Military Review

Experimental weapon Simonov SG

Among the creators of the domestic rifle weapons Sergey Gavrilovich Simonov (1894-1986) is deservedly considered one of the patriarchs, His life was typical of talented nuggets who came to the Soviet defense industry in 20-30. Born into a peasant family, he graduated from three classes of a rural school, in 1 he became a blacksmith’s apprentice, then a factory mechanic, and in 1917 he started working as an automatic engineer of the VG Fedorov system at the Kovrov machine-gun factory, where he was soon appointed as a foreman. In 1922, Sergei Gavrilovich has already started creating a light machine gun and an automatic rifle of his own design. After 7 years, he became head of the assembly shop of the plant, then experimental workshops, in 1932-1933. replenishes education in the Industrial Academy, and through 3 of the year, his automatic rifle is adopted.

After that, Simonov headed the design offices at defense enterprises and retired only in 1959. But even then did not stop to engage in new types of weapons. Evidence of the high praise of his achievements - the title of Hero of Socialist Labor and twice - the winner of the Stalin Prize, awarding eight orders and several medals. Over the long years of creative activity, Simonov designed one and a half hundred diverse systems, but for a number of reasons only three were known: the ABC-36 automatic rifle, the PTRS anti-tank rifle and the SKS self-loading carbine, which became our army weapon.

And what about the rest of the design? What were they like? Let us try to answer this question, especially since the prototypes did not disappear without a trace, as often happened, but are stored in the collection of the Central Museum of the Armed Forces in Moscow. Simonov himself contributed a lot to this and bequeathed his experimental weapons to the museum in 1960-1981. The 155 "trunks" that transferred here. With a few exceptions, these are automatic systems, among which a significant place is occupied by submachine guns and machine guns.

Sergey Gavrilovich developed his first submachine gun in 1945-1946. It seemed that during the Second World War all conceivable improvements were made to the design of such weapons. Nevertheless, Simonov found new, original solutions in the design of individual units and elements, so that the initial version of the PPS-6P of the 1946 model of the year had indisputable advantages over the Shpagin and Soudaev machine guns in service. Its automation remained traditional for such systems and was based on the impact of the free gate, but the moving parts were much better protected from contamination. In particular, the shutter and the receiver box was covered from dust and moisture by a thin-walled stamped cover, which remained stationary when fired. On all serial submachine guns, spent cartridges were thrown up and to the side through the window in the receiver and prevented the shooter from sighting the target, Simonov directed the extraction of the sleeves down, the PPS-6P of the 1946 model of the year had a constant sight on the 200 m, consisting of front sight and box. carbine type; The ammunition was 7,62-mm pistol cartridges of the 1930 sample.

Experimental weapon Simonov SG

Submachine gun PPS-6P arr. 1946 of the year.
caliber - 7,62 mm
total length - 798 mm
unloaded weight - 3,27 kg
rate of fire - 700 shots per minute
magazine capacity - 35 cartridges

In 1949, the designer redesigned this weapon for the 9-mm PM pistol cartridges and reduced its size using a retractable metal butt. The new model received the brand PPP-8P 49 of the year. In the same year, on the instructions of the NKVD, Simonov began working on the first Soviet compact submachine gun. Taking the PPS-8P as a basis, he used the vykat of the bolt to the barrel at the moment of the shot to further reduce the size. (It was only in 1954 that such a decision was embodied in the Israeli Uzi, so its author Uziel Gal was far from the first.) A low fire rate was a feature of the new weapon, which was achieved by a relatively large mass of moving parts, a long stroke of automation and a bolt out. The shock mechanism was of the classical type - a striker, a sight - a shifter, designed for aiming fire at distances 50 and 100 m, the fuse fixed the bolt in the cocked position. The submachine gun turned out to be small, 600 mm long with folded shoulder rest and 380 mm with folded, and weighed without 1,88 cartridges kg.

PPS-10P arr. 1950 of the year. made in 1950 year, but unfortunately the whole test cycle, he could not resist. Moreover, due to the absence of the muzzle brake-compensator, the accuracy of the fire was low, and the strength of some parts was insufficient. It took two decades to evaluate the performance of Simonov - only in 1970 in the USSR the design of small-sized submachine guns was resumed. And история repeated: the samples presented by N.M. Afanasyev and EF Dragunov did not satisfy the military on the sighting firing range. It was only in 1993 that the mass production of very similar to PED-10P Kedra began.

Submachine gun PPS-10P arr. 1950 of the year.
caliber - 9 mm
total length - 600 mm
length with folded butt - 380 mm
unloaded weight - 1,88 kg
rate of fire - 700 shots per minute
magazine capacity - 30 cartridges.

At the same time, Sergei Gavrilovich was engaged in machine guns — as the combat experience of the Second World War showed, the most successful and promising light weapons. Own AC-13P arr. 1949 of the year he designed in 1948. For the operation of automation, the energy of powder gases, partially discharged through the side hole in the barrel, was used to lock the cartridge — the slide warp, well-developed by the author, to slow down the rate of firing — a long stroke of the piston rod. To reduce the length of the receiver, the designer placed a return spring in the butt. From AC-18P arr. 1948 of the year, it was possible to shoot bursts and single shots. There was a fuse that locked the trigger. A significant number of parts performed high-tech method of cold forming. The weapon turned out albeit quite usable, but over-weighted - it weighed 4,31 kg without cartridges. Simonov tried to alleviate it by refusing the dust cover of the receiver window, remaking the reloading handle, changing the fuse and translator of the fire mode. New AC-18P arr. 1949 g. "Lost" per pound and became more convenient.

Automatic AC-18P arr. 1949 of the year.
caliber - 7,62 mm
total length - 860 mm
weight without ammunition and magazine - 3,8 kg
magazine capacity - 30 cartridges

At the same time, the gunsmith tried another principle of actuating moving parts. Back in 1948 g, he created the AC-19P with a semi-free (self-opening) gate, slowed down by friction, which ensured a slow extraction of the sleeves. The rest of the design is very reminiscent of AC-13P and AC-18P.

Automatic AC-19P arr. 1948 of the year.
caliber - 7,62 mm
total length - 852 mm
weight without ammunition and magazine - 3,2 kg
magazine capacity - 30 cartridges.

The latest in a series of machines 1948-1949. became AC-21P arr. 1949 of the year, structurally similar to the AC-18P. In it, the functions of the stock were performed by a receiver riveted from thin corrugated metal sheets. Foldable sights, which resembled the German parachutist rifle FG-42 on all Simonov machine guns, received a more convenient retractable rear sight. For hand-to-hand combat the bayonet was intended. At the request of the customer, who paid special attention to the convenience of weapons in circulation, Sergey Gavrilovich placed all the accessories for cleaning them in a pistol grip.

In 1949, the AK-47 design of MT Kalashnikov was put into service, but the improvement of such systems continued. In addition, the operation of "Kalashnikov" in the army revealed a number of shortcomings. While the author sought to eliminate them, other gunsmiths were engaged in the creation of new models. Simonov, who had accumulated considerable experience in the design of automata, joined them. In 1955-1956 He proposed 6 models. The work of their automation was based on the removal of powder gases through the hole in the barrel - the scheme recognized as optimal. The locking of cartridges on all models was carried out by the tilt of the bolt, as on the SKS carbine that received universal recognition. In this experimental series, Simonov finally abandoned the sighting devices with a folding front sight and fully retractable, moving on to the classic - sector-based sight with a cylindrical front sight, protected by a ring-shaped steel muffler. His AC-95P and AC-96P arr. 1955 of the year, came out as light as possible. This was achieved by reducing the receiver and wooden parts. Original in both designs were gas piston, made stepped to reduce the speed of movement of moving parts and the trigger mechanism, made in a removable unit. Tests revealed the pros and cons of new products; Thus, the rigidity and strength of individual parts turned out to be insufficient, and the recoil, due to low mass, was excessive. At the same time, experts noted the simplicity of the device and its unification with the SCS.

Automatic AC-95P arr. 1955 of the year.
caliber - 7,62 mm
total length - 890 mm
length with folded butt - 700 mm
weight without cartridges and magazine - 2,59 kg (96П - 2,85 kg)
magazine capacity - 30 cartridges

The most successful steel AC-106P arr. 1955 of the year and AC-107P arr. 1956 of the year. Their trigger mechanism was the trigger. For power unloading the receiver cover and slowing down the rate of firing, Simonov applied a long stroke of the piston rod and placed a return mechanism in front of the slide frame in the receiver, securing by turning the sector the spring stop located on the piston rod. Fixing the frame with a return mechanism was carried out with a detachable handle. The stem tube was attached to the gas chamber with a check. To reduce the size of the weapon in the stowed position, one of the machine guns was supplied with a sliding metal butt.

Automatic AC-106P arr. 1955 of the year.
caliber - 7,62 mm
total length - 890 mm
unloaded weight - 3,5 kg
magazine capacity - 30 cartridges

In 1962, for Simonov, a new “automaton period” began. Then it finally turned out that the standard of such weapons was “Kalashnikovskoye”, the technology of its manufacture was debugged “one hundred percent” and it was deemed inexpedient to break it, even for the release of a more advanced model. Therefore, the experimental products of the Simonov AO-31 series resembled the AK-47 and AKM; all had similar butterfly valves and fuses, designed exclusively to prevent accidental shots, and signal flag interpreters located near the trigger were used to change the mode of fire. Nevertheless, Simonov's automata had a number of characteristic features that did not allow them to be confused with other systems. So the automatic machine AO-31 with the serial number 3, manufactured and tested in 1962 g, had a gas chamber on the muzzle of the barrel, simultaneously serving as a brake-compensator, a front sight body and a flame arrester. To extend the sighting line, the scope was mounted on the receiver cover. However, the AO-31 did not show any tangible advantages over the Kalashnikov, and its performance and reliability were even lower than that of the serial AK.

Of course, Sergei Gavrilovich was distressed by this, but he did not give up. It was characteristic of him to look for something new in many ways by empirical means, repeatedly tinkering and improving components and parts. So he did this time. AO-1964-31, which appeared in 6 year, again found the usual gas chamber and piston with a long stroke, the valve had an improved device with a roller on the leading ledge to reduce friction when unlocking. Setting the sight on the cover of the receiver Simonov considered irrational and returned it to the ring of the forearm. Machine AO-31-6 received a wooden butt, folding in the stowed position and attached to the right side of the receiver. This allowed the use of automatic in all kinds of troops. Only two decades later, a similar butt found a place on the Kalashnikov AK-74M.

Automatic machine AO-31-6
caliber - 7,62 mm
total length - 895 mm
length with folded butt - 660 mm
weight without ammunition and magazine - 2,51 kg
magazine capacity - 30 cartridges.

In the 60-ies, Simonov was one of the first in the country to experiment with new promising types of ammunition: 5,45-mm low-impulse and 7, b2-mm bezel-less cartridges. In 1963, the designer proposed a small-caliber machine gun AO-31-5. With the exception of the barrel, it did not differ from other specimens of this series. Although testing at the test site confirmed the viability of such weapons, it took 10 more years before it was established in the Soviet Army’s weapons system.

Automatic machine AO-31-5
caliber - 5,45 mm
total length - 910 mm
unloaded weight - 2,57 kg
magazine capacity - 30 cartridges

The experienced bagless AO-31-7 of the 1965 release of the year turned out to be forgotten. Technically, it was designed as the whole series of joint-stock companies, but did not have an ejector and a reflector. It tested the possibility of firing ammunition, in which the powder charge was pressed with a primer. The automatic machine AO-31-7 was not intended for firing by single shots, the main thing was to get the weapons and unusual ammunition to work in automatic mode, but this was clearly hampered by "raw" cartridges. It is a pity of course, because the sleeveless ammunition promised considerable benefits. For example, due to the smaller weight and dimensions, it was possible to place a larger ammunition into the store. And again about the priority: the Simonovsky machine gun on 30 years anticipated the appearance of similar weapons in other countries, particularly in the Federal Republic of Germany.

In recent years, Sergei Gavrilovich continued to work on small-caliber machine guns for an 5,45-mm cartridge. In particular, in 1975, he created AG-042 and AG-043, distinguished by their small size and weight. To activate the automatics, the designer used the extraction of powder gases through the hole in the barrel, which is classical for such a weapon, but because of its short length — the entire 215 mm — this was done through the muzzle. The gas chamber at the same time served as the base of the front sight. To reduce recoil on the barrel screwed muzzle brake-compensator with flame arrester. As with the previous models, the gunsmith took care of security - two fuses protected the soldier from premature and unintentional shots. One in the receiver, prevented the cocking of the shutter, and the second in the trigger mechanism, prevented the shot due to accidental pressing the trigger. He also served as a translator of the regime of fire. The cartridges were placed in standard 30-charging stores Kalashnikov assault rifle.

Simon's weapon was distinguished by the fact that it was easily versed and very technological because of the wide use of cold stamping in the manufacture of parts. Based on the specifics of different types of troops, it was equipped with wooden or metal butts; the latter, when retracted, markedly reduced the length of machine guns and submachine guns.

The tests of AG-042 and AG-043 were held in competition with the Kalashnikov shortened AKS-74U. They did not show any significant advantages in rate of fire and ballistics and therefore were not accepted for service. The authority of MT Kalashnikov, who had already become twice the Hero of Socialist Labor, also had an effect. Automatic machines AG-042 and AG-043 were the last Simon exhibits: Sergey Gavrilovich presented them to the museum in 1979.

Compact machine AG-043
caliber - 5,45 mm
total length - 680 mm
length with folded butt - 420 mm
weight without cartridges -2,1 kg
magazine capacity - 30 cartridges

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  1. Alexnov2001
    Alexnov2001 6 February 2012 11: 12
    The article is interesting, informative, I did not like only the phrase: "The tests of the AG-042 and AG-043 took place in a competitive struggle with the Kalashnikov shortened AKS-74U. They did not show any significant advantages in rate of fire and ballistics, and therefore were not adopted. The authority of M.T. Kalashnikov, who by that time had already twice become the Hero of Socialist Labor, also had an effect. "
    It is also obvious that the AKS-74U was put into service because it is based on the AK circuit developed over the years.
    1. Kibb
      Kibb 6 February 2012 11: 14
      It is also obvious that the AKS-74U was put into service because it is based on the AK circuit developed over the years.

      What's wrong with that?
  2. Old prdun
    Old prdun 6 February 2012 11: 57
    Interesting article. In addition to ABC and SCS, I did not know anything. On earlier samples, the influence of German authors is felt, only the shape of the pistol handles pinned. :) AC-95 P really liked. Were it not for our good old Kalash, I think the products of Simonov would go into the series. Master!
  3. 750
    750 6 February 2012 17: 55
    Interesting article! How many original solutions our designers have come up with, .. Surely something is still in the drawings. I think at some point, all development rested on the materials. What is America experimentally producing now? (As a sofa theorist I don’t remember) it can do without lubrication, a stainless steel barrel and bolt, etc. Of course, 300 $ doesn’t keep up with Kalash, but continue to produce inconvenient, inaccurate (compared to the West and NATO) samples, upgrade the outdated design without end ... There is a huge amount of 47-70xx release for mass war, come on Medvehputsky angry stool-make already modern weapons. On the Hanse
    ak200 extremely displeased komentili ... It is a pity that unification kills creativity.
  4. Alexnov2001
    Alexnov2001 6 February 2012 20: 08

    And I say that well.
    1. Kibb
      Kibb 7 February 2012 19: 16
      And, litter, misunderstood smile
  5. SenyaYa
    SenyaYa 6 February 2012 20: 47
    Well, where is the Simon's self-loading pistol ????

    With a gun Stechkin confused Sori!