435 years ago, 5 (15) January 1582, the Yam-Zapolsky peace treaty was concluded. This peace was concluded between the Russian kingdom and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the village of Kiverova Gora, near Yam Zapolsky, in a place not far from Pskov. This document, among other diplomatic acts, summed up the Livonian War (1558-1583) and proclaimed a truce between the two powers for a period of 10 years. The world lasted until the start of the 1609-1618 war.
Prehistory Livonian war
During the period of disintegration and feudal fragmentation, the Russian state lost a number of territories, including those of great military-strategic and economic importance. Among the most important tasks of the Russian government during the reign of Ivan IV was a full-fledged access to the shores of the Baltic Sea. Here, the traditional opponents of Russia-Russia were Sweden, Poland, Lithuania and Livonia (the Livonian Order).
The Livonian Order greatly degraded at this time, having lost its former military power. Ivan IV decided to use a favorable situation in order to return part of the Baltic states and increase his influence on Livonia. The Dorpat bishopric was supposed to pay the so-called Yuriev tribute to Pskov every year. In the 1554 year, the Russian tsar demanded the return of the arrears, the refusal of the Livonian Confederation (the Livonian Order and 4 of the principality-bishopric) from military alliances with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Sweden and the continuation of the truce. The first payment of the debt for Derpt was to take place in the 1557 year, but Livonia did not fulfill its obligation. At the beginning of 1558, Moscow started the war.
The beginning of the campaign was victorious. Livonians suffered a crushing defeat, Russian troops ravaged the territory of Livonia, took a number of fortresses-castles, Dorpat (Yuriev). However, the defeat of Livonia caused concern to the neighboring powers, who were afraid of strengthening the Russian state at the expense of the Livonian Confederation and themselves claimed its lands. Moscow was under serious pressure from Lithuania, Poland, Sweden and Denmark. Lithuanian ambassadors demanded that Ivan IV cease hostilities in Livonia, threatening, otherwise, to side with the Livonian Confederation. Then, Swedish and Danish ambassadors asked to stop the war. In addition, in Moscow itself, part of the ruling circles was against this war, proposing to concentrate efforts in the southern direction (Crimean Khanate).
The military defeat of Livonia caused its disintegration and intervention in the war of other powers. The Livonian elite basically chose to surrender their positions to other Western powers. 31 August 1559 Magister Gothard Ketlers concluded in Vilna with the Lithuanian Grand Duke Sigismund II an agreement under which the lands of the Order and possessions of the Riga Archbishop passed under the "Clientele and Protection", that is, under the protectorate of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. On September 15, a similar treaty was concluded with the Archbishop of Riga, William. As a result, the Order handed over the Order to protection to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania on bail of the south-eastern part of Livonia. The Treaty of Vilna served as the basis for the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to enter the war against the Russian state. In the same year, 1559, Revel departed to Sweden, and the Bishop of Esel gave the island of Esel to Duke Magnus, brother of the Danish king.
18 November 1561 of the year was concluded Vilenska Union. On a part of the lands of the Livonian Order, a secular state was formed - the Duchy of Courland and Semigalsky, led by Gothard Kettler as a duke, and the rest departed to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. German Emperor Ferdinand I banned the supply of Russian through the port of Narva. Swedish king Eric XIV blocked Narva and sent Swedish marines to intercept merchant ships sailing to the Russian port. Lithuanian troops began raids on Russian lands.
Thus, the Livonian-acquired lands Sweden and Lithuania demanded that Moscow withdraw its troops from their territory. Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible refused, and Russia found itself in conflict no longer with weak Livonia, but with powerful adversaries — Lithuania and Sweden. A new stage of the war began - a long war of attrition, where active hostilities alternated with truces, and they marched with varying success. For Moscow, the situation was aggravated by the war on the southern front - with the troops of the Crimean Khanate, who supported the Turkish forces. Of the 25 years of the war, there were no significant Crimean raids for only 3 years. As a result, significant forces of the Russian army were forced to be distracted by the conduct of hostilities on the southern borders of Russia.
In 1563, the Russian army took the old Russian fortress and the important stronghold of the Lithuanian state - Polotsk. However, after the seizure of Polotsk in the successes of Russia in the Livonian war there has been a decline. Moscow had to fight on several fronts at once. There was also a break in the Russian top, part of the boyars did not want to wage war with Lithuania. The boyar and a major commander who actually commanded Russian troops in the West, Prince A. M. Kurbsky, went over to Lithuania. In order to eliminate internal treason and mobilize the country, Tsar Ivan the Terrible introduces the oprichnina in 1565.
In the 1569 year, as a result of the Union of Lublin, Lithuania and Poland merged into a single unitary state - Rzeczpospolita, which meant the transfer of all Lithuanian claims against Moscow to Poland. At first, Poland tried to negotiate. In the spring of 1570, the Lithuanian embassy arrived in Moscow. At the negotiations they argued about the Polotsk borders, but they did not come to an agreement. At the same time, the Poles hinted that Sigismund had no heir, and Ivan or his sons could claim the Polish throne. As a result, in the summer of 1570 in Moscow, a truce was signed for a period of three years. By its terms, both parties had to own what was controlled at the moment.
After the death of King Sigismund, the Polish and Lithuanian lords developed vigorous activity in the selection of a new monarch. Among the candidates for the Polish throne was Tsarevich Fedor, the son of Ivan the Terrible. Supporters of Fedor noted the closeness of the Russian and Polish languages and customs. It is worth remembering that the western glades - the Poles used to be part of a single superethnos of the Rus, but fell under the power of the owners of the Western project (Catholic Rome was then the "command post" of the West) and they were set against the Russians. In the current historical period, according to a similar pattern, the masters of the West created a split along the line: Big and Small Russia (Rus). Then the languages of Russians and Poles differed very little, being a continuation of the language of the superethnos of the Rus. The differences intensified later, were caused artificially, under the influence of the Roman Catholic and Germanic world. Similarly, in the last century, the “Ukrainian language”, the “Ukrainian people” was created in order to tear off part of the superethnos of the Rus - Western Little Russians from the rest of the Russians.
In addition, there emerged a military-strategic need for rapprochement between the Russians and the Poles. Our common historical enemies were the Swedes, the Germans, the Crimean Tatars and the Ottoman Turks. The Russian king was desired by the population of Little and White Russia, which could strengthen the unity of the Commonwealth. The Catholic Catholics hoped that Fyodor would accept Catholicism, live in Poland and strive to expand and consolidate possessions in the south-west, at the expense of the Ottoman Empire, or in the West in the German Empire. Protestants generally preferred the Orthodox king to the Catholic king. Also an important argument in favor of the Russian prince was money. The greed of the Polish gentry was already pathological and reached gigantic proportions. About the enormous wealth of the Russian kingdom in Poland, and throughout Europe, the most fantastic rumors circulated.
However, Ivan the Terrible offered himself as king. This did not suit the Polish gentry. Immediately there were many problems, for example, how to divide Livonia. They needed a weak king who would not be able to shorten their liberty, would grant new rights and privileges. In Poland and Lithuania, rumors of Fedor's pain have already been leaked. To see the king such a powerful figure as Ivan the Terrible, the lords naturally did not want. Also, the Russian government and the lords did not agree on the price. The Polish gentry demanded huge sums from Moscow, without giving any guarantees. The king offered the amount several times smaller. As a result, did not agree on the price.
As a result, the French party pushed the candidacy of Heinrich of Anjou, brother of the French king Carl and son of Catherine de Medici. In 1574, the French prince arrived in Poland and became king. In France, he was not engaged in state affairs, did not know not only Polish, but also Latin. Therefore, the new king spent time in drunkenness and playing a card game with the French from the retinue. However, he signed the so-called. The “Henry's articles”, which further weakened the institute of royal power in Poland and strengthened the position of the nobility. The king renounced hereditary power, guaranteed freedom of religion to dissidents (so called non-Catholics), promised not to resolve any issues without the consent of the standing committee of senators from 16, not to declare war and not to make peace without a senate, to convene a Diet every two years, etc. in case of violation of these obligations, the nobility was released from the oath to the king, that is, the armed uprising of the Polish nobility against the king was legalized (the so-called “rokosh” - confederation).
Suddenly a messenger arrived from Paris, reporting on the death of Charles IX and the demand of the mother to immediately return to France. Heinrich chose France to Poland. Not wanting to wait for the consent of the Diet, Heinrich secretly fled to France. There he became the French king. Poland was accustomed to confusion and disorder, but this was not yet - the king escaped! In the Commonwealth, the Moscow party again became active and proposed the candidacy of Tsarevich Fyodor. But again, the pans did not agree on the price with Ivan the Terrible.
Meanwhile, Russia continued fighting in the south and northwest. In 1569, the Crimean-Turkish army attempted to capture Astrakhan. However, the campaign was poorly organized and suffered a complete collapse. The enemy army was almost completely destroyed. At the same time, the Ottoman fleet was almost completely destroyed by a strong storm near the fortress of Azov. In 1571, the Crimean horde Devlet-Girey reached Moscow and burned its suburbs, the southern Russian lands were devastated. In the Baltic, the Swedes launched active pirate activities to disrupt Russian maritime trade. Moscow responded by creating its pirate (marque) fleet under the command of the Danish Carsten Rohde. His actions were quite effective and reduced the Swedish and Polish trade on the Baltic Sea. In 1572, in the fiercest battle of Molodah, Russian troops almost completely destroyed the huge Crimean-Turkish army. In 1573, Russian troops took the Weisseenstein fortress by storm. In the same year, the Swedes defeated Russian troops in a battle near Lod. In 1575, the Russians took the fortress of Pernov.
Thus, the fighting went with varying success. Moscow for a long time weapons and diplomacy managed to restrain opponents, achieve success, and counting on a certain success at the end of the war. But the situation changed at the end of the 1570s, when the Semigrad voivode, prominent commander Stefan Batory, was elected to the Polish throne.
In January, 1577, under the command of Ivan Sheremetev, invaded Northern Livonia and laid siege to Revel. But it was not possible to take the city. In the summer of the same year, the king himself embarked on an expedition from Novgorod to Polish Livonia. The ruler of Livonia, Hetman Karl (Jan) Chodkiewicz did not dare to enter the battle and retreated to Lithuania. Most of the southern Libonian cities, without resistance, surrendered to the Russian governors. One survived Riga. Having completed the campaign, Ivan the Terrible with a part of the army returned to the Russian kingdom, leaving part of the troops in Livonia. Immediately after the withdrawal of the Russian troops, the remaining forces attacked the Livonians and Lithuanians. In December 1577, the Lithuanians took a strongly fortified castle Venden with a surprise attack.
In 1578, the Russian troops launched a counter-offensive and took the city of Oberpalen and besieged Wenden. The Lithuanian detachment of Sapieha united with the Swedes, advancing from the north, and in October attacked the Russian troops at Wenden. Tatar cavalry escaped and the Russians sat down in a fortified camp. At night, the four commanders, Ivan Golitsyn, the okolnichy Fyodor Sheremetev, Prince Paletsky and the clerk Shchelkanov, fled with the cavalry. The enemy captured the camp with heavy siege weapons.
It is worth noting that these operations were conducted by Lithuanian magnates in general in an initiative manner, it was a “private war” with Moscow. With Stephen, Moscow had a truce. In addition, the new Polish king was at war with the separatists - residents of the city of Danzig, who refused to recognize Stefan as a king because he violated their rights. Stephen besieged a large seaside city until the end of 1577, after which he made peace on conditions that were quite favorable to Danzig.
In the summer of 1576, Stephen offered Moscow to keep the truce. However, he insulted Ivan, the Russian ruler was not named in the diploma, but as the Grand Duke, there were also several other provisions that were unacceptable for the then diplomatic etiquette. In 1577, Stefan Batory expressed outrage at the invasion of Russian troops in Livonia. The king reproached Ivan the Terrible for taking cities from him. The king replied: “With God's will, we have cleansed our land, the land of Livonia, and you would put off your annoyance. You did not want to intervene in the Land of Livonia ... ".
In January, the great Polish ambassadors of the voivode Mazovian Stanislav Kryisky and the voivode of Minsk Nikolai Sapega arrived in Moscow 1578 and began to talk about the “eternal peace”. But both sides put forward such conditions that the world could not be concluded. In addition to Livonia, Courland and Polotsk, the king demanded the return of Kiev, Kanev, Vitebsk. Ivan Vasilyevich also deduced the genealogy of the Lithuanian princes from the Polotsk Rogvolodoviches, therefore Poland and Lithuania were declared to them “patrimony” - “our patrimonies, because no one remained of this princely family, and the royal sister was not the father”. Nevertheless, in Moscow, they signed another truce for three years.
But the Polish elite did not intend to fulfill the terms of the truce. Stephen and his henchmen had plans for wide territorial seizures in Russia. Stefan did not rely on Polish and Lithuanian troops, which had weak discipline, and hired several regiments of professional infantry in Germany, and also bought the best guns in Western Europe at that time and hired gunners. In the summer of 1579, Batory sent an ambassador to Moscow to declare war. Already in August, the Polish army surrounded Polotsk. The garrison stubbornly defended for three weeks, but at the end of August surrendered.
Batory was actively preparing for the new campaign. Everywhere he borrowed money from magnates and moneylenders. His brother, Prince of Semigrad, sent him a large detachment of Hungarians. Polish gentry refused to serve in the infantry, so the Batory for the first time introduced military service in Poland. In the royal estates of the peasants from 20, one was taken away, who according to the length of time he and his offspring were freed forever from all peasant duties. The Russian command did not know where the enemy was attacking, so the regiments were sent to Novgorod, Pskov, Smolensk, to the Baltic states. In the south, it was still restless, and there it was necessary to put up strong barriers, and in the north it was necessary to fight off the Swedes.
In September 1580, the army of Batory took the Great Luke. At the same time there were direct negotiations for peace with Poland. Ivan the Terrible gave way to Polotsk, Courland and 24 cities in Livonia. But Stephen demanded all of Livonia, Velikiye Luki, Smolensk, Pskov and Novgorod. Polish and Lithuanian troops ravaged Smolensk, Seversk land, Ryazan, south-west Novgorod. Lithuanian tycoons of Ostrog and Vishnevetsky looted Chernihiv region with the help of light horse units. Cavalry nobleman Jan Solomeretsky ravaged the neighborhood of Yaroslavl. However, the Polish army was unable to develop the attack on Smolensk. In October, the Polish-Lithuanian army led by the Orsha warden Philon Kmita, who wanted to become the governor of Smolensk, was defeated by the Russian detachment led by Ivan Buturlin in the battle of Nastasyino and the Spassky Meadows. In the summer of 1580, a successful march to Lithuania made an army under the command of Dmitry Khvorostinin, defeating the Lithuanians in the battle of Shklov and forcing Stefan Batory to postpone the attack on Pskov.
In February, 1581, the Lithuanians occupied the fortress Hill, burned the Old Russ. Derpt region was devastated to the Russian border. Meanwhile, Batory was preparing for the third hike. He borrowed money from the Duke of Prussia, the Elector of Saxony and Brandenburg. At the Polish Sejm, assembled in February 1581, the king stated that if the Poles do not want or hope to subdue the entire Muscovite state, then at least they should not lay down their arms until they secure the whole of Livonia. Negotiations with Moscow continued. The new royal ambassadors agreed to hand over to Stephen all of Livonia, except for four cities. But Batory still demanded not only the whole of Livonia, but also added to the requirements the assignment of Sebezh and the payment of 400 thousand Hungarian gold for military expenses. This brought Grozny out of himself, and he replied with a sharp letter: “It is clear that you want to fight incessantly, and you are not looking for peace. We would have ceded to you and all of Livonia, but you cannot be comforted by this. And then you will still shed blood. So now he asked one from the previous ambassadors, and from the current one you ask for another, Sebezh. Give it to you, you will ask for more and you will not put yourself in any measure. We are looking for how to calm the Christian blood, and you are looking for how to fight. So why do we put up with you? And without the world, the same will happen. ”
Negotiations ended, and Batory made a new campaign. He sent a letter to Ivan to the abusive letter, in which he called him Pharaoh Moscow, a wolf that invaded the sheep, and finally summoned him to a duel. 18 August 1581, Stephen's army laid siege to Pskov, planning after taking the city to go to Novgorod and Moscow. The heroic defense of the Russian fortress lasted for February 4 1582 of the year. The Polish-Lithuanian army, reinforced by mercenaries, could not take the Russian stronghold, suffered heavy losses and was demoralized. Failure near Pskov made Stefan Batory go to peace talks.
For Moscow, the situation was unfavorable. The main forces were connected with the struggle with the Polish-Lithuanian army, and at that time the Swedish forces had advanced in the north. At the beginning of 1579, the Swedes devastated the districts of Oreshek. In 1580, the king of Sweden Juhan III, the author of the “great eastern program”, designed to cut off the Russian kingdom from the Baltic and White seas, approved P. Delagardi’s plan to reach Novgorod and attack Oreshek or Narva at the same time. The Swedish troops under the command of Delagardi captured the whole of Estonia and part of Ingermanlandia (Izhora land). In November 1580, the Swedes took Korela, and in 1581, they occupied Narva, then Ivangorod and Koporye. The captures of cities were accompanied by the mass extermination of the Russian people. The Swedes "cleaned" the territory for themselves. Thus, Tsar Ivan the Terrible was forced to negotiate with Poland, hoping to conclude an alliance with her against Sweden.
Siege of Pskov by King Stefan Batory in 1581. K. Bryullov
Peace talks began on December 13 of the year 1581. The ambassadors of the Polish king Stephan Batori, mediated by the papal legate Antonio Possevino, were the voivode Braslavsky Janusz Zbarazhsky, the voivode Vilna and hetman of Lithuania Radziwill, secretary Mikhail Garaburda. The Russian side was represented by voivode Kashinsky Dmitry Yeletsky, voivode Kozelsky Roman Olferyev, clerk N. N. Vereshchagin. Yam Zapolsky was burned, so the negotiations were held in the village of Kiverova Gora.
Negotiations were stormy. Under the terms of the truce, Russia refused in favor of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from all its possessions in the Baltic States and from the possessions of its allies and vassals: from Kurland, yielding it to Poland; from 40 cities in Livonia, passing Poland; from the city of Polotsk with povet (uyezd); from the city of Velizh with the district. Polish – Lithuanian Commonwealth returned to the tsar the Pskov indigenous lands captured during the last war: the “suburbs” of Pskov (the cities of the Pskov land were called Opochka, Porkhov, etc.); Velikie Luki, Nevel, Kholm, Sebezh - the original Novgorod and Tver lands.
Thus, in the Livonian War, Russia did not reach its goals of mastering the Baltic states, ending the war within the same borders as it had begun. Yam-Zapolsky peace did not resolve the fundamental contradictions between the Russian kingdom and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, pushing their resolution to a more distant future.
The 19th century historian N. M. Karamzin, assessing this world, called it "the most unfavorable and dishonest world for Russia of all that had been concluded before with Lithuania." However, he was clearly mistaken. At that time, some Russian historians and publicists, relying on Western sources, created the black myth of the “bloody despot and murderer” Ivan the Terrible. In reality, according to the most important national tasks (Kazan, Astrakhan, Siberia), the expansion of the population, the construction of fortresses and cities, the strengthening of the Russian kingdom’s position on the world stage, Ivan Vasilyevich was one of the most successful Russian rulers, therefore he was hated by West, and in Russia all sorts of Westerners and liberals. Ivan the Terrible proved himself a wise ruler, showing the need for control over the Russian Baltic states and the return of Western Russian lands (Polotsk, Kiev, etc.). Russia ended the war not as planned, but not losing the existing positions. The West, having organized an entire anti-Russian coalition, including the Crimean Khanate and Turkey, could not crush the Russian state.
How Ivan the Terrible destroyed the plans of the West for the dismemberment of the Russian kingdom
- Alexander Samsonov
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