plane is of great interest to us.


1). This four-engined plane is slightly larger than a twin-engined aircraft (for example, the DB-3 has 66 sq. M, the proposed aircraft is 31 sq. M, and the TB-7-230 sq. M). He takes bombs inside the fuselage twice as large as the DB-3. Crew - 4 person. Production of this aircraft should be as simple as existing twin-engine aircraft.

In addition, this aircraft will be able to take a kg bomb inside the fuselage 1000 and 1500, which only a four-engined aircraft can do, and since the proposed aircraft is a diving bomber, such an aircraft is necessary to destroy existing battleships

4). As far as I know, Tupolev was engaged in the construction of four-engine aircraft, therefore it is advantageous to use it for this purpose. As for speeds, with the M-105 the proposed aircraft will be able to give 570 – 600 km / h. It is necessary to commission a second four-engined plane to build with M-120 at a speed of 650 km / h ... ".

As follows from this document, the idea of ​​"PB" was still born in the depths of the NKVD, but its specific author has not yet been established.

The reaction of the Air Force leadership to the PB is understandable, since the aircraft could not only fight battleships, but also clog the Suez Canal. To do this, it was enough to sink several large vessels in it. Indeed, the main oil deliveries from Saudi Arabia to England went through this channel, and this was tantamount to paralyzing all English fleet.

But the work on the "PB" stopped as quickly as it began. It happened, apparently, closer to the summer of the 1940 year. Some authors have attributed the cessation of work on the "PB" in connection with the start of designing a twin-engine front bomber "FB", the future of Tu-2.

I believe that this is not true, since when making such decisions, the government was guided primarily by the foreign policy position of the country. Most likely, this is due to the occupation by Germany of a large part of the territory of France, which, as an ally of Britain, has ceased to exist and its activation against the Soviet Union, and especially Germany, has plummeted. The only ally of England at that time was the United States, but between them lay a huge Atlantic.


The reason for abandoning the "PB" becomes even clearer if we assume that the high-speed dive bomber of the Saint-Petersburg system "Link" developed in KB-29 under the leadership of Vladimir Vakhmistrov in 1938 year and able to fight point targets as on land went into the arena instead. and the sea. For the time being, the outdated TB-3 bomber was used as an airbag, but variants were developed with the use of DB-A by Viktor Bolkhovitinov and TB-7 by Vladimir Petlyakov, not with the I-16, but with the MiG-3. The DB-A with its decent payload, long range and strong defensive armament was especially suitable for these purposes. But these planes were built only in five copies.

On this occasion, the explanatory note to the project for the “Pilot construction plan for 1940 year” stated:

“A number of operations of bomber aviation require interaction with fighters outside (their. - N.YA.) range, as well as the execution of bombing fighters with diving bombs caliber, exceeding the ability to take off with them. For these purposes, work should be provided on raising fighters on a bomber and attaching fighters to a bomber in flight. ”

According to the test results of the SPB in the TB-3PH variant with two I-16 and FAB-250 bombs in 1938, the speed of the 410 km / h fighter and the ceiling of the 6800 m were achieved.

In the same year, in the resolution of the Main Military Council of the Red Army on the introduction into service of the Link link of designer V.S. Vakhmistrov, in particular, said: "The Link" provides for the use of I-16 aircraft as high-speed dive bombers for hitting targets that are inaccessible in size for high-altitude bombing and requiring the use of heavy bombs (linear fleet ships, coastal fortifications, power plants ...). "

Shortly after the approval of the report on the results of the SPB state tests, the military ordered 40 copies of “flying airfields”, but this did not happen.

In the next year, 1939, work on the “Link” was continued, by changing the design of the bomb stops and the gas pipes to the fighter, and the pyramids for the E-95 suspension were shortened to 16 mm.

As for the most important parameter, the range of the “Link”, it remained at the same level and did not exceed 600 km, while the fighters had to return home on their own. Then everyone hoped that the task of returning the fighters could be solved, and in 1939, this work was included in the pilot construction plan for the 1940 year. But she was never brought to the end, since the device of the fighter's hitch was in a strongly disturbed air flow from the propellers and wing TB-3, and it was very difficult to dock with it.

In January 1940, the Maritime Aviation Authority entered into an agreement with the NKAP for the supply of 12 SPB Vakhmistrov - four each for the Black Sea, Baltic and Pacific Fleets. In March, the designer was given the task of developing a suspension device and dropping one BRAB-500 armor-piercing bomb, which was intended primarily for the destruction of large-capacity enemy ships. This version of the suspension was worked out under the I-16 with the M-25A engine, which by then was morally obsolete. Therefore, the military demanded to replace it with a faster fighter - type 24 with an M-63 engine. But the industry produced only five carriers, and with the old fighters - the type 5.

The rate, made on high-speed dive bombers Vakhmistrov, capable of paralyzing the fleet of the British, allowed to abandon the "PB" and expensive heavy bombers TB-7. While the country was in peace and harmony with Germany, "PB" was a burden for the Armed Forces. However, only the most approximate were aware of Stalin’s possible far-reaching plans to “curb” the British, and therefore letters addressed to well-known military were sent to him about the necessity of adopting the TB-7 aircraft. But by that time the country had a significant fleet of long-range bombers DB-3, which, although they raised fewer bombs, could solve similar tasks. At the same time, it was possible to use the TB-7 as an air strike for the MiG-3 fighter-bombers, which made it possible to increase the range of the Link almost one and a half times. In this case, the aircraft-units could successfully control the entire water area of ​​the Black Sea.

10 June 1940, when it became clear that there would be no war at sea with the British, the Navy Commissariat issued an order to discontinue work on the SPB, and on August 21, V.S. Vakhmistrov disbanded. Once again, note the date of the termination of work - 10 June. Just then, the occupation of France by German troops was completed, and four days later Paris fell. Are there too many matches?

True, what was done was not destroyed, and in the same summer two SPBs, together with the fighter suspension nodes that were in the warehouse of aircraft factory No. 207, were transferred to Evpatoria, forming the 32 th squadron squadron of the four components bombers. But it did not last long, and at the very beginning of the Great Patriotic War the carrier aircraft were dismantled, since the TB-2 bombers began to be used for their intended purpose.

We remembered about the SPB in August, when the question arose of bomb strikes on oil-bearing areas in Romania. For this, several cars were restored, and an extra ventral fuel tank was installed on the I-16, which allowed them to return to their airfield from a long-range raid. On this and ended история sea ​​dive bombers.

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  1. Basil50
    Basil50 22 January 2017 07: 03
    After entry, any popularization of the technical * genius * of the designer is no longer interesting. The strangeness is that the REALITY of the crime is not denied. Everything is ground on the fact that for * genius * it is possible to forgive and outright theft and in general any crime. The main thing is the agonizing experience * of genius * for a REAL CRIME, which is also proved in court.
    All subsequent life showed that re-education, even in prison, was a lesson. It is a pity that in modern RUSSIA this is impossible.
    Today, not only * geniuses * and officials, but even their very distant relatives are protected by immunity, including for murders and high treason.
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth 22 January 2017 11: 33
      You should be re-educated like that.
  2. 135lm
    135lm 22 January 2017 09: 28
    repression again !!! go and Tupolev illegally blamed again?))) Tupolev spent the state currency. he was sent to the USA by high-tech know-hows for aviation to buy. DolArs gave. and he bought himself a "wheelbarrow". not all kaneshna. but bought it. so he was in the heat of the moment and repressed. and again, not for felling, they gave it. in the "sharashka", they say, a personal car is useless. sit (in both senses of this word) and work. not, it is clear that in our times it seems like "nizachto". but for those, just right. hare shit in the brain with the word "repression". if you don't know how to use the term, forget about it. arrows, oscillographs.
    1. avt
      avt 22 January 2017 10: 30
      Quote: 135lm
      Tupolev spent the state currency. he was sent to the USA by high-tech know-hows for aviation to buy. DolAry gave. and he bought himself a "wheelbarrow".

      Well, "a wheelbarrow" and many other things Atez would have forgiven him, but in reality, yes. Having an almost open account, in fact, he could even study the emission, the return on the cost-efficiency formula brought him to the zugknder. With regard to the priority in creating a dive 4 -x motor aircraft, some, biographers No. just scared over the stupidity of Beria. That actually this proposal with a high degree of probability is based on advertising runs about the creation of such a machine .... in France. Which are so run and remained. So that I suppose there is nothing terrible and there is no super-criminal stupid. ”The infa passed, they gave the designers to work out, at the initial stage they carried out R&D and ... as a result, we got PE-8, Pe-2 and Tu-2. Life with the realities of production capabilities made the management head to feet This is normal, even without reprisals it was quite common in the USSR after the war.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 22 January 2017 10: 57
        But what else to expect from Yakubovich, except for suffering about the "innocent repressed". And the fact that Tupolev failed the purchase of a license for DS-3, he is silent. Then I had to spend more money on this wonderful plane.
      2. Reviews
        Reviews 22 January 2017 11: 18
        Quote: avt
        they gave designers a study, at the initial stage they carried out R&D and ... in the end, they got PE-8

        ANT-42 took off in 1936. What does the NKVD, Beria and SRT?
        1. avt
          avt 22 January 2017 11: 28
          Quote: Avis
          ANT-42 took off in 1936. What does the NKVD, Beria and SRT?

          Well, I’ll try differently. My post is about TWO and somehow even different topics raised in general by the author, and not by me, therefore, they did not build them in chronological order. The first is actually what Tupolev was aesthetized for and almost all of his entourage was strapped in a chain.
          Quote: avt
          Well, "a wheelbarrow" and many other things Atez would have forgiven him, but in reality, yes. Having practically an open account, in fact he could even study the emission, the return on the formula "cost-efficiency" brought him to the zugknder.

          Next word
          Quote: avt
          . With regard to the priority in the creation of a diving 4-engine aircraft, some biographers No. just shouted at Beria's stupidity.

          I expressed my version of the appearance of a task for the development of a 4-engine airplane that was diving from the article, again I did not approve Beria's priority (see the quote above myself). And he just expressed his own version, based on the old Soviet aviation directory of those years on foreign airports. And then, actually, my conclusion about the impossibility of creating such an airplane, based on the historical fact of creation
          Quote: avt
          .. as a result, they got PE-8, Pe-2 and Tu-2. Life with the realities of production capabilities made management put everything upside down. This is normal, it was without repression all the time in the USSR and after the war.
          So it’s more understandable than the previous post regarding Beria and the chronology of the appearance of the prototype (first impression, well, from Greek) Pe-8?
          1. Reviews
            Reviews 22 January 2017 12: 15
            Quote: avt
            So it’s more understandable than the previous post regarding Beria and the chronology of the appearance of the prototype (first impression, well, from Greek) Pe-8?

            No, a fig is not clear. The appearance of the Pe-8 has nothing to do with the arrest of ANT and others.
            1. avt
              avt 22 January 2017 13: 00
              Quote: Avis
              No, a fig is not clear. The appearance of the Pe-8 has nothing to do with the arrest of ANT and others.

              Then it's not for me, then I can only advise you to reread the second post later, but with a break from your vision and perception on the principle “what I write, I hear”, which is the only correct campaign. bully Well, if I personally attribute the statement about the order to build a diving 4-engine long-range bomber to me, I completely ignore the indicated
              Quote: avt
              , again, I did not affirm the priority of Beria (see the quotation from myself).

              Quote: avt
              He only expressed his own version, based on the old Soviet aviation directory of those years on foreign airports

              in which Beria did not name at all in connection with the order. bully
      3. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 26 January 2017 13: 08
        Quote: avt
        Regarding the priority in the creation of a diving 4-engine aircraft, some biographers directly did so over Beria’s stupidity. That proposal itself is most likely based on advertising runs on the creation of such a machine .... in France. Which so runs and remained.

        Heh heh heh ... besides France, there was another country that had been developing a four-engine long-range dive since 1937. And even built it. wink
        And besides, in practice, the possibility of a dive attack on a four-engine machine was confirmed by the crews of the famous 617th RAF squadron. Among other flight perversions, they practiced such a thing. smile
        By the way, Medvedev wrote that the four-engine dive was just the idea of ​​Tupolev, caused by the absence in the USSR of engines with the power sufficient to create a twin-engine machine for the combat load chosen by Tupolev (1500 kg normal, 3000 kg in overload). So I had to consider one of the options for the car under the available motors.
        In the beginning, Tupolev and his staff tried to work out a twin-engine version of the dive. Calculations showed that for such an aircraft engines of approximately 2000 hp were needed. But there were no such motors in the USSR. Under these conditions, Tupolev began to analyze two new options:
        - a four-engine engine, using M-105 engines (1050 hp each) developed and already tested by then with turbochargers;
        - a twin-engine engine, oriented to the use of two promising V. Ya Klimov Design Bureau, M-120 engines (1650 hp each), which were also supposed to be equipped with turbochargers.

        It is significant that the Air Force chose the "tit in the hands" - a four-engine machine for existing engines.
        In his letters of December 28, 1939 and January 31, 1940, Y.V. Smushkevich indicated that it was necessary to build a four-engine PB 4M-105TK, and when sufficiently powerful engines appeared, switch to a twin-engine version of a dive bomber.
    2. AUL
      AUL 22 January 2017 10: 54
      And all the others who worked hard on sharashka - were also burned in cars?
      1. avt
        avt 22 January 2017 11: 33
        Quote: AUL
        And all the others who worked hard on sharashka - were also burned in cars?

        The rest went by the trailer as accomplices, and for the most part on the basis of testimony and knocked out, the times were according to the principle - "iron age, iron hearts" and ... imagine banal denunciations of each other. and really Great people at each other, and sometimes sincerely and convincingly that they were right, and then both fell.
    3. MrK
      MrK 24 January 2017 20: 22
      I agree with you, colleagues.
      «Having accepted the People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs in December 1938, Beria was faced with the fact: in his department were hundreds of arrested scientists and designers, whose work the country needed just before the cut. As it’s fashionable to say now - feel like a people's commissar! Before you lies the case. This person may be to blame, or may be innocent, but he is necessary. What to do? To write: “Liberate” means to show subordinates an example of the lawlessness of the opposite property.? Check things out? Yes, of course, but you have a cabinet in which 600 of thousands of cases. In fact, each of them needs to be re-investigated, but there are no other personnel. Repeated investigation will be conducted by those who planted. If we are talking about already convicted, we must also achieve the abolition of the sentence. Where to start? With scientists? With the military? And time is passing, people are sitting, war is getting closer.
      Beria orientated quickly. Already on 10 of January 1939 of the year he signed the order on the organization of the Special Technical Bureau. The research area is purely military: aircraft construction, shipbuilding, shells, armored steels. Whole groups were formed from specialists in these sectors in prisons.
      When the opportunity turned up, Beria tried to free these people. For example, the aircraft designer Tupolev 25 in May 1940 of the year announced a sentence - 15 years of camps, and in the summer he was released under an amnesty.
      Designer Petlyakov was amnestied on July 25 and in January 1941 was awarded the Stalin Prize. A large group of developers of military equipment was released in the summer of 1941, another one in 1943, the rest received freedom from the 1944 to the 1948 years. After the death of Beria, it was they - former employees of the "sharashka" who bitterly said - "they killed our Lavrenty Pavlovich." But according to the logic of things, they had to DANCE JOY, saying: the bastard died, finally he died
  3. andrewkor
    andrewkor 22 January 2017 12: 02
    The photo shows one of the variants of the "Link" system by V.S. Vakhmistrov with two I-16s, carrying two 250kg bombs each, the so-called Composite Dive Bomber (SPB). It was successfully used during the Second World War, for example, on May 25, 1943. the bridge over the Danube was bombed at the station. Chernovody.And the dear A.N. Tupolev had developed the TB-3 carrier long before that !!! The snapshot has nothing to do with the article.
  4. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 22 January 2017 13: 54
    "However, about Stalin's possible far-reaching plans to" curb "the British
    only those who were very close knew ... "////

    Song! January 1940
    England is at war with Nazi Germany.
    And the USSR, having signed an agreement with Hitler, is developing planes for destruction
    English fleet! sad
    1. avt
      avt 22 January 2017 14: 18
      Quote: voyaka uh
      And the USSR, by signing an agreement with Hitler,

      Well, you never know who signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler, so just in case the USSR was the LAST country to sign a non-aggression pact indicating its borders in accordance with the Curzon Line, again outlined by the winners of the First World War, and the first in the list of signatories was
      Quote: voyaka uh
      England is at war with Nazi Germany.

      Well, Britain, led by Chamberlain, and at the expense of Czechoslovakia. But according to the article, yes
      Quote: voyaka uh
      Song! January 1940

      By the way, in 1939 the USSR was expelled from the League of Nations and the joint bombing of the Baku crafts was worked out by the Franks and Shaved quite seriously.
    2. Reviews
      Reviews 22 January 2017 18: 11
      Quote: voyaka uh
      By signing an agreement with Hitler, the USSR is developing planes for destruction
      English fleet! sad

      Well, certainly not for interacting with the Luftwaffe. It is very easy to be the smartest 70 years later, and then the war of all against all was not ruled out. To this and prepared. About plans for a raid on the Baku fields have already been written.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 23 January 2017 16: 58
        "and then the war of all against all was not ruled out" /////

        No, nobody alone could be against everyone. They were looking for alliances.
        ... the Fuhrer had the most rosy plans for a joint with the USSR
        the defeat of England. He encouraged the construction of battleships and other ships in every way.
        Soviet Baltic Fleet. To lead them through the Danish Straits and in conjunction with
        German pocket battleships bang the Royal Navy and support the landing on the island.
        How did he know that Stalin was much more interested in the Turkish straits ...,
        exit to the south. And there the only gas station in Germany is Romania.
        In general, there were a lot of plans, but the leaders of Europe failed to divide. Quarreled at the end of 40
        1. antivirus
          antivirus 24 January 2017 22: 05
          Yes, everyone was intriguing against everyone. and prepared. Both plans and people.
          "They all drank together in the evening, and everyone gets drunk in the morning alone."
          They considered not the maximum profit, but the minimization of losses.
          From the preference ::::: "How many bribes will you pay." Then only "how many possible bribes will remain."
    3. andrewkor
      andrewkor 23 January 2017 19: 06
      At this time, Britain is developing a plan to bomb Baku, Grozny, Maykop from bases in Iran, Iraq, Turkey. (October 1939), and France did not stand aside. Defense plans in case of war against Britain in Russia were developed by all the kings, simply saying
    4. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 26 January 2017 13: 19
      Quote: voyaka uh
      crap! January 1940
      England is at war with Nazi Germany.
      And the USSR, having signed an agreement with Hitler, is developing planes for destruction
      English fleet!

      Hehe hehe ... right at the same time Britain and France, at war with Nazi Germanywere preparing to strike at a neutral USSR.
      Oh yes, to the heap, the British also planned the occupation of neutral Norway. smile
    5. Sartorius
      Sartorius 4 March 2017 08: 59
      But nothing that in the same 1940, the British and French seriously planned to bomb the oil industry of Baku (apparently from purely friendly relations with the USSR)? Enough stupidity.
  5. Fitter65
    Fitter65 22 January 2017 14: 01
    It is impossible to say who is right yet, but the fact that Tupolev, while in custody, was unlikely to have been initiated into the plans of the leader, is alarming.

    It’s about the same as with the single-seat version of the attack aircraft S.V. Ilyushin. Everyone knows that the military demanded to urgently release a very needed aircraft, albeit without an arrow. The truth is neither the name of this military man, nor the order number on the NKAP, nor the government’s order, nor any other fact There is no evidence of this moment in the development of IL-2. So, given that Ilyushin was free ...
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 26 January 2017 13: 33
      Quote: Fitter65
      Everyone knows that the military urgently needed to release a very needed plane, albeit without a gunner.

      Take it Higher - some “know” that it was Stalin who personally threw the shooter out of IL-2. smile
      In fact, judging by Perov / Rastrenin, Ilyushin threw the arrow out, because he needed to keep within the TK in any way in terms of speed, range and load. Otherwise, his design bureau flew past the order (which, taking into account problems with the IL-4, could have very serious consequences - up to eliminating the design bureau). There were two options - to put a more powerful engine or sacrifice a shooter. The first option was impossible - there was simply no more powerful engine (more precisely, it appeared - but after the tests). Only the second remained.
  6. polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 22 January 2017 14: 49
    To the battleship, anyone still needs to break through! And our "link", if memory serves, could only damage the bridge on the Danube. So to promise does not mean to fulfill.
    1. Reviews
      Reviews 22 January 2017 17: 52
      It is much easier for small I-16s to do this than for "strategists".
      Quote: polkovnik manuch
      To the battleship, anyone still needs to break through! And our "link", if memory serves, could only damage the bridge on the Danube.

      "Some" more:
      “The repeated attempts of the 63rd Bomber Brigade of the Black Sea Fleet, using SB and DB-3 bombers, to destroy the bridge were not successful.

      The first combat sortie took place on July 26. The first blow was struck at the port facilities of the city of Constanta. In broad daylight, a pair of TB-3s approached the Romanian coast and, at a distance of 40 km, freed themselves from four I-16s. The commander of the group, Captain Shubikov, went out to the city, in front of the Messerschmites loitering in the distance, twice calmly circled the target - an oil refinery - then bombed. The hits in the giant oil storage facilities were accurate. All four left the place safely.

      To strike at the Cernavoda Bridge (...).
      Departure took place on August 10 at 3 a.m.
      At 5 hours 10 minutes, at a distance of 310 km from the base, abeam the St. George's arm of the Danube, 15 km from the coast, the command "Dump" followed. 15 minutes after the detachment, the dive bombers reached the target, which met them with dense anti-aircraft fire. Having broken through the fire, the four dived from a height of 1800 meters and dropped bombs from 300 meters, after which they disappeared without loss.

      On August 13, a raid on the bridge was repeated, this time by six dive bombers. Everything was as in the previous flight, only the start time has shifted by half an hour. The attack took place at 5.50, the pilots noted five direct hits, one bridge farm was completely destroyed.

      The use of the existing machines was continued. On August 17, 6 I-16s successfully bombed the floating dock in Constanta. At the end of the month, dive bombers were used to destroy the crossings across the Dnieper. The importance of the assignment lay in the strategic importance of these crossings and in the possibility of a significant containment of the German offensive. On August 28, two TB-3s took off from the Yevpatoria airfield and headed for the Zaporozhye region. At dawn, thirty kilometers from the city, the I-16 was uncoupled. The raid was sudden and accurate, all four left without loss. On September 8, Zveno-SPB, in cooperation with Yak-1 escort fighters, destroyed the ferry near Berislav. One Yak-1 and one I-16 did not return. The next day, after a successful bombing, four I-16s shot down 2 Bf.109 in aerial combat.

      On October 1, 1941, the commander of a squadron of outboard aircraft, Arseny Shubikov, was killed in an air battle. Further use of the outboard I-16 is becoming sporadic and combat reports are becoming less common. It is only known for certain that the I-16 outboard fighters were also used in 1942. In total, several more than 30 sorties were made, which, in terms of their high efficiency, became one of the most successful military actions of Soviet aviation. "
  7. EvilLion
    EvilLion 23 January 2017 18: 43
    In the spring of 1939, within the “walls” of the prison TsKB-29, where aviation experts repressed during a new wave of repressions were sent, under the leadership of Andrei Tupolev

    You can not read further.
  8. konus
    konus 22 October 2017 18: 19
    I read this article and start to just be surprised. Judging by the text, the author is simply not familiar with the memoirs of L. L. Kerber, "And there was a war tomorrow." The fact is that the author of the memoirs was in the same sharaba as Tupolev and worked under his leadership. It was he who described the epic with a four-engine diving bomber. According to Kerber, the idea of ​​such an aircraft belonged to Beria, but certainly not to Tupolev. The Tupolev diving bomber (project 103), the future Tu -2 was originally designed for the engine of Alexander Mikulin (if I am not mistaken, it was AM-42). It was with these engines that the Tupolev plane showed a speed of 630 km / h. But for some reason these engines did not go into the series, and they eventually had to be replaced by Shvetsov-ASh air-cooled engines. With these engines, the speed of the aircraft dropped to 560 - 580 km / h. However, it is not clear how project 103 TsKB -29 of the NKVD had anything to do with Vakhmistrov’s project (except for the ideas of dive bombing, but already with fighters)!