Military Review

Domestic military-industrial complex needs new Kalashnikovs

And the development of promising samples weapons and modernization of production

Domestic military-industrial complex needs new Kalashnikovs

On January 24, the Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, Dmitry Rogozin, made the second (after Ulyanovsk) working trip in the rank of Deputy Prime Minister. This time - to Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant. It was largely exploratory in nature, but allowed to reveal a lot of problems, to eliminate which the new chairman of the Military Industrial Commission made a number of constructive decisions.

Arriving at the plant, Dmitry Rogozin, first of all met at the Museum stories Izhmash with the creator of the world-famous family of machine guns and machine guns, Mikhail Kalashnikov, and handed the legendary designer the Gratitude of the Russian government, and also offered to volunteer to become his adviser. Mikhail Timofeevich accepted this offer.

New Izhmash and not only him

But, of course, the main purpose of the visit of the Deputy Prime Minister was to understand and understand what developments our army needed, to determine the prospects for domestic small arms, to give the green light to its best models. True, many millions of AKs of various modifications made back in the Soviet period have accumulated in the warehouses. And this can not be ignored.

Most of the time Dmitry Rogozin spent in the shops, trying to find the vector of the continued existence of the plant and its withdrawal from the pre-crisis state. At the same time, the chairman of the military-industrial complex carefully reviewed the exposition presented by a number of leading Russian enterprises producing modern weapons.

Rogozin believes that it is possible to talk a lot about the development of strategic nuclear forces, other key areas of ensuring the country's military security, but in anti-terrorist operations, local conflicts, our soldiers, special forces have to use conventional weapons. The life of the defenders of the Motherland depends on him. Therefore, it must be effective.

Izhmash demonstrated all the most popular samples of its products: sniper (CB-98, CB-338) and sports (in particular, “Biathlon”) rifles, hunting rifles (for example, “Saiga”), submachine guns, grenade launcher GP-34, high-precision projectiles "Kitolov" and "Krasnopol", various modifications of the Kalashnikov assault rifle and the Nikonov AN-94 assault rifle. Rogozin responded positively about many things he saw, including the Orsis sniper rifle, produced by Promtechnologii.

The vice-premier - by the way, the first high-ranking representative of the Russian leadership - was shown an Izhmash initiative development - an 5 generation machine gun. The chief designer of the enterprise, Vladimir Zlobin, told Dmitry Rogozin in detail about all the significant improvements that would make the weapon meet modern requirements.

This is the latest novelty of the plant. In 2011, the assembly was completed and the tests of the first prototype with the working title AK-12 began. And to implement the project (without any instructions from above), Izhevsk designers under the direction of Zlobin started in June 2011. They managed to significantly improve the parameters of the Kalashnikov assault rifle, adapting it to the modern conditions of warfare and at the same time retaining the unique characteristics of Mikhail Timofeevich's brainchild: simplicity of design, highest reliability, operational durability, relatively low production cost.

One of the features of the product will be its modularity: AK-12 is created as a basic platform, on the basis of which further 20 order will be developed for various modifications of civilian and military small arms for firing cartridges from 5,45x39 to 7,62x51 millimeters.

The AK-12 has a significantly improved ergonomics: the main controls (fuse, fire switch, magazine latch, shutter stop) are accessible with one hand holding the machine. Picatinny slats are integrated into the weapon for installation of additional equipment: optical, collimator and night sights, range finders, grenade launchers, flashlights, target indicators and other “equipment”, which will allow you to effectively use AK-12 at any time of the day. Also, the machine has acquired a folding telescopic butt, height-adjustable lining and butt plate. The AK-12 reloading handle can be installed both on the right and on the left, which will make it convenient to use both right-handed and left-handed.

Izhmash’s General Director, Maxim Kuzyuk, told the Observer of the “Military-Industrial Courier” that even the butt of the weapon has its own ergonomics and is regulated by the removal. The reliability and simplicity of a well-known Kalashnikov assault rifle were added with increased shooting accuracy and reduced recoil force, and a combined sight appeared.

Among the innovations - three modes of fire: single shots, with a cut-off of three shots and automatic. The muzzle device has been modified to allow the use of barrel grenades, including foreign ones. Added the ability to change the rate of fire from 600 rounds per minute to 1000. Some samples will have a quick-change barrel. Composite materials have significantly reduced the weight of the AK-12. This is essentially a generation 5 weapon, which will not yield to any foreign counterpart.

Currently, new shops are being developed: box-shaped 30- and 60-charging, drum-type on 95 cartridges. A window will appear in them to visually monitor the remaining ammunition.

When creating AK-12 uses the latest technology in the field of coatings and materials. The machine gun is intended for sale abroad, however, in terms of its key parameters, it meets the modern requirements of the Russian Ministry of Defense for automatic weapons. If there is a state order, the plant is ready to supply AK-12 to Russian troops and special forces.

Dmitry Rogozin showed a keen interest in the machine, noting that the designers are working in the right direction, asked to invite him to the state tests. According to preliminary estimates, they can begin at the end of 2012 - the beginning of 2013 of the year. Already, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia paid serious attention to AK-12, requesting an automatic machine for trial operation.

It is not enough to survive, it is necessary to develop

Vice Prime Minister tried military weapons in action. In the dash of Izhmash, he fired a series of shots from Yarygin and Strike pistols, the Vityaz submachine gun, the CB-338 and T5000 sniper rifles, Kalashnikov and Nikonov machine guns. I highly appreciated the special carbine - 18,5-mm KS-K (the combat modification of the popular "Saygi-12"), the AN-94 submachine gun (for ease of operation and high accuracy of shooting), the prototype Strike pistol from designer Dmitry Streshinsky. According to Rogozin, this is a very interesting development that will be supported. It, by the way, passed successful testing in our special services.

This quick-fire pistol of instant use for the enemy, the Deputy Prime Minister stressed, surpasses all existing models: “If the world knows six types of mechanisms in the manufacture of pistols, then the seventh type is used in this. And this is Russian know-how. ”

According to the chairman of the military industrial complex, in the production of weapons, the main emphasis now has to be placed on modularity, interchangeability of parts, reliability, and resistance to environmental influences. Not enough attention is paid to the attachment of weapons: lanterns, sights. Even the shape and quality of the holster must be changed.

Meanwhile, it turned out that in order for Izhmash not only to survive, but also to develop, its further technical modernization and re-equipment of the machine park are necessary. We managed to do something in this regard five years ago - immediately after the execution of the Venezuelan contract - with the money raised for supplying 500 thousands of machines to Caracas.

It is very important to find a solution that would give a signal for the receipt of state defense order funds to the plant. But not a single problem, Rogozin is convinced, will not be able to cope without the faith and support of the people. He recalled a long-standing anecdote, which again became relevant. Optimists today are learning English, pessimists are Chinese, and realists are Kalashnikov assault rifles. True, in NATO, the former permanent representative of the Russian Federation under the North Atlantic Alliance said, they do not know that Kalashnikov is a real living person. But he is our pride, AK is a Russian brand, placed even on the emblems of some countries. Americans in Afghanistan prefer to use AK, and not M-16. Therefore, our task is to grow new Kalashnikovs.

Izhmash also has its own plans for optimizing the factory territory, using it to create an industrial park, producing automotive components for Izhavto (a project with Nissan), deploying warehouses and, possibly, trading platforms that will give considerable financial returns. As a result of the modernization, about 100 thousand square meters can be released, which will also ensure the flow of money to improve and increase production. Due to savings and own funds, the plant is ready to allocate about 200 million rubles a year for modernization. But the flow of funds under the Federal Target Program is expected only from 2014 year. Therefore, Izhmashevs have one request: to reduce these deadlines.

Dmitry Rogozin met with the work collective of the company and promised that he would contribute to his further fruitful work.

“I hope that by March 1 we will adopt the Federal Targeted Program for the Development of the Defense Industry Complex and, in particular, Izhmash until the year 2020,” the Deputy Prime Minister said. - It will contain a new ideology of technical re-equipment of the industry, funds for the modernization of production. Izhmash needs modern equipment and it will appear. We will not be able to reduce the cost of production if we produce it on the machines of the “times of Ochakov and the subjugation of the Crimea”.

It is necessary to involve private business managers in solving these problems. At the same time, it is also necessary to know the true owners of enterprises: “We want to deal with real shareholders and owners. They are obliged to bear full responsibility for the fate of enterprises, to actively participate in the implementation of the GOZ ”.

All this will reduce the cost of production, will provide conditions for raising the level of wages, which in the defense industry should be higher than in the civilian sector. So it was before, so it will be now. We need to think about R & D before 2015 year. They can not be stopped if they meet the requirements of the LG, new challenges.

“This is my program, which is supported by Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin,” Rogozin said. “And although I still have a period of“ marriages to the defense industry, ”I see prospects, I believe in success. The plant will live. But from easy temptations to buy foreign weapons and military equipment, we need to leave. In this we simply must find mutual understanding with the Ministry of Defense. ”

Revive the country through the revival of "defense"

The Vice Prime Minister held a branch meeting in Izhevsk on the development of small arms in the Russian Federation, where his endeavors were supported by the presidential plenipotentiary of the Russian Federation in the Volga Federal District Mikhail Babich, President of the Udmurt Republic Alexander Volkov, heads of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia and the Rostekhnologii State Corporation, director leading enterprises of the domestic defense industry complex.

As a result, effective measures were identified, designed to respect the interests of both the customer and the consumer. The main idea, approved by all: the weapons produced in our country must meet the realities of today, be effective on the battlefield. And it should be assessed by officers and soldiers. Therefore, under the auspices of the Military Industrial Commission, a laboratory will appear where the designers will deal not with the generals, but with military officers, instructors of the special forces of the GRU, FSO, etc. “Oboronka” is not Odessa Privoz, the Deputy Prime Minister emphasized. “Everything in it should be subordinated to the state defense order.”

Personnel problems will be solved. Already in February, a meeting with rectors of higher technical educational institutions of Russia will be held in Moscow to form a completely different level of cooperation between universities and the defense industry, so that the design bureaus and enterprises can involve teachers, students and postgraduates in common work.

“I don’t want to hear any more moans of the Russian people in the face of the complaints of the directors corps,” Rogozin snapped. “All the problems that are raised by the directors should get their permission immediately.”

The government in this matter will not be silent. For example, when there are no orders, special working groups will be created to find specific ways out of the impasse. It is also good that some enterprises are now undergoing procedures for cleansing their legal status or bankruptcy. These are wellness processes associated with their revival. And in the near future, the plants will be our partners in the state defense order.

Rogozin also promised to launch a merciless fight against the unlicensed production of domestic weapons abroad: “We bulldoze counterfeit compact discs, fulfilling the demand of international organizations. Why, then, where copyright is respected, is it so easy to look at the illegal use of the Russian Kalashnikov brand, including our little brothers from the former socialist camp? And some even win tenders for the production of AK. This should not be. The civilized world must pay every penny for our brand. ”

The creation of new types of weapons will lead the development of new materials, alloys, will cause a multiplier effect. So, it is possible and necessary to revive Russia as a whole through the revival of the country's military-industrial complex, in which modern dual-use technologies and specialists have been laid and still remain. True, there is not much time left for this.

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  1. Sergh
    Sergh 1 February 2012 11: 28
    Guys, I’m watching a film about the GRU detachment, I haven’t even watched it yet, wonderful dock. movie. Take a look at your leisure, all honestly, all four episodes in one.
  2. esaul
    esaul 1 February 2012 11: 30
    Well, comrades, life goes on! Left-handed people in Great Russia did not get carried away, as if those who rubbed their hands in the 90 didn’t want to, by hook or by crook, withdrawing developments, ideas and MINDS from Russia! The article is optimistic and I like it! And it’s up to you, comrades, to decide for everyone. Once again - I am glad about Rogozin’s appointment and his activity in a new field! Glad for the country! Regards, Esaul! Thanks to Oleg Falichev!
    1. Desert Fox
      Desert Fox 1 February 2012 11: 41
      I also agree with the optimism of the article. But I see one more way of withdrawing Russia's arms industry in the small arms sector as much as possible to simplify life for private traders, as in the United States, so that a private trader can design, manufacture and sell his weapons, participate in contests, along with monsters. The groans from the Ministry of Internal Affairs that then the weapons will fall into the hands of criminals are no longer ridiculous, it is easier for a criminal to buy a barrel stolen from the warehouses of the same Ministry of Internal Affairs or the Army than to BUY it from a private trader. A private trader is not a fool either, selling his product past the box office, dooming himself to a license deprivation. Yes, and it has long been in the hands of criminals.
      1. esaul
        esaul 1 February 2012 13: 00
        Quote: Desert Fox
        Desert Fox

        Greetings, Fox, and thank you for your support! And about the production of weapons by "free artists" - this, it seems to me, is a thought that has the right to life. It is only important to "prop up" it very thoughtfully by law.
    2. vadimus
      vadimus 1 February 2012 12: 24
      In general, the work was up to the mark, but putting Rogozin in place of Serdyukov would not have been bad at all. A man is fighting for the army and is not sitting idle
      1. Desert Fox
        Desert Fox 1 February 2012 12: 30
        There are such people as Rogozin would have been. Maybe changes in our country for the better would go much faster.
        Rogozin can be replaced by the Ministry of Defense, the current position of such active people should be higher, since we still have one. In the prime ministers.
      2. Zynaps
        Zynaps 1 February 2012 16: 14
        the military industry needs people like the late Maslyukov, who in Soviet times steered the State Planning Commission. Maslyukov helped Russia get out after the Yeltsin-Gaidar default. only now these people are either not there, or they are already old. natural cadre hunger.

        Rogozin is usually used to break up the left opposition. as was the case with the Rodina party. I personally have no trust in this ruddy gentleman.
      3. schta
        schta 2 February 2012 11: 09
        it will be so. everything goes to that. We are waiting for March.
    3. sedoj
      sedoj 1 February 2012 23: 56
      Yesaul, I support.
  3. Igaryok
    Igaryok 1 February 2012 11: 34
    It would be better if the old Kalash modernized.
    1. urzul
      urzul 1 February 2012 11: 40
      Igaryokand Igor
      one profile ??
      1. Igaryok
        Igaryok 1 February 2012 11: 59
        One to one.
        1. urzul
          urzul 1 February 2012 12: 14
          Well, yesterday about Lavrov, you certainly bent !!!
          1. Igaryok
            Igaryok 1 February 2012 12: 31
            So in such matters it’s generally not even possible to pronounce the word referendum, now Yapy will be for us, it will be remembered every time.
            1. urzul
              urzul 1 February 2012 12: 34
              So he didn’t pronounce it, it’s an invention of the Japanese
    2. carver
      carver 1 February 2012 11: 46
      I did not understand, to be honest, what did you mean, maybe this banter is so thin so ???
      1. urzul
        urzul 1 February 2012 11: 47
        if one, then the conclusion is simple, he posts comments without reading the article
        1. Igaryok
          Igaryok 1 February 2012 12: 08
          Quote: urzul
          if one, then the conclusion is simple, he posts comments without reading the article

          When creating the AK-12, the latest technologies in the field of coatings and materials are used. The machine is intended for sale abroad
          1. urzul
            urzul 1 February 2012 12: 13
            And it should be written that when creating the AK-12 ancient materials and technologies were used and he modernized the AK-47 by changing the color ??
            1. Igaryok
              Igaryok 1 February 2012 12: 29
              Yes, I’m not talking about this, but that our MO will not buy them or will buy them anyway, but in piece lots, and it would be better if they placed strips, collimators and arms on the old Kalash.
              1. urzul
                urzul 1 February 2012 12: 35
                Yes it’s kind and so it is
            2. Igaryok
              Igaryok 1 February 2012 12: 45
              "We will try to create an atmosphere conducive to a calm search for a mutually acceptable solution. In this case, the solution must be approved by both societies. In the case of Russia, this issue will be resolved through a referendum."
  4. Tatars
    Tatars 1 February 2012 11: 39
    It will be interesting to look at the store for 95 rounds of AK-12 winked
    1. Uhalus
      Uhalus 1 February 2012 13: 34
      Maybe disk? Or drum, as they wrote before.
    2. predator
      predator 1 February 2012 16: 18
      this store used to be used in RPK machine guns chambered for 7,62x 39 capacity 81 rounds.
  5. Professor
    Professor 1 February 2012 11: 41
    Rogozin also promised to launch a merciless fight against the unlicensed production of domestic weapons abroad: “We bulldoze counterfeit compact discs, fulfilling the demand of international organizations. Why, then, where copyright is respected, is it so easy to look at the illegal use of the Russian Kalashnikov brand, including our little brothers from the former socialist camp? And some even win tenders for the production of AK. This should not be. The civilized world must pay every penny for our brand. ”

    it would not hurt him to go through a legal educational program, and only then make populist statements.
    1. if a patent has not been registered in a particular country (for example, China or the USA) for a product, then there are no legal restrictions on its production
    2. even if such a patent has been registered, its validity period is maximum 25 years. This means that the AK-47 can be completely legally produced in any country since 1972, and the AK-74 since 1999, and this will in no way be called "counterfeit" or "copyright infringement".
    3. A similar situation is with the "brand" tobish the trade mark. Where, by whom and when was the Kalashnikov brand registered? If before its registration at least one Chinese named any Kalashnikov assault rifle, then Mr. Rogozin can continue to PR and shake the air with threats ...
    1. urzul
      urzul 1 February 2012 11: 49
      True, we noticed, otherwise Kalashnikov would now be on the list of billionaires, it’s a pity the man !!!
      1. Zynaps
        Zynaps 1 February 2012 16: 18
        MTK and now lives well. annoyingly different. various muddy little people use his authority for cuts / kickbacks and sometimes release MTK to act as a wedding general.
  6. alexander hjcnjd
    alexander hjcnjd 1 February 2012 11: 49
    The tones of modern weapons did not save the union from collapse. I am not saying that the army is not needed, but the economy and education above all, and then the military, but in no case the other way around.
    1. Zynaps
      Zynaps 1 February 2012 16: 21
      weapons (especially nuclear ones) saved the remnants of the USSR from being not shared by uncles from the outside, like Yugoslavia, Iraq or Libya. I agree with the second sentence.
  7. alps
    alps 1 February 2012 11: 54
    Quote: Igaryok
    It would be better if the old Kalash modernized.

    What's better?
    1. Alexey Prikazchikov
      Alexey Prikazchikov 1 February 2012 12: 36
      WE are provided with weapons by 115 percent according to this saving, you can just wait until the new platform or until AK 12 is completely finished.
    2. Igaryok
      Igaryok 1 February 2012 13: 38
      Because 1 million. AK-12 assault rifles will not buy MO.
      1. Alexey Prikazchikov
        Alexey Prikazchikov 1 February 2012 14: 23
        1 million is not needed. All the ground units are only 280000 thousand people, and even there, not everyone needs a machine gun.
  8. Alexey Prikazchikov
    Alexey Prikazchikov 1 February 2012 12: 30
    As always off topic smile but I am bringing another joyful news (well, our sworn Ukrainian "brothers" fellow )

    Bookmark new ships for the Russian Navy.

    Today, in St. Petersburg, at the Severnaya Verf Shipbuilding Plant OJSC, the laying of two warships for the Russian Navy took place at once:

    corvette "Thundering" (project 20385, serial number 1005)

    and frigate "Admiral Golovko" (project 22350, serial number 923)

    The lead frigate of project 22350 "Admiral Gorshkov" after launching, October 2010:
    Specifications (20385_22350):

    Standard displacement: 2500_4500 t.

    Length: ??? _ 130 m.

    Width 13_16 m.

    Speed ​​27_29 knots

    Cruising Range (14 knots): 3500_4000 miles

    Armament (20385_22350):

    Artillery mount: A-190-01 (100 mm) _ A-192 (130 mm)

    UKSK 3S14 1 * 8_2 * 8 cells

    SAM "Redut" 16_32 cells

    ZRAK "Broadsword" 0_2 pcs.

    AK-630M 2_0 pcs.

    MTPU machine gun mounts (14,5 mm) 2_2 pcs.

    Helicopter PLO 1_1 pcs.
    Embedded sections of the corvette and frigate in the slipway of JSC "Severnaya Verf"

    Photos posted by sevstud1986 on

    Corvette "Thundering" of project 20385 is a development of the corvette "Guarding" (project 20380) and differs from its predecessors by increased dimensions and the presence of a new missile system. To date, the shipbuilders of the "Severnaya Verf" have transferred to the fleet "Guarding" (No.1001, in 2007) and a slightly different composition of weapons, "Soobrazitelny" (No.1002, in 2011).

    Corvette "Boykiy" (serial number 1003) is currently being completed afloat and this year, after testing, it will join the Navy. Another corvette of this project, "Stoyky" (No.1004), will be launched this year.

    The frigate "Admiral Golovko" of Project 22350 will be the third ship of this type. The lead frigate of the new generation "Admiral Gorshkov" (No 921) has been under construction at Severnaya Verf since 2006. This year, he should go to sea trials. The second building - "Admiral Kasatonov" (serial number 922), was laid down in November 2009 and will be launched at the end of 2012.

    Both new warships inherited the historical names of the ships of the domestic Navy.
    1. Alexey Prikazchikov
      Alexey Prikazchikov 1 February 2012 12: 31
      Even at the Amur shipyard (Komsomolsk-on-Amur), the Sovereign (No 2101) is under construction and it is planned to launch this year by the end of the year, it is planned to lay another pair - the Strogiy corvette and the Admiral Yumashev Plus frigate today the Mistral in France is being laid for us fellow tongue
      1. Tyumen
        Tyumen 1 February 2012 22: 24
        By the way, the first two Mistral will receive the names * Vladivostok * and * Sevastopol *.
  9. Skiff
    Skiff 1 February 2012 12: 33
    it is interesting
  10. Skiff
    Skiff 1 February 2012 12: 34

    It is interesting.
  11. Alexey Prikazchikov
    Alexey Prikazchikov 1 February 2012 12: 35
    Of the new Kalashnikov assault rifle will make a sniper rifle

    Now the Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant is testing the latest AK-12 Kalashnikov assault rifle. Despite the fact that the tests are far from complete, the prospects of the Izhevsk news can be estimated now. The press service of Izhmash reports that it is too early to talk about the test results of the new model. Test firing began only in December 2011, and it takes time to check the effectiveness of the machine in various conditions and, if necessary, make improvements to the design, ”says Elena Filatova. According to the developers, one of the advantages of the new weapon will be its modular design. On the basis of AK-12, it is planned to develop a whole series of various small arms. Including civilian modifications and even sniper rifles. By the end of 2012, they plan to send the machine to state tests, and in 2014 - to start mass production. The press service of Izhmash also reported that the decision to develop a new model of a Kalashnikov assault rifle is an initiative of the plant, and not a consequence of a state order. At the enterprise, they are convinced that the AK-12 will be in demand in foreign markets and hope that the Russian Ministry of Defense will also appreciate the new development of domestic gunsmiths.
  12. Skiff
    Skiff 1 February 2012 12: 35
    It is interesting
  13. dred
    dred 1 February 2012 13: 29
    Where can I see a photo of a strike gun?
  14. Uhalus
    Uhalus 1 February 2012 13: 41
    Well, here, I'm glad there will be something new. Only I was alarmed by the adage about the sale of new machines abroad ... It wouldn’t have happened that ours and ours are the same ... I somehow understand if I’m selling outdated, but so that the latest ...
    AK sniper rifle? Maybe. But you need to make it of very good quality, and this is impossible on worn-out, outdated equipment. Yes, and the modernization of old machines in our conditions does not really matter.
  15. StrategBV
    StrategBV 1 February 2012 13: 57
    I heard a little information about the AK-12, if all this is true, then the sample is excellent, I hope that it will not only not disappoint, but will exceed all expectations. GLORY TO RUSSIA bully
  16. sergo0000
    sergo0000 1 February 2012 16: 21
    alexander hjcnjd today,
    11: 49 0
    Reply Quote Complaint
    Tones of modern weapons
    they didn’t save the union from collapse. I don’t
    I say that the army is not needed,
    but economics and education
    first of all, and then a military commissar,
    but by no means
    vice versa.
    HEREBAR FIRED BY A Naked ASS. Don't be afraid, everything will be fine !! Not all at once.
    1. Andrey_K
      Andrey_K 1 February 2012 18: 10
      But tons of weapons saved him from destruction.
      Still, collapse is better than an atomic explosion in every major city.
  17. serge
    serge 1 February 2012 18: 07
    “We are pushing counterfeit CDs with a bulldozer ... Why, where copyright is respected, is it so easy to look at the illegal use of the Kalashnikov Russian brand.
    Physical media are slowly becoming a thing of the past. And our copyright is still ahead. As the iron chancellor said, “Russians always come for their money. And when they come, do not rely on the Jesuit agreements you signed, supposedly justifying you. They are not worth the paper. which is written ".
  18. Sleptsoff
    Sleptsoff 1 February 2012 19: 33
    A production culture would still be established and it would be very good.