Military Review

War, gold and the pyramid of ... Cheops (part four)

Last time we settled on the fact that ... it is difficult to be the son of a great father. From childhood it seems that the people around you are treated worse than they are to him, they chuckle behind their backs - they say, the youngster on the throne, in a word, “do not respect”. So you need to show that you are not worse. And the son Snefru had the opportunities for this, because it was not for nothing that he was making military campaigns in the “land of Asians”. And so he decided to build himself a pyramid, which was not in the world yet, and ... built it!

War, gold and the pyramid of ... Cheops (part four)

The pyramid of Cheops and the upper requiem temple located in front of it.

He built it on a plateau in Giza, in an area that is now two steps away from Cairo, so that in the literal sense of the word, Pyramid Avenue rests on its pyramid and the other two. Now everything is tidy here, it is arranged in the interests of tourists, so it is a pleasure to be here if it were not for the crowds of these tourists from all over the world! Guides - many of whom are Russian, broadcast on topics who are closer ... "It is considered (who, when, from where) that under the Pyramid of Cheops is the entrance to the underworld, where even today the descendants of the Atlanteans live!"; “It is not clear how the pyramid of Cheops was built. This is a unique creation! ”And so on. By the way, the fact that it is unique is “yes”, but ... why did the guide not tell about all the previous pyramids, including those that had collapsed, according to which the construction technology was read a long time ago like a book? After such statements, all kinds of firefighters from Mokshan write about the fact that these are breakwaters from the flood, and make surprised eyes when asked about the pyramids in Sakkar, Medum and Dashura. They did not even hear such names, but they have an opinion - because ... people have a right to do so.

This is how the complex of buildings of the Pyramid of Cheops looked immediately after the completion of the work.

Well, and we will try to consider this official (and for now the only) miracle of the world that has come down to us from the era of the Ancient World. Today its height is 137,3 m, and it was - 146,7. 2250000 stone blocks of sizes a little more than a cubic meter went for its construction, and its weight exceeds the tonnage of the entire (total!) Naval fleet USA, including its aircraft carriers!

Plan of the area around the pyramid. Small rectangles are mastabs.

It was built on the orders of Pharaoh Khufu (in Greek he is Cheops), the second Pharaoh IV dynasty of the Ancient Kingdom in Egypt, who ruled in 2589 — 2566 BC. er or 2551 — 2528 BC. ne., the son of Pharaoh Snofru and Queen Hetepheres.

His full name was “Khnum-Khufu”, which means “Khnum he guards me”. He had many children: sons Djedefra, Djedefhor, Kawab, Khafre (Khafre) - the builder of the second great pyramid, Banefra, Hufuhaef, and daughters Hetepheres II, Meresankh II, Hamerernebti I, whose numbers were, of course, attributed to scientists, since they coincide with the names other queens and princesses.

Cartouche named Khufu.

Khufu spent at least 27 years on the throne, which is confirmed by the inscription in Dakhla and also the papyrus dated by the Red Sea dated 27, the year of his reign. It is believed that he was a cruel tyrant and oppressor of his people, who, with him, was engaged only in building the pyramid, but sources in his lifetime report that Cheops also built many cities and settlements along the banks of the Nile, that he sent a military expedition to the Sinai Peninsula to fight the Bedouins who robbed merchants, and to develop the local turquoise deposits. There is an inscription on a stone on Elephantine Island near Aswan, indicating that he was also interested in the southern borders of the country where the famous pink Aswan granite was mined.

Reconstruction of the appearance of the territory of the Great Pyramids. In the foreground is the pyramid of Pharaoh Khafre and the famous Sphinx. Behind her is his father's pyramid, Khufu.

Now about the construction itself. The construction commander and chief architect of the pyramid was Hemiun, or Hemenui - most likely, either a cousin or nephew of Pharaoh Khufu. They built the pyramid according to a single plan, but at the same time - and this is very interesting, so that the king could at any time find a worthy repose in it. Therefore, there are three successively built burial chambers in it. Until the very first, unfinished, 120 meters have to go along the inclined underground corridor to the base of the pyramid, and there, apart from dust and bats, there is nothing interesting, so there are no tourists there.

The second, on the contrary, is at a height of 20 meters above the base. Finally, the third one, in which the sarcophagus was found, is above all and leads tourists there, electric lighting was held there and railings and wooden stairs were made. The sarcophagus is wider than the entrance to the chamber, which means that it was taken there before the roof was erected over it.

Layout of the pyramid of Khufu in section. Interestingly, the layout is arranged drop-down, the two side parts of the pyramid are hinged, and if these shutters are closed, then the pyramids look whole, and if you open it, you can see its structure. And why would such a lesson for lessons stories Do not release in the form of homemade for school history circles? Here you have both history and technical skills!

And this is how it looks with the doors and the podium.

Pyramid several times shone through a variety of rays, up to the neutrino, trying to find internal secret voids and "revelations of the Atlanteans", but found nothing, except for two narrow ventilation ducts.

Inside the Grand Gallery.

As usual, a fence was built around the pyramid - a wall 10 m in height and 3 meters of thickness, the requiem temples and tombs of dignitaries were erected - more than 150 mastaby. It must be said that many interesting finds were made in these mastabas. Three companion pyramids belonging to Hetepheres, Meritites, and Henutsen, which could be sisters and wives of Khufu, were also built here.

Two pyramids of the companion from left to right - Hetepherez, Meritites, and Henutsen.

Inside the pyramid of Henutsen. If you have time, it is worth going down to the pyramids-companions. There are very few or no tourists there and you can appreciate it - how can it be alone inside such a pyramid!

Also near the pyramid, they found as many as five (five!) “Docks” for “solar boats” on which the pharaoh’s body was carried to its resting place. Three were empty, but in two in 1954, archaeologists found two disassembled rooks. One collected and now it is exhibited in the museum at the foot of the pyramid, and the other is collected and studied. By the way, both swam. Among the cedar planks from which they were made, they found a characteristic silt.

Museum of Pharaoh's rooks.

Here, not far from the pyramid of Khufu in 1925, they also found the shaft of the tomb of his mother, Queen Hetepheres, from which gold and silver products were then carried out for three months.

Mine tomb of Heteferes G 7000X. Photo 1926 of the year.

Herodot reported on the construction of the pyramid, referring to the data he received from the priests: 10 spent years building a paved road from the lower temple in the valley to the funeral temple near the pyramid, 20 years to the pyramid itself. And he reports that only radish, onions and garlic workers ate on 1600 talents of silver, or about 7,5 million dollars at current silver prices. About the mounds ("homa" in Greek), on which stones were delivered during the construction of the pyramid to the top, Diodorus Sicilian also wrote and later (about this in previous articles), archaeologists discovered their remains. He also reported that 360 000 Egyptians were employed in construction. They worked as brigades or teams that lived in barracks of a barracks type near the pyramid itself. The remnants of them were found, and thanks to the inscriptions that reached us it is known that such teams as “Khufu awakens love”, “Khuf's White Crown are Mighty” worked on the construction of the pyramid of Khufu, but a team worked on the construction of the neighboring pyramid of Menkaura "Menkaura the drunkard." Moreover, Herodotus also wrote about his addiction to binge ...

Bas-relief on the rock in Wadi Magara, made by Lepsius.

However, Egyptologists were really lucky only in April 2013, when it was announced that more than 40 papyri were found, dated by 27, the year of the reign of Pharaoh Khufu. Among them was found something like a diary of an official named Merrer, who led him for three months and in which he wrote about his participation in the construction of the pyramid of Khufu in Giza. He reported on how he went to the Limestone Quarry of Tours for the stone blocks that were cut down there and transported to the pyramid from there. That is what it was possible to guess about earlier, it was confirmed ...

Pyramidion, once crowning the pyramid of Cheops.

And this is a passage punched into it by the ill-fated Arab caliph Al-Ma'mun in 820. He sought for treasure, but found nothing!

Indeed, the site for one more pyramid, found to the east of the Pyramid of Cheops, is large enough. They began to level it, but then abandoned it, and this is the question for whom it was intended and why it was abandoned? By the way, Napoleon visited the pyramid of Cheops and, of course, she impressed him!

To be continued ...
Articles from this series:
Wars, gold and pyramids (part of 3). The texts of the pyramids.
War, gold and pyramids (part of 2). Snofru - pyramid builder
War, gold and pyramids (part of 1). What was before the pyramids?
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  1. midshipman
    midshipman 17 January 2017 07: 40
    I saw them personally in 1972. In the article "Creative business trip" there are photos. Thanks to Oksana and Vyacheslav for the article. I have the honor.
    1. kalibr
      17 January 2017 07: 47
      I can only envy! And at 72 I entered the first year of the teacher's university. At 74 he married and decided with his young wife to go as a tourist to Egypt. But ... they didn’t let me in either through Sputnik or through Oblsofprof - "no, 25 years." Such were the rules then. And now my family has a rule: abroad only with the whole family. Therefore, where it is hot and stuffy ... I, alas, will not go. The interests of loved ones are more important than personal interest in the pyramids.
      1. V.ic
        V.ic 17 January 2017 08: 40
        Quote: kalibr
        in 72 he entered the first year of teacher training. 74 married

        ... my tongue = my enemy ... Vyacheslav, with the specified dating, I immediately recall the phrase about saving ink from the unfading film "Formula of Love" or // completely black thoughts about your current age "at 72 I entered the first year of the teacher's university. 74 got married "... Thanks for your involuntary humor, (appreciated +++), laughed. Let's keep the chronology, for the next life form will roll their brains on one side when reading modern texts ... request .
        1. kalibr
          17 January 2017 14: 28
          Black thoughts about age? Why would it be: everything is written on the profile - was born in 1954, so it’s easy to calculate. And why not remember youth? This will also come to you after 60-ty ...
      2. Dekabrist
        Dekabrist 17 January 2017 09: 01
        In October there is great weather. Not hot and not cold. But the pyramids themselves near look somehow abandoned. In any case, more was expected. And the natives get their trough trade. So they strive to papyrus from banana skins of the last harvest to palm off under the guise of an ancient one.
        1. kalibr
          17 January 2017 15: 46
          We can’t go in October. Nobody will let me go from work. There is simply no one to replace. And the granddaughter is studying ...
          1. Dekabrist
            Dekabrist 17 January 2017 17: 51
            Ah, work, work ... Whoever wants, is looking for ways, who does not want - reasons.
            1. kalibr
              17 January 2017 21: 35
              That's right, but only I and a couple of teachers can read the Masters. They pay dearly enough to say at any time, but for what? So, alas ... Here in the summer is another matter. But in the summer we will most likely go to Europe to watch castles ...
              1. Dekabrist
                Dekabrist 17 January 2017 22: 32
                Yes, in the summer only by the sea. The climate is desert in the country. Therefore, October - November to explore the antiquities - the optimum. Later, the daily diurnal changes make it uncomfortable. Happy thirties, zero at night. It was only there that I understood why in the films they show how people in the desert around the campfire warm themselves at night.
                But near all these antiquities for some reason I did not cause much enthusiasm. I do not even know. Expected more.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 17 January 2017 07: 57
    However, real Egyptologists were lucky only in April 2013, when it was announced that more than 40 papyri were found, dated to the 27th year of the reign of Pharaoh Khufu.
    ... Really lucky, priceless materials ... Thanks, interesting ...
  3. Niccola Mack
    Niccola Mack 17 January 2017 11: 02
    Invariably, the list of wonders of the world opens with pyramids !!!
    The scale of construction is still impressive - but all this had to be organized - to feed, drink, prepare and deliver building materials, to design competently.
    Sensible people steered it all - a fact!
  4. ruskih
    ruskih 17 January 2017 11: 03
    How great it is to leisurely travel with a cup of coffee! Thank. Have a nice day, everyone! love
    I wonder when the photo was taken in 1926. from the tomb of Heterefes, before or after the gold was removed from it, in the foreground and on the floor is this what remains of the papyrus?
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 17 January 2017 11: 39
      How great it is to leisurely travel with a cup of coffee!

      just about, too, regardless of you, I was drinking coffee and studying the article! love I’m not talking about the fact that the article is a colorful tour, this is already understandable. I myself am far from Egypt, but I first learned about the fact that officials mastabs were around the pyramid. Links to Herodotus and Diodorus are interesting - the whole process was described in ancient times, and there are still a lot of articles about aliens and other mysticism!
      For fun, I watched Wikipedia about Al-Mamun. Legends were already at that time. A certain al-Qaisi (XII century) reported that in the pyramid “a coffin was found, similar to a statue of a man carved from green stone. When this coffin was brought to the caliph and the lid was removed, under it was the body of a man in gold armor decorated with precious stones, in his hand he held a sword that had no price, and a huge ruby ​​the size of a chicken egg burned on his forehead; and the caliph took this stone for himself. ”
      1. ruskih
        ruskih 17 January 2017 12: 20
        Caliph, a huge ruby ​​..... so smoothly we pass to the tales of "1001 nights".
        I love comments on articles about history, it does not matter the pyramids, weapons, armor, culture. There is always something new, and what subtle humor is present, just the mood rises. Thank.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 17 January 2017 13: 12
          yes, yes, and there is Ali Baba with a cave of treasures, or Walter Scott’s novels are not far away! Although few of us would want to live at that time ..
          1. Weyland
            Weyland 18 January 2017 22: 35
            Quote: Mikado
            there, and to Ali Baba with a cave of treasures, or Walter Scott's novels are not far away!

            Ali Baba is out of business here, but Aladdin found the lamp in the Egyptian tomb (in the original tale, it is described in such detail that the Egyptologists cut it through)
    2. kalibr
      17 January 2017 14: 24
      I don’t know, I can’t say.
      1. ruskih
        ruskih 17 January 2017 14: 44
        Simply, if after, it turns out that papyruses didn’t really stand on ceremony.
      2. Mikado
        Mikado 17 January 2017 20: 09
        question in the forehead, Vyacheslav Olegovich: was the layout of the pyramid made with your participation? wink
        1. kalibr
          17 January 2017 21: 32
          Of course, I did the layout of the pyramid. When the granddaughter went to the 5-th class. They have a very good history teacher, and I thought it would be nice to help. So he helped - instead of saying how badly they teach at school now, he went and made them a pyramid, a Greek temple and a knight’s castle. Then we made the castle simpler with the whole class during the lesson, so that the children got working skills and each of them had a lock.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 17 January 2017 21: 56
            And why not issue such manuals for history lessons in the form of home-made materials for school historical circles? Here you have both history and technical creativity skills!

            You are doing a good thing, there’s nothing to add here .. good Not only training, but the students themselves will be very interesting, I think. Plus, the material is better fixed, clearly, and for the general brain development, any catchy trifle, up to the pyramid, is useful. hi Here you can say a lot, it’s very interesting!
  5. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 17 January 2017 15: 00
    The revolution in archeology occurred relatively recently when
    electron microscopes have learned to read the so-called "blind papyri":
    the papyri, from which the ink was completely washed off, worn away.
    And papyrus in ancient times was often used several times - the old was washed off,
    as unnecessary, and wrote a new text. But there were pen scratches!
    And the microscope + software was taught to distinguish between layers and restore tex "to depth".
    In the vaults of the British Museum of such "trash papyri" for years, fortunately
    they were not thrown into the trash.
    And there was a lot of information about life in ancient Egypt in various fields
    and eras.
    1. ruskih
      ruskih 17 January 2017 18: 01
      Thanks, I somehow didn’t think about it.
  6. Alisher
    Alisher 17 January 2017 20: 36
    Pyramidion, once crowning the pyramid of Cheops.

    This is a pyramidion model made of blocks from the Cheops pyramid, or from neighboring pyramids.
    Firstly, there are gaps between the stones, there are new photos where they have already been covered with cement - all for the tourist! Such a one on top would fall apart immediately.
    Secondly, instead of granite - limestone, on the top stone is very clearly visible. And this is understandable, the layout is easier to make from soft stone.
    Thirdly, what did historians write about the pyramidion? Does it look like a drop?
  7. behemot
    behemot April 23 2017 16: 47
    about "screening" using a neutrino is interesting, but can it be more? And then physicists do not even know. The observatory for fixing the neutrino span is a huge pool of water underground, something like this.