Military Review

Megaton class timber base

44
11 January 1957, the Soviet government decided to build an Angara facility among forests and northern marshes near the Plesetskaya station of the Arkhangelsk Region. It was conceived as a test missile test site and at the same time a base for the first P-7 ICBMs (SS-6 Sapol). Now it is the northernmost spaceport Plesetsk.


Megaton class timber baseHis история It began with the creation in this place of a division of combat intercontinental ballistic missiles R-7. The chosen place met all the requirements of the military: impassable taiga and constant low clouds facilitated the masking of the strategic object. And most importantly - the minimum distance to the territories of the likely enemy.

The birth of the "Angara" in the midst of the Cold War took place in the shadow of the Baikonur cosmodrome and had the status of state secrets. The formation of the facility as an ICBM division was completed by the end of 1958. And already in January, the first missile system with the P-1960 called Lesobaza was put on duty on 7.

For the Soviet people, all this was really a secret; they only spoke openly about the connection of the “sevens” in the Arkhangelsk forests in the 90-s. But the Americans knew about the object from the 60-x, when the first space launches were made from here. The paradox of Soviet times and in part, perhaps, of the present, that the likely adversary knows more about us than our military. I do not want to develop this topic, but I know what I'm saying.

A little-known fact: “Lesobaza” played its role in the most intense period of the Caribbean crisis - at a critical moment the launch complex kept a nuclear-powered missile ready. Americans probably knew about it.

Having undergone changes in development, the Angara object turned into a test site, later transformed into the 1 th state test space center. From 1970 to the beginning of 90's, he held the lead in the number of launches into orbit. And now it provides a part of Russian space programs related to defense, as well as national economic and commercial launches of unmanned vehicles.

Over the years of 60 rapid development, of course, not everything went smoothly in such a matter as rocket testing. Incidents have happened, unfortunately, with the death of people. The biggest occurred 18 March 1980 of the year while refueling the rocket. The explosion of fuel took 48 lives.

Today, the northernmost cosmodrome consists of six centers associated with the testing of various rocket complexes. After the introduction of the Eastern Plesetsk will retain the functions of the main military cosmodrome of the country, in other words - back to basics.
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  1. Teberii
    Teberii 15 January 2017 08: 00 New
    +7
    An interesting article has learned a lot thanks.
    1. Cat
      Cat 15 January 2017 08: 29 New
      +4
      Support!
      Although I would like to hear the author’s version, who opened the spaceport?
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 15 January 2017 10: 03 New
        +8
        Quote: Kotischa
        Although I would like to hear the author’s version, who opened the spaceport?

        Such an object is difficult to hide, especially since this area of ​​the Arkhangelsk region has always been interested in American intelligence. In addition to Pesetsk, Severodvinsk and Nenoksa are located in this area of ​​the Arkhangelsk region. Polygon New Earth.
        1. gladcu2
          gladcu2 15 January 2017 20: 14 New
          +2
          Auto RU

          "For Soviet people, all this was really a secret ..."

          You're right. In the USSR, everything was too bureaucratic. Those. administration, contrary to common sense. And thanks to the same system, changes that make life easier for designers and users were introduced slowly. The system is very conservative.

          But there is nothing to be done.

          Socialism is an economic system based on planning. And planning is a form of dictatorship, when once having made an administrative decision to change it is no longer possible. Those. there is no “clawed hand market” flexibility in the planning system. Which in general is not bad, but nonetheless, common sense often disappears.

          Bureaucracy, his mother ...
      2. jjj
        jjj 15 January 2017 11: 37 New
        13
        Quote: Kotischa
        Although I would like to hear the author’s version, who opened the spaceport?

        The location, according to the Americans themselves, was determined by chance ... by American schoolchildren. They had a task to calculate the satellite’s orbit. When the calculations were made, it turned out that the start came from the taiga in the north of the USSR. The guys scolded that they made a mistake. The recount of the orbit, again pointed to the same place. Then the American intelligence became interested in the calculations. They quickly realized that the Russians had fooled them not only with Baikonur, but also with Mirny. The name "Plesetsk" was given already at the time of the so-called publicity.
        By the way, our northernmost spaceport can be considered exactly Nenoks, or rather Sopk, because there it is possible to send cargo into space
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 15 January 2017 12: 19 New
          +9
          Well, if Americans have schoolchildren calculate the starting point of the start according to the trajectory measurements of the orbit, then this is only in an alternative story. Americans can write this, but why are you so gullible?
          1. Bratkov Oleg
            Bratkov Oleg 17 January 2017 22: 18 New
            +1
            What is a domestic microcircuit that would not be ripped off the American prototype.
            1. Aviator_
              Aviator_ 18 January 2017 08: 58 New
              +3
              Do you seriously believe that the American school curriculum includes the calculation of the start location for trajectory measurements? This is what was said in the remark, do not blur the original question.
              1. 89612304044
                89612304044 19 January 2017 07: 48 New
                0
                American students think a lot and the atomic scheme ..... they don’t like boring topics.
                1. Aviator_
                  Aviator_ 19 January 2017 09: 06 New
                  +2
                  Give me a variant of the American school curriculum corresponding to our secondary education. And for some reason they are rowing graduates of universities to themselves around the world.
                  1. Greenwood
                    Greenwood 3 December 2017 08: 22 New
                    0
                    Quote: Aviator_
                    And for some reason they are rowing graduates of universities to themselves around the world.
                    In my student days, I was familiar with a parallel group on field trips at their Massachusetts Institute of Technology (like our team went there as part of robotics competitions). He says that our universities are like the moon before him, where first-year students work in laboratories, conduct research, write articles, participate in testing and software development in collaboration with leading companies, etc., etc., etc. receive, coupled with theoretical training receive real experience in the enterprise. And they don’t sit and spend time on 100500 of dull lectures on matanalysis (with all due respect to the latter). I believe that it is high time to revise the curriculum at universities. Especially in engineering technical specialties.
                    1. Aviator_
                      Aviator_ 3 December 2017 09: 02 New
                      +1
                      So big, but you believe in fairy tales. Humanities, I suppose. If a freshman already knows everything
                      [/ quote] conduct research, write articles, [quote]
                      , then why should he continue to study? And the list of what you literally wrote from other people's words is the system of the Soviet Physics Institute (founded in 1951 year), when from the fourth year after basic university training, students begin to deepen specialization in the basic departments located in the leading research institutes (IFVTAN, TsIAM , LII, TsAGI, TSNIIMASH ...) I’m telling you as a graduate of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.
                      1. Greenwood
                        Greenwood 3 December 2017 20: 34 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Aviator_
                        So big, but you believe in fairy tales.
                        I believe in the words of a real person who has visited and seen with his own eyes.
                        Quote: Aviator_
                        Humanities, I suppose.
                        Did not guess.
                        Quote: Aviator_
                        from the fourth year after basic university training, students begin to deepen specialization in basic departments located in leading research institutes
                        Well, maybe in Soviet times it was. As of the late 2000s and early 2010s, leading universities in the Far East (the same FEFU) taught for the most part bare theory, without practice and without involvement in enterprises (which simply do not exist).
                        Quote: Aviator_
                        located in leading research institutes (IFVTAN, TsIAM, LII, TsAGI, TSNIIMASH
                        All of these are located in Moscow and the Moscow region. And what about the regions remote for thousands of kilometers from Moscow.
                        Quote: Aviator_
                        I’m telling you as a graduate of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.
                        He would not study in Moscow, but for example in Vladivostok, he would say the opposite. Apparently, besides the Moscow normal universities, the country did not remain.
            2. GIN
              GIN 2 November 2017 19: 11 New
              0
              Call the modern Intel processor not ripped off from ours; you need to know what you write about; those processors were ripped off for another reason, they simultaneously released their own ones, but they were expensive
        2. tolancop
          tolancop 16 January 2017 00: 54 New
          +2
          ".. The name" Plesetsk "was given during the so-called glasnost ...."
          You are mistaken. For the first time I personally learned about the existence of the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in 1984 (no later !!!). A series of materials on Soviet spaceports: Kapustin Yar, Baikonur and Plesetsk - a story about a whole newspaper page about each of them was held in one of the central newspapers. Plesetsk in the materials passed under his own name.
          1. Rash
            Rash 16 January 2017 11: 12 New
            0
            You are mistaken, Plesetsk is a town, a regional center, and a spaceport is near the town of Mirny (ZATO).
            I know what I'm talking about, I was there in the mid-80s.
      3. KCA
        KCA 15 January 2017 11: 42 New
        +2
        Like who? SPRN, for which it was created by us and by amers
      4. svp67
        svp67 15 January 2017 11: 58 New
        +4
        Quote: Kotischa
        Although I would like to hear the author’s version, who opened the spaceport?

        And you watch the film "White Nights of the Postman Alexei Tryapitsyn", how people talk about life on fishing amid rockets taking off from behind hills. How to hide it?
      5. Fedor
        Fedor 15 January 2017 12: 00 New
        10
        The spaceport was revealed in detail by the traitor Penkovsky. Prior to that, a couple of test launches had been made from him in the direction of Kamchatka and Sary-Shagan and that’s all, lay down and sat quietly like mice. The Americans, by indirect indications (it is impossible to hide the large-scale construction), the flights of U-2 spies that began, obscure rumors, etc., suspected that there was something like this, but it was Penkovsky who clarified the picture for them. It was after this, when it became clear that, strictly speaking, there was nothing to hide from the Americans, on the one hand, and, on the other, it required launching of some specialized satellites into polar orbits, regular launches began from the Plesetsk cosmodrome in 1965. In general, the article is weak, and even an illustration is given of the modern, recently built launch of the Angara rocket. The Internet has its own sites of the Plesetsk cosmodrome, the city of Mirny, good videos on YouTube with the history of the construction of the cosmodrome. There is immeasurably more information.
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 15 January 2017 12: 16 New
          +3
          In general, the article is weak, and even an illustration is given of the modern, recently built launch of the Angara rocket. Naturally, a political officer who had the nickname "e .. t. Mother" during his service could write. He was always distinguished by superficiality.
        2. Rus2012
          Rus2012 15 January 2017 16: 35 New
          +1
          Quote: Fedor
          Americans indirectly (it’s impossible to hide large-scale construction), the flights of U-2 spies that began, vague rumors, etc., suspected that there was something like this,

          Quote: Fedor
          In general, the article is weak

          +1
          However, there is something in this story of the "Severs" that only "involved" and very curious still know about!
          This is the story of "5 country", "Ghost Division", or 5IU ...
          When the whole division of the Strategic Missile Forces (42 PGRK with ICBMs "Temp-2s") carried a completely secret database over 10 years (1975-87gg). The Yankees could not find out until the last date - where and how many there were. They passed the "tagged" ...
          After 2000xx, the last commander was awarded the Medal of Intelligence Veteran with the words “for many years of introducing all the intelligence services of the world” ...

          And further...
          From the “Severs”, a “missile strike” against the USA was nevertheless made;)
          See in detail here - https://topwar.ru/20911-raketnyy-udar-po-amerike.
          html
          Missile strike on america
          November 16 marks 20-years of the P-7 flight with a satellite from Plesetsk to the USA!

          A long time ago, I heard and remembered this event, but for a long time I could not find any traces. He only remembered the point - our aspiring businessmen bought the royal rocket P-7 from the arsenal and paid for its launch in America ...
      6. Nick
        Nick 16 January 2017 09: 11 New
        +1
        Quote: Kotischa
        Support!
        Although I would like to hear the author’s version, who opened the spaceport?

        In Iceland, there was an American electronic tracking center. He spotted all the objects rising to a height of more than two hundred meters. Where the object starts from and what kind of object it is easy to read by the characteristics of the flight.
    2. Titsen
      Titsen 15 January 2017 19: 21 New
      +3
      Quote: Teberii
      An interesting article has learned a lot.


      A brief overview of almost nothing!
  2. cap
    cap 15 January 2017 08: 30 New
    +3
    The paradox of the Soviet era and partly, probably, of the current one, that the probable adversary knows more about us than our military. I do not want to develop this topic, but I know what I'm saying.
    But sometimes we find out. laughing Thanks to the author hi
  3. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 15 January 2017 08: 38 New
    +4
    Could tell more. Unclassified and interesting there are many.
  4. Old26
    Old26 15 January 2017 10: 50 New
    +7
    The paradox of the Soviet era and partly, probably, of the current one, that the probable adversary knows more about us than our military. I do not want to develop this topic, but I know what I'm saying.

    Rather, this does not apply to the military, but to civilians. The military knew within the necessary framework where and what (according to their official duties). All this was really kept secret from civilians and practically all articles about Soviet military equipment were withdrawn from Western technical journals.

    .
    Quote: Kotischa
    Although I would like to hear the author’s version, who opened the spaceport?

    American intelligence satellites.
  5. Evgenijus
    Evgenijus 15 January 2017 11: 07 New
    +5
    Thanks to the author at least for the crumbs of the history of the northern polygon. It would be interesting to learn about the life and life of northern rocket men, living conditions - housing, food, as with children - there is a kindergarten, which school and other issues. About military secrets are not necessary - and so in their head is full of their former service. wink
    1. jjj
      jjj 15 January 2017 11: 41 New
      +2
      In Mirny, now the only one in the entire Arkhangelsk region is a water park. Children carry buses there. Schools are good there. True, the famous "young shooter", who shot a police officer from a house and then shot himself, studied for a long time just in Mirny
      1. Rus2012
        Rus2012 15 January 2017 17: 04 New
        +1
        Quote: jjj
        studied for a long time just in Mirny

        ... many celebrities came from there.
        Including the famous "Tarzan" -
        former officer from Plesetsk ...
    2. rubin6286
      rubin6286 15 January 2017 13: 14 New
      +7
      Mirny, the Arkhangelsk region, is a closed military town. In 1978, approximately 45 thousand people lived in it. In the city, all conditions were created for the work and rest of servicemen and members of their families, civilian specialists. The main housing fund consisted of well-equipped large-panel and large-block residential buildings. The city had a research institute, technical school, art school, 4 secondary schools, several kindergartens, a clinic, a hospital, a bakery, a public service center, a bath and laundry plant, a restaurant, several cafes, 4 hotels, a swimming pool, a stadium, a recreation area with a beach, an officers' house, two cinemas, parks with children's attractions, shops, canteens and much more, like what is in a regular district center. In Mirny, the Lesnaya Polyana children's sanatorium worked, where children with disabilities from the entire Arkhangelsk region were treated. The cosmodrome command and local authorities pay great attention to the improvement and maintenance of cleanliness and order in the city, and environmental issues. There is an air connection with Moscow and St. Petersburg.
      Most of the permanent troops are delivered daily from the town directly to the duty station. or by road, according to the current timetable. An officer’s working day is determined by the interests of the service and may be irregular. Upon arrival, the young officers are assigned to vacant posts and then spend a month at the cosmodrome, where they are given a number of official and special questions, then they arrive at the unit and pass tests for admission to independent work, and then proceed official duties in full. To receive young replenishment, quarantine companies are formed in parts of the spaceport. where draftees take a course of initial military training for a month, take the oath, and then are allocated to specific units, taking into account the level of education, civilian specialty, and health status.
    3. Nick
      Nick 16 January 2017 09: 46 New
      +2
      Quote: Evgenijus
      It would be interesting to learn about the life and life of northern rocket launchers, living conditions - housing, food, how children have to do it — whether there is a kindergarten, which school and other issues.

      Supply in the city of Mirny during the Soviet period was almost metropolitan. The city was closed, but the inhabitants of neighboring settlements, by hook or by crook, tried to infiltrate its territory in order to properly stock it. An excellent sports palace with a pool was built, Young officers settled in a hotel, it seems Orion, and eventually got separate apartments. There was a kindergarten. It seems on Oktyabrskaya street. I remember there was a great hospital. The approach to treating military personnel was then very serious. I hope that now. I myself served an emergency at 122 site. This is quite far from the city, but sometimes it was possible to accompany the beginning guard with a traveling guard. fin. parts in Mirny. Again, the hospital had to go a couple of times. An interesting detail, in Mirny, in no store, under any pretext, in the 80's, they did not sell alcohol to military servicemen. This is probably right. I don’t know how now. In general, during my service, the town was very well-groomed, neat. Probably now it’s even more beautiful. All the same, the landfill is developing ...
  6. Old26
    Old26 15 January 2017 11: 19 New
    +4
    Quote: Evgenijus
    Thanks to the author at least for the crumbs of the history of the northern polygon. It would be interesting to learn about the life and life of northern rocket men, living conditions - housing, food, as with children - there is a kindergarten, which school and other issues. About military secrets are not necessary - and so in their head is full of their former service. wink

    All this is. And kindergarten, and school (more precisely, kindergartens and schools). Go to the official website of "Plesetsk", there it is all there. Or, if possible, download the two-volume "Northern Polygon"
    1. Evgenijus
      Evgenijus 16 January 2017 20: 16 New
      +3
      Thanks you (Old26), and Nick и rubin6286 for information about the life of the northern rocket men. At one time, the life factor of the rocket pilot and his family was important in assessing the readiness of the officer, the ensign to go on weekly duty to the starting battery or to the command post of the Strategic Missile Forces unit. Of course, we all went on combat duty without any conditions. But the thought of the family did not seem to be in my head, if he knew that children go to school, kids in kindergarten, and his wife has a job. Then I thought only about the service, and about the family only at the time of the delivery of combat duty.
  7. antivirus
    antivirus 15 January 2017 13: 00 New
    +2
    The chosen place met all the requirements of the military: impenetrable taiga and constant low cloud cover facilitated the masking of the strategic object
    Now it’s clear why I served in the swamp.
  8. shinobi
    shinobi 15 January 2017 17: 33 New
    +1
    John Galbraith, CIA resident: There are very few secrets in this world that could not be calculated.
    Y. Semenov-TASS is authorized to declare.
  9. Old26
    Old26 16 January 2017 22: 04 New
    +2
    Quote: Aviator_
    Well, if Americans have schoolchildren calculate the starting point of the start according to the trajectory measurements of the orbit, then this is only in an alternative story. Americans can write this, but why are you so gullible?

    You think so in vain. Secondary education, especially in the field of exact sciences, is at a fairly high level among Americans, British and Canadians. And as one of our scientists wrote, if their education system can be considered a pyramid, then our education system - an inverted pyramid. And the 12th grade of the British in the same mathematics can be equated to the first course of our universities.
    Moreover, if we do not know how and in what form to calculate the inverse problem of calculating the orbit, this does not mean that they do not know it. so it's a very real option

    Quote: tolancop
    You are mistaken. For the first time I personally learned about the existence of the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in 1984 (no later !!!). A series of materials on Soviet spaceports: Kapustin Yar, Baikonur and Plesetsk - a story about a whole newspaper page about each of them was held in one of the central newspapers. Plesetsk in the materials passed under his own name.

    In Western technical journals, this name was already in the early 80's. At least in the English journal spaceflight published materials on satellites (according to NASA and NORAD). The start place was marked with us: Kapustin Yar - KY, Plesetsk - PL, Baikonur - TT

    Quote: Rash
    You are mistaken, Plesetsk is a town, a regional center, and a spaceport is near the town of Mirny (ZATO).
    I know what I'm talking about, I was there in the mid-80s.

    These are the details. The distance between them was only a few kilometers. And in all the materials he appeared as the Plesetsk cosmodrome. In principle, the same thing happened in the south. Turatam was called Baikonur, although the distance between them is about 1,5 thousand kilometers

    Quote: Fedor
    The spaceport was revealed in detail by the traitor Penkovsky. Prior to this, a couple of test launches were made from him towards Kamchatka and Sary-Shagan

    In Kamchatka, yes, in Sary-Shagan in the early 60s, it is unlikely. As far as I remember, I didn’t shoot R-7. And according to Sarah Shagan, it’s usually an anti-missile system

    Quote: Evgenijus
    Thank you (Old26)

    It's my pleasure. At least three of my friends and acquaintances served there, so I told enough.
  10. oreh72
    oreh72 18 January 2017 15: 07 New
    0
    The article is frankly weak, so the tops are hurt. Comments on the article are even more interesting. He himself served at the cosmodrome from 1995 to 2003. And the first launch complex in question in the article in 1994 was decommissioned and disassembled all the hardware. It was such a time ...
  11. oreh72
    oreh72 18 January 2017 15: 36 New
    0
    By the way, one launch across the USA from the cosmodrome still took place.
    On November 16, 1992, Soyuz-U LV from Resurs-16 spacecraft was launched from Pl.500. The launch was watched by the descendants of the royal family, who were then visiting the spaceport.
    The satellite spent seven days in orbit, the lander descended on 22.11.1992/10/30 at 190 local time in the Pacific, about XNUMX kilometers off the coast of Washington. The seven-point storm greatly complicated the search for the descent vehicle, but the capsule was taken to Seattle by the ship of the Marshal Krylov measuring complex of the Russian Navy.
    The ship docked in the morning of November 24 at the port of Seattle, where he was met by government officials, including Mayor Norm Rice, Washington State Secretary Ralph Munroe, and cosmonaut German Titov. The significant event was accompanied by musical numbers performed by several orchestras, attracted the attention of the public. Among the guests present were many business leaders, scientists, journalists, and space agency officials, as well as Seattle residents and schoolchildren.
    The descent vehicle delivered nineteen containers with gifts, souvenirs, samples of commercial products, works of art, icons, as well as messages from the world. In particular, there were Russian Orthodox icons of the Orthodox Cathedral of St. Spyridon; a crystal sculpture of the Statue of Liberty, the message of peace from the Dalai Lama, Russian President Boris Yeltsin and European leaders; Christmas present for US President Bill Clinton. Among the gifts were the wedding rings of a Russian couple who got married after removing the rings from the capsule.
    The space capsule was shown as part of the Bon Marche parade and exhibited at the Museum of Flight, where it is currently located.
  12. oreh72
    oreh72 18 January 2017 15: 41 New
    0
    Quote: Aviator_
    In general, the article is weak, and even an illustration is given of the modern, recently built launch of the Angara rocket. Naturally, a political officer who had the nickname "e .. t. Mother" during his service could write. He was always distinguished by superficiality.

    But he didn’t tour the Mirninsky taverns with the song of the band “The Eagles” “Hotel California” in the late 90s?
    1. rubin6286
      rubin6286 18 January 2017 16: 44 New
      0
      In Mirny there are no taverns, but there is a restaurant, cafe, incl. summer. There is access control and any dubious public is not allowed there. In the section "IN"
      "Armament" does not need to write nonsense. The author wrote briefly enough, but read about the rest in the newspapers.
  13. Diviz
    Diviz 21 January 2017 16: 12 New
    0
    60 years old and what are we flying to Mars? A joint project of the euromars Che there rover lost. All foreign policy are concerned. Well, at least fly to Tikhorya as the Americans go to the moon, and then after 10 years tell Che there.
  14. dog of war
    dog of war 20 February 2017 13: 16 New
    0
    It should have been added that the cosmodrome in the northern latitudes is not very suitable for commercial launches, but it is ideal for launches into the polar orbit, just perfect for spy satellites and for research satellites.
  15. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 3 December 2017 22: 47 New
    0
    Greenwood,
    Questions of faith must be addressed to worshipers. And as for the centers of basic and applied science - in addition to the Moscow Region, Novosibirsk and Krasnoyarsk, ITPM ​​(Novosibirsk) are more than decent, for example, at present, thanks to a reasonable policy, it looks stronger than a number of institutes in Moscow and St. Petersburg. I can’t say anything about Vladivostok, during my distribution (1978), a sad peasant from the Academic Institute of Oceanology walked among graduates and complained that no one wanted to go there. Initially, there was a question about education, your interlocutor blurted out about freshmen, which is an obvious fake, the Americans installed our fiztekh system in themselves, for example, in California Technological (Caltech), but this happened in 1960. Students are also engaged in scientific developments in it from the 4 course. The history of our physical education and its first rector I.F. You can read Petrova in an article published in the journal Technika-Molodezhi No. 11 for 2004 (Does Comrade Stalin know what Petrov started in TsAGI?)
  16. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 4 December 2017 08: 04 New
    0
    Quote: Greenwood
    Quote: Aviator_
    And for some reason they are rowing graduates of universities to themselves around the world.
    In my student days, I was familiar with a parallel group on field trips at their Massachusetts Institute of Technology (like our team went there as part of robotics competitions). He says that our universities are like the moon before him, where first-year students work in laboratories, conduct research, write articles, participate in testing and software development in collaboration with leading companies, etc., etc., etc. receive, coupled with theoretical training receive real experience in the enterprise. And they don’t sit and spend time on 100500 of dull lectures on matanalysis (with all due respect to the latter). I believe that it is high time to revise the curriculum at universities. Especially in engineering technical specialties.

    For some reason, the targeted answer to the old article fails. Therefore, I repeat. Greenwood
    Questions of faith must be addressed to worshipers. And as for the centers of basic and applied science - in addition to the Moscow Region, Novosibirsk and Krasnoyarsk, ITPM ​​(Novosibirsk) are more than decent, for example, at present, thanks to a reasonable policy, it looks stronger than a number of institutes in Moscow and St. Petersburg. I can’t say anything about Vladivostok, during my distribution (1978), a sad peasant from the Academic Institute of Oceanology walked among graduates and complained that no one wanted to go there. Initially, there was a question about education, your interlocutor blurted out about freshmen, which is an obvious fake, the Americans installed our fiztekh system in themselves, for example, in California Technological (Caltech), but this happened in 1960. Students are also engaged in scientific developments in it from the 4 course. The history of our physical education and its first rector I.F. You can read Petrova in an article published in the journal Technika-Molodezhi No. 11 for 2004 (Does Comrade Stalin know what Petrov started in TsAGI?)