So, anyone who hears these words of My word and executes them, I will liken him to a prudent man, who built his house on a stone; and it began to rain, and the rivers flooded, and the winds blew, and they rushed upon that house, and it did not fall, because it was founded on stone. And anyone who hears these words of Mine and does not fulfill them will become like a foolish man who built his house on the sand; and it began to rain, and the rivers poured out, and the winds blew, and lodged upon that house; and he fell, and there was a great fall.
(Matthew 7: 21-28)
(Matthew 7: 21-28)
On the pages of the BO, the discussions about the role and place of party leadership in the life of Soviet society, as well as whether it was positive or negative, flare up every now and then. It is also about censorship. It would be nice to return it ... There is a lot of fervor in this controversy, but there is little knowledge. At best, debaters refer to their personal experiences and articles in electronic media. And for a dispute in the kitchen or in the smoking room of the sheet rolling shop, this is enough. But still here, on this site, more weighty arguments are desirable. In this regard, I would like to present the material of Svetlana Timoshin, associate professor of the Penza State University, which, as part of its research, processed a lot of information: the Pravda newspaper from 1921 to 1953, local Penza newspapers, documents from the archive of the State Archive of the Penza Region, that is, everything that contains a lot of interesting concrete facts and examples.
At the beginning of the 1920's in the Soviet state, a unified centralized system of party propaganda bodies subordinate to them was established, covering all levels of government. By 1921, the multiparty press was eliminated, the entire network of Soviet newspapers became one-party. It received the functions of an instrument of agitation and propaganda of socialist values, an instrument of party control of all aspects of the daily life of the population . The main organizational feature of the Soviet agitprop was the rigid centralization of the entire system of agitation and propaganda bodies. Analyzing the working style of the apparatus of the Bolshevik agitation and propaganda system, A.I. Guriev in his work describes him as “military-bureaucratic” , noting that “in Soviet Russia and then in the USSR the communist party completely subjugated the state apparatus”.
"Truth" on the front line
Despite the huge number of institutions that controlled, in one way or another, the activities of the Soviet press, the party organizations were the main structures directing the work of the Soviet media. As noted by OL. Mitvol in his study , “within 1922, the Central Committee of the RCP (B.) In the person of its departments resolutely moved to the main place among the agencies that directed the work of the media.”
At the beginning of the 1920's at meetings of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) documents were read out that clearly regulate the relations of party organs and the editorial boards of newspapers . According to these documents, local, regional, provincial, and later regional committees of the CPSU (b) controlled the activities of the newspapers. In the Penza province, the activities of the local press were controlled by the General Department, Agitpropotdel and the Press Branch of the Penza Provincial Committee of the CPSU (b).
It should be noted that citizens were informed both about events in the country and about life abroad, and the latter was faced with certain difficulties. There were questions about “what to write about” and “where to get information”, but the main thing is “what to write?” Whether to give comparative information “they have from us” or limit to short information blocks that “everything is bad there”. How to dispense truth and outright lies is a challenge that always confronts propaganda agencies. The reason for this work was even such a reason as the weak organizational formation of the above-mentioned structures, which led to contradictions in the activities of central and local party organizations: “It was established that many local committees do not send their publications to the Central Committee of the RCP (B). The situation is particularly bad with the dispatch of leaflets, posters, newspapers and brochures. Thanks to this, it is difficult for the Secretariat of the Central Committee to systematically give instructions to the field and give information to the places in a timely manner ”. Difficulties also arose in the organization of the activities of county newspapers due to a misunderstanding by the local leadership of the role of newspapers in a young Soviet society. This is clearly seen from the content of the documents of that period: “... The subscription to our provincial newspaper“ Trudovaya Pravda ”of party members and individual party members is extremely sluggish. The overwhelming majority of party cells, both urban and rural in particular, did not take any measures to conduct a mandatory subscription or limited themselves to a resolution that remained on paper ”.
The newspaper "Pravda". No.74. 1 April 1925
The lack of coordinated work between the central party organs and local organizations of the RCP (b) influenced the implementation of the policy of informing the population of the Penza province about events abroad. The local leadership, judging by the archival documents, did not attach such importance to information about foreign life as the VKP (b) Central Committee. For example, the Head of the Agitpropaganda Department of the Penza Gubkom of the CPSU (B.) Sent 17.08.1921 of the year to the Nizhne-Lomovsky Ukom Circular regulating the activities of the Golos Poornyak newspaper, which said: “The editors should first of all involve the agronomists and specialists business executives and to achieve maximum participation in the newspaper of the local peasant population. The latter may well be achieved if, instead of reporting on Churchill's rest in Paris (No. 15), the editorial board, will print economic instructions to the peasants for fighting drought, animal husbandry, etc. ”. Probably, this was the correct remark for the Golos Poornyak newspaper and the correct remark as a whole. However, on the other hand, ignore foreign news it was also impossible. This is an important part of educating the masses.
The next reason for the poor organization of informing the public about life abroad was the poorly developed media network at the beginning of the 1920s. In the Penza province, the newspaper publishing house was in a difficult position due to a shortage of qualified personnel and a lack of equipment and funding, therefore newspapers barely made it to the majority of the population of the province, which then lived in rural areas. This fact was reflected in the reporting documentation of the printing unit of the Penza Sponge Committee of the RKP (b) . The shortage of newspapers in the countryside was acutely felt throughout the entire 1920 period. For example, in the part of the Report on the results of party education in Ruzaevsky district 1927-1928 of the school year, which characterizes the activities of the newspaper circle, the following was said: “... The quality of the work of the circle and the lack of sufficient quality of the newspaper reduced, often there were one or two newspapers, and local - “Plant and Plowed Field”, in the Nizhne-Lomovsky district in the newspaper circle “there are no newspapers”. Consequently, in the early stages of the formation of the Soviet state in the implementation of the policy of informing citizens about life abroad, the informing function was mainly performed not by the media, but by the party workers themselves, who left for the village and the enterprises with lectures.
The third factor that determined the nature of the events on informing about foreign events on the ground was the low level of literacy among the population of the province against the background of the unfavorable position in the economy . In 1921, the Chembarsky district of the Penza region unfolded the following situation: “The agitote department stated that, despite the fact that newspapers from the local Centropech Branch sent mail to the whole district, newspapers did not reach the village. When they get into the volisocomas, they immediately go into the pockets of smokers completely unread ”. In the 1926, the press report contained the following data on the literacy of the population of the Penza province: “Literacy, especially among ethnic minorities, still fits into 10-12%, or even less. The rest of the Penza villages are completely illiterate. ” Here it is also necessary to say that illiterate people met among the party members even after 10 years. For example, in 1936, in a letter from the Secretary of the Penza Municipal Committee of the CPSU (b) Rudenko, the following figures were given to the Department of Party Propaganda and Agitation of the Krajkom CPSU (b): people, of them: members of the CPSU (b) - 549 and candidates 357 people. Those who graduated from 192 people, studied in rural schools, 128 people and engaged in self-education 256 people. Among self-taught people there are 165 communists (without the Frunze plant) completely illiterate, i.e. they read through the stores, do not know the multiplication tables, and do not know how to write fluently ... The list of illiterate communists is attached ”. Next was a list of names. Speaking about the low literacy rate of the population of the Penza province, it should be noted that our region was not an exception in those years. According to A.A. Grabelnikov in his work, most of the population was illiterate. Describing the role of the press in the early post-revolutionary years, he cites the following data: “Compared with such developed European countries as Sweden or Denmark, where almost the entire population was literate, and in Switzerland and Germany illiteracy was 11-1%, Russia looked very backward : before the revolution, more than 2% of the population, not counting children up to the age of 70, was illiterate ”.
Despite the fact that the Penza City Committee of the CPSU (b) took measures to eliminate illiteracy among the ordinary population and the Communists, the number of illiterate people did not decrease as quickly as we would like. According to the report “On the course of the elimination of illiteracy and illiteracy of communists in Penza on 20 in January 1937”, attendance in groups on the elimination of illiteracy among illiterate and illiterate communists was “65% ” to the training of the communists and poor control by the Raykomov over the work of schools. " It should be noted here that its imprint on the level of education of the population left a difficult economic and sanitary-epidemiological situation in the Penza region in the first half of the 1930-s. This is eloquently illustrated by the themes of the campaigns conducted by the Penza City Committee of the CPSU (b) and the City Council. In 1934, with the help of the local newspaper Rabochaya Penza, the Penza City Committee of the CPSU (b) issued a resolution on holding a campaign “For a clean apartment, a hut, for a clean courtyard” from 10 February through 1 March, the terrible sanitary-epidemiological situation in the city of Penza: “... 4. During the two-decade, to make a continuous washing of all the towns and villages of the city, to assign personal responsibility for the washing in the city to the ZhAKT-chairmen, house commissioners, building commanders, in the village - to the chairmen of the village center. collective farms and foremen; in state and collective farms on the directors and head of the sites ... 7. For persons who are subject to mandatory trimming - such as to produce in the baths for free ... 9 ... On the line (railway) send mobile baths with a camera for handling passengers, station facilities, as well as adjoining villages ... 11. To carry out general cleaning of all public places, as well as Soviet and economic institutions, institutions throughout the city and village ”.
The low level of literacy of the population inevitably influenced the substantive part of public awareness campaigns on the ground. In particular, in the 1936 year, the monthly kolkhoz party trade list programs included “studying a geographical map in order to orient collective party trade with countries of the world, state borders and the largest cities of both the USSR and capitalist countries, to provide brief geographic political and geographical information about the most important countries so that the party organizer, using the newspaper, would have a clearer idea of the geographical location of the countries, states, peoples and cities that he reads about in the newspaper. To this we must add that when studying the map, one or two reports on the international situation should be put as additional classes. ”
In connection with the current difficult situation in the media system, the Agitprop department of the Central Committee of the RCP (B.) Called for more decisive action on the ground: “It is necessary to strengthen, strengthen and support the Directorate of the GPP (Growth) in every way. Local party committees should allocate party-aged and politically trained workers to work in the local press, to manage the Growth departments. Such a powerful apparatus, such as radio, telegraph and telephone communication between the press and information authorities, should be fully utilized by the party ”.
Gradually, in the process of the formation of the party system, the contradictions between the central and local organs of the CPSU (b) in informing about events abroad were eliminated. Penza Sponge CPSU (b) clearly followed circulars received from the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). In 1930-s, work on informing about foreign events was systematically carried out in rural areas, for the Selkoms the Penza City Committee of the CPSU (b) wrote out the newspaper Rabochaya Penza, which was the organ of the City Committee of the CPSU (b). It should be said here that the process of informing the population about life abroad was highly politicized, and the coverage of facts concerning foreign events sometimes had nothing to do with reality, since the main task of local party workers was not to inform reliable facts, and, following the instructions from above, reflect the views of the country's leadership on an event abroad. An example of this is the secret circular  signed by Secretary of the Central Committee of the RCP (B.) V. Molotov of 9 in October of 1923, where an assessment was made of the events that took place at that time in Germany: “It has now become completely clear that the proletarian coup in Germany, it is not only inevitable, but already quite close - it has moved very close ... The conquest of fascism by broad strata of the petty bourgeoisie is extremely difficult due to the correct tactics of the German Communist Party. For Soviet Germany, an alliance with us, which is very popular among the broad masses of the German people, will be the only chance for salvation. On the other hand, only Soviet Germany is able to provide an opportunity for the USSR to resist the onslaught of international fascism and to speedily resolve the economic problems we face. This determines our position in relation to the German revolution. "
Newspaper "Labor Truth". No.235. 11 October 1928
Further, this document provided detailed instructions regulating the activities of local party bodies in the process of informing the public about events in Germany: “The Central Committee considers it necessary: 1. To focus the attention of the broadest workers and peasant masses on the German revolution. 2. In advance to expose the intrigues of our external and internal enemies, linking the defeat of revolutionary Germany with the new military campaign against the workers and peasants of the Soviet republics, with the complete defeat and dismemberment of our country. 3. To consolidate in the minds of every worker, peasant and Red Army man the unshakable confidence that the war which foreign imperialists are preparing to impose on us and, above all, the ruling classes of Poland (as you see, Poland was considered the main striking force of imperialism at that time forces to attack the USSR - VO), will be a defensive war for the preservation of land in the hands of the peasants, factories in the hands of the workers, for the very existence of the workers 'and peasants' power.
Agitprop company in connection with the international situation should be conducted widely and systematically. For this purpose, the Central Committee offers you: 1. To put on the agenda of all party meetings (general, district, cells, etc.) the question of the international situation, highlighting every stage and turn in the events now at the center of international life. 2. Regularly collect meetings of senior officials (party, Soviet, military, economic) for information and discussion of issues related to the international situation. 3. Immediately organize provincial workers' trips to counties and districts along volosts with reports on the international situation at party meetings in order to focus the entire party's attention on the German revolution. 4. Pay special attention to the formulation of agitation and propaganda among the workers and peasants, and in particular students. The secretaries of the Communist Committees of the PSC are obliged to keep the Bureau of the GCCs of the RKSM informed of the events. 5. To take all measures for wide coverage of the issue in the press, guided by the articles printed in Pravda and sent from the Press Bureau of TS.K. 6. To organize rallies at enterprises in order to lighten the present international situation with the utmost masses of the working class and to call the proletariat to be vigilant. Use delegate meetings of female workers. 7. Special attention should be paid to the coverage of the international situation among the masses of the peasantry. Broad peasant meetings about the German revolution and the threatening war everywhere must be preceded by meetings of party cells, where they exist. 8. The speakers ... very carefully instruct in the spirit of the general party line outlined by the last party meeting and the instructions of this circular. In our propaganda ... we cannot appeal (as in the text - V.Sh.) only to internationalist feelings. We must appeal to vital economic and political interests .... "
Thus, we can conclude that even in the most democratic period for the press 1921-1928-s. Soviet newspapers were not free in the coverage of foreign reality. Literally from the very first years of the existence of the Soviet state, the mass media in informing about foreign events were forced to carry out decisions of the party leadership.
In 1920's in the policy of informing the citizens of the country about life abroad, the newspapers played the role of a liaison between the party organs and the ordinary population. From the editorial office of the newspaper "Trudovaya Pravda" under the heading "Secret" in the Penza Sponge of the CPSU (b) reports were sent about the mood among the citizens. Judging by the content of the information reports compiled by the Penza Sponge Committee of the CPSU (b), in 1927, among the workers there were rumors about the upcoming war: “The workers of the Textile Factory named after Sh. Kutuzov (B-Demyan.Uezd) rumors are spreading about the approach of war, for example, one worker in a conversation said: “that foreign powers have already planned in the USSR by President Kerensky” . How did he know that and why did he talk about it?
At rallies, workers and collective farmers, expressing interest in events outside the USSR, asked questions concerning foreign life. For example, in September 1939, residents of the Luninsky District were worried about such questions as: “Why did the Polish people not want to join the Soviet Union in 1917?”, “Will the Red Army not cross the state border and cause a war between the USSR and Germany?”, “ Is it possible to unite between Germany, Britain and France to fight the USSR? ”,“ Will Germany liberate the occupied cities belonging to Western Belarus and Ukraine? ”. An interesting fact is that during such events an atmosphere of dialogue between representatives of party structures and the ordinary population was indeed created. Not only positive responses to foreign policy events, but also negative statements from citizens were included in reports on campaign events. For example, regarding the events in Poland in 1939, citizens openly expressed their opinion: “The watchman of the Luninsky Penkozavod, an old man who is not a party member, Knyazev Kuzma Mikhailovich, in an interview with him a propagandist Comrade. Pakhalina: “It’s good that the business is doing without great sacrifices in defending Western Belarus and Ukraine, but this is again on our neck, because they are poor and they have to be helped a lot” ... Kolkhoznik of the Lenin Merlinsky collective farm / council Maxim Doronin, who he said at a rally in speeches: “After all, capitalists need war, capitalists are cashing in in war, and the working class is poor, so why are we starting a war?” .
Newspaper "Rabochaya Penza". No.138. 16 June 1937
Questions on the international situation were regularly included in the agendas of party conferences of women workers and peasants, they were examined in classes in political literacy and circles of the party education network, were included in the list of common tasks of local propaganda groups, were discussed during campaigns to popularize International Women's Communist Day, among recruits in the Red Army were covered even during campaigns for the sale of tickets of the All-Union lottery Osoaviahima, appeared in the plans of the party offices in the region in XN UMX-s.
Much attention was paid to the dissemination of information about events abroad and among young people. At the plenary sessions held by the Komsomol Group of Companies, strategies were developed and proposals were put forward to inform the public about international events: “... it will be necessary to practice this case — not a report on the international situation at all, but can there be a war with England, or so: not the situation in China, and why the Kuomintang split into right and left ... ".
But to a greater extent, the Penza Sponge of the CPSU (b) in its work with local newspapers focused on local events, as well as on the state of the press, the distribution of newspapers among workers and peasants, work among workers and farmers, the work of the press department, following circular instructions and the Central Committee RCP (b). This can be seen from the contents of the resolutions and work plans of the printing unit of the Penza Sponge Committee of the CPSU (B.): “... 1. To recognize the work of the press department of the Penza Provincial Committee satisfactory and basically correct. To offer the press department in the future to pay special attention to the ideological leadership of the provincial and district press and to increasing control over the correct and more active pursuit of the political line of the party ... 4. To admit it is necessary: a) to strengthen in the “Labor Pravda” coverage of village issues, in particular, a specific explanation of the resolution of the XIV Party Congress on rural policy issues. b) strengthen the coverage of the work of the Soviets and the participation of workers and peasants in Soviet construction in the newspaper ”.
In 1930's In the work of the Penza city committee of the CPSU (b), the same tendency remained, that is, the party organization urged newspapers to focus on covering local events without being carried away by the description of international events. A report from 22 in May of 1937 on the work of the “district and grassroots press” stated the following: “... Working Penza pays little attention to the letters of the workers of the agricultural collectors and the newspaper, as a rule, is filled with Tassovian material and materials of the editorial staff.” Moreover, the main criterion for the selection of any recommendations for action by the local press was, as was the case when informing about foreign events, decisions of party congresses.
Due to the poorly developed broadcasting network  in the early 1930s. the population of the countryside learned about the events taking place abroad, mainly from newspapers and during various political campaigns conducted by party representatives. However, later in the late 1930-ies. along with newspaper material in informing the public about events abroad, radio also began to play its role. It should be noted that the same algorithm acted here in informing about facts of foreign reality, that is, first the information about events outside the USSR was processed by the party leadership, and then presented to the collective farmers and workers in the right light. An example of this is the document of Poimsky RK VKP (b) “On the work done to clarify the speech of Comrade. Molotov, radio 17 September 1939 of the year ", sent to the Propaganda Department of the Regional Committee of the CPSU (b): 1. District Committee of the CPSU (b) 18 / IX-39. at 5 hours of the evening, a meeting was held at the party cabinet with the whole activity, and 67 people were present at the party komsomol active. The whole Raypartaktiv received the printed leaflets with comrade speech. Molotov, broadcast by radio, after which everyone went to collective farms for meetings and rallies. 2. 18 September this year. in 7 hours of the evening a rally was held in the Raycenter building in the Raikino building. 350 people were present, the speech of the head of the Soviet government, Comrade. Molotov, broadcast by 17 / IX on radio and the issue of international events, at the rally, as well as at the Riparticztiv meeting, a resolution was approved approving our government’s foreign policy and the government’s decision to take protection of the peoples of Western Ukraine and Belarus living in Poland. ”
In 1939. By decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet on February 4, Tambov region. divided into the Tambov and Penza regions, in March the Penza Regional Committee of the CPSU (b) was organized.
The topics of lectures and seminars on international events held in the regions of the region in 1939 were specified, namely, issues of German-Soviet relations, “Japanese aggression in the Far East”, military actions in Poland, China, events of the Second World War began to be covered.
Penza Regional Committee of the CPSU (b) took measures to improve the professionalism of journalistic personnel. For example, in 1940, according to the decision of the Bureau of the Regional Committee of the CPSU (b) from 9 to 13 in September, 10 workers of district newspapers visited Moscow at VSHV, where they listened to the lectures of Pravda newspaper workers, and also got acquainted with the work of the plant Truth ". After all this, their professionalism, of course, rose very much ...
So, by the beginning of 1940's. the system of informing Soviet citizens about life abroad was fully formed and acquired the following scheme: the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) sent out directives for conducting awareness campaigns about an event in international life, the regional committees and regional committees of the CPSU (b) based on these directives indications to the districts, the district committees of the CPSU (b), in turn, organized campaign events and monitored the press, based on the content of the instructions of the higher instances. The starting point in the organization of activities to inform the public about life abroad was the decisions of the party congresses and plenums, the directives of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). In the Penza region in 1921-1940-ies. the main work on the management of the media was performed by Sponge and the City Committee of the CPSU (b). The Bureau of the Penza Regional Committee of the CPSU (b) heard reports on the work of district and regional newspapers at its meetings. All events concerning the coverage of events in the country and abroad were carried out by party organizations from the point of view of the next party congress. The international situation was given due attention during political campaigns (for example, devoted to the study of the Short Course of the CPSU (B.) Organized by the Agitation and Propaganda Departments of the Penza Regional Committee of the CPSU (B.) And the District Committee of the CPSU (B.). At the same time, it should be noted that foreign life was presented not only in the form of a dry statement of facts, it was presented by the employees of the Agitation and Propaganda Department from the point of view of political decisions of the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.). The events of foreign reality were “explained” vym citizens in the light of the directives and decisions of the Central Committee .
Interestingly, along with ordinary newspapers, photographic newspapers were published already in the 20 of the twentieth century, which could be viewed as a very informative source for the then illiterate people. Photo newspaper "Labor Truth". No.7. 1-15 February 1928
So, analyzing the activities of the party organizations of the Penza region to inform the public about life abroad in 1920-1940-s, we can draw the following conclusions:
- in the early stages of the Soviet state in implementing the policy of informing citizens about life abroad - that is, when submitting comparative information, the informing function was performed, mostly, not by the media themselves, but by party workers who traveled to the village and the enterprises, as Firstly, the overwhelming majority of the population was illiterate, and newspaper articles were inaccessible to people, and secondly, due to the fact that at the beginning of its formation, the network of newspapers was in a state of crisis and could not fulfill its quality ktsiyu information.
- even in the most democratic period for the press 1921-1928-s. Soviet newspapers were not free in the coverage of foreign reality. Literally from the first years of the Soviet state, the mass media in informing about foreign events were forced to follow the decisions of the party leadership. That is, an increase in the critical mass of unreliable information was observed. It was impossible to give and conflicting information. And then in the same issue of Pravda, Tukhachevsky was a native of peasants, and three months after his arrest he became the son of a landowner!
- the following algorithm was developed in informing about facts of foreign reality by the structures of the CPSU (b): first, information about events outside the USSR was processed by the party leadership, and then presented to the collective farmers and workers in the right light, that is, to obtain reliable comparative information to its citizens is impossible. In principle, for protective purposes, it was even not bad. No comparison - no "bad thoughts." But it was bad that, for example, it was asserted that “the world revolution is close”, but for some reason it didn’t happen at all, that there was famine in the USA, but the revolution didn’t start there either, that “fascism in Germany helps the cause of the proletarian revolution” (!), but only there it did not begin again. At the same time, many Soviet citizens turned out to be in the West, and were in contact with Western specialists, and they saw something completely different there, naturally, this information also diverged, although through narrow sections of the population. Nevertheless, all this slowly but surely undermined the confidence of the masses in the information of the Soviet media. What it all led to in the end is well known.
1.Grabelnikov A.A. Mass information in Russia: from the first newspaper to the information society: dis .... Dr. East. sciences. M., 2001. C. 73.
2. Guriev A. How the agitprop was tempered: The system of state ideological treatment of the population in the early years of the NEP. // [SPb.] 2010 g. URL: http://guryevandrey.narod.ru/Agitprop/6chapter.htm
3. Mitvol O.L. Formation and implementation of information policy in the USSR and the Russian Federation (1917-1999): dis .... Dr. East. sciences. M., 2004. C. 65.
4. On the relationship between party committees and newspaper editors. Annex to item No. 6 of the protocol No. 91 Meetings of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee of 2.2.1923. // GAPO (State Archive of the Penza Region). F.36. D.593. L.12.
5.GAPO. F.36.Op.1. D.384. L.30.
6.GAPO. F.36.Op.1. D.386. L.202.
7.GAPO. F.36.Op.1. D.384. L.28.
8.GAPO. F.36.Op.1. D.732. L.49, D.950, L.14.
9.GAPO. F.36.Op.1. D.1427. L.53.
10. HAPO. F.36.Op.1. D.389. L.24.
11. HAPO. F.37.Op.1. D.596. L.54.
12. Grabelnikov A.A. Mass information in Russia: from the first newspaper to the information society: dis .... Dr. East. sciences. M., 2001. C.73-74.
13. Ibid. L.74.
14. HAPO. F.37.Op.1. D.348. L.6.
15. HAPO. F.36.Op.1. D.411.L.12.
16. ГАПО. Ф.36.Оп.1.Д.593.Л.83.
17. ГАПО. Ф.36.Оп.1.Д.1653.Л.57.
18. ГАПО. Ф.148.Оп.1.Д.105.Л.73.
19. ГАПО. Ф36.Оп.1.Д.1727.Л.1.
20. The resolution on the report of the Penza P / Print Department of the Sponge Committee of the CPSU (b). HAPO. F.36.Opt.1.D.1162.L.176.
21.ГАПО. Ф.148.Оп.1.Д.291.Л.55, Л.58.