Military Review

German main battle tank Leopard 2: stages of development. Part of 11

Leopard 2A4SG MK.I

German main battle tank Leopard 2: stages of development. Part of 11

First appearance: 2007 year A country: Germany / Singapore

Singapore bought 96 used tanks Leopard 2A4 from Germany in 2007. 66 tanks were fully restored and entered the existing units. The remaining 30 vehicles were delivered from stocks and used as a source of spare parts.

Changes affected radio stations. In addition, the M242 automatic cannon was installed as an auxiliary weapon, including a fixed mount on the turret roof. Cars also received a monochrome coloring.

In 2009, it was announced that Singapore plans to significantly refine the tanks. It was originally planned that the tank Leopard 2 will receive additional armor, a battle management system, an auxiliary power unit, a digital SLA and a reinforced suspension. The possibility of purchasing new ammunition was also estimated.

Due to financial problems, most of the new components were abandoned and the set of reservation of the standard Leopard 2A4 Evolution, developed by IBD, was only purchased. Singapore became the first country to receive a similar upgrade. Shipments of armored sets took place in 2010 year. Modernization provides only passive booking, without installing an active protection complex.

Leopard 2A4CHL

First appearance: 2007 year A country: Germany / Chile

Chile became the first country in South America to receive the Leopard 2 tanks. In total, 115 tanks were purchased for active parts, and 25 plus for training and disassembly of spare parts. Deliveries of tanks took place in 2007-2008 years. Tanks do not have modifications, only the engine under the contract had to be adjusted. Since Chile operates tanks at very high altitudes, turbochargers were modified. They received a new impeller, specifically designed to improve engine performance in high-altitude areas. Additional temperature sensors were installed on the engine in order to prevent its overheating.

Leopard 2A4 + CAN
A country: Germany / Canada

In addition to 20 tanks, Leopard 2A6 and two Buffel ARVs, Canada also bought 80 used Leopard 2NL from the Netherlands, 14 A4 tanks from Germany and 12 Pz 87 tanks from Switzerland. The original plan was to start a program of gradual modernization and slowly bring most of the tanks to a configuration close to the configuration of A6M. It was supposed to start with the electric drives of the turret, then take up the modernization of the protection and, finally, install the main gun L / 55. Financial difficulties, in the end, put an end to these plans. Instead, the use and modification of the Leopard 2 tank fleet was tailored to the actual needs of the units. Most of the tanks are used only for training purposes, which makes most of the upgrades useless. Ultimately, only the 31 tank was upgraded to the so-called A4 + level. Modifications compared to the original configuration of the NL were mainly carried out in order to fit the tanks to the standard equipment of the Canadian army. This includes radio stations, a smoke screen system of machine guns and a small weapon. In addition, tanks are prepared for the installation of a mine plow and a dozer blade.

Of the remaining Leopard 2 tanks acquired by Canada, the 20 was upgraded to the Leopard 2A4M CAN standard, the 12 BREM Buffel and the 18 engineering vehicles of the Wisent 2. The remaining 26 tanks will be used as donors of spare parts and future upgrades.

Leopard 2A6M CAN

First appearance: 2007 year A country: Germany / Canada

Canada decided to buy Leopard 2 tanks in the 2007 year. The main reason was the increased workload of tank crews, which they were expected in Afghanistan, which they could not cope with, exploiting outdated Leopard 1 tanks. These machines have been in use for many years and have already served their planned lifetime many years ago. Instead of following the same path as other countries and using light vehicles, Canada decided to stick with German main battle tanks. The reason for this was the experience gained from operating the Leopard 1. The quick availability of the Leopard 2, as well as its technological advantage over other competitors, was also taken into account. In order to speed up the purchase, the process was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we bought tanks from Germany and the Netherlands, and at the second stage we finished tanks. The first step was to rent 20 tanks Leopard 2A6M from Germany. The machines were slightly modified and directly shipped to Afghanistan, where they were quite intensively exploited.

The new tanks under the designation Leopard 2A6M CAN are almost identical to the German A6M. The most notable change was the lattice screens designed to detonate the attacking shells before meeting with the main armor of the tank.

Lattice armor installed on the sides and in the stern of the hull and turret. The modules are bolted and can be removed for repair and maintenance. Crews also use trellis screens as large storage baskets. For this, you only need to install a metal grid as the bottom.

In addition to installing lattice screens, the main armor was also upgraded. Additional armor plates were installed on the roof of the hull in the front around the driver's hatch. Another minor modification was the protective frames around the two light pointers.

Another significant improvement was carried out in radio systems. The conventional antenna bases of the Leopard 2 tank were replaced with massive T-shaped bases, each with three antennas inserted. The left base holds two massive antennas, and the right base has one radio antenna and one small antenna for the electronic warfare system. It is used to suppress mobile communications around the car, thus blocking the blasting of improvised explosive devices over the air. Electronic components of the EW system are installed on the roof of the tower in flat boxes behind the commander's hatch. Finally, each antenna base carries a flat circular GPS antenna for the navigation system. Another modification is a storage box in front of the commander's hatch. In it fit carbines С8 crew members. Storage and use of these long rifles inside the tower would be difficult for the crew.

Tank Leopard 2A6M CAN is not equipped with air conditioning for the crew and electronics. In order for the crew to receive at least some relief, it was equipped with cooling vests that take the air outside the car. For electronics, a cooling fan was installed on the roof of the tower.

For service in Afghanistan, the tanks are equipped with a Barracuda camouflage system, which reduces the thermal and radar signs of visibility and serves as an optical disguise. Known since the Leopard 1AS version, the Leopard 2А6М CAN also has an umbrella for sun protection. It is usually installed on a pole between two hatches of the tower, but during transportation it can be folded.

In order to extend the life in Afghanistan, tanks are equipped with a more powerful air cleaning system for the engine. It is able to cope with a lot of sand and dust.
The fire control system of the Leopard 2 tank was slightly modified. In addition to armor-piercing subcaliber and cumulative types, a Canadian tank can fire with an M1028 cluster projectile.

The Mine Clearing System MCRS (Mine Clearance Roller System) was also installed on several Leopard 2A6M CAN tanks. It consists of an intermediate plate attached to the tank hull and steel rollers. Mines are neutralized by pressure and vibration. For the installation of the MCRS system, mounting points and electrical connectors were added to the body, and the headlights were removed.

Leopard 2A4M

Appearance: 2010 year A country: Germany / Canada

Leopard 2A4M has been specially modified to meet the requirements of the Canadian armed forces. It is based on the Dutch version of Leopard 2A4, for which a total of 20 machines have been redone. The tank is basically similar to the Leopard 2A6M version, but does not have a new sight of the commander and navigation equipment. The Leopard 2A4M version has an original Peri-R17 sight, but the front part of the tower has received a new reservation kit. The tank also features a refined hull with additional armor for the bottom and sides of the roof. The driver's seat is equipped with a thermal imager, which allows the driver to drive a car in low light conditions.

Leopard 2A4M comes with the same tower electric drives that were installed on the A5 variant. The tower electronics has not been updated except for the installation of Canadian radio stations.
Due to the additional booking option, the Leopard 2A4M began to weigh more than 61 tons, which makes it the heaviest tank in the Leopard 2A4 model range.

Leopard 2A4TR

First appearance: 2005 year A country: Germany / Turkey

Instead of the original plans for the purchase of 1000 tanks Leopard 2A5, Turkey decided in 2005 to purchase all 298 machines from Leopard 2A4 from German warehouses. Tanks received only advanced air filters. Deliveries of all tanks have passed, but the option for another 41 tank was never realized.

Leopard 2NG

First appearance: 2011 year A country: Germany / Turkey

Leopard 2NG (Next Generation) is a retrofit kit developed by the Turkish company Aselsan. This is another project based on Leopard 2А4 Evolution, which has the same additional booking system. Like the MW Revolution variant, the Leopard 2NG tank also replaced the electronics in the turret.

Let's start with the turret and gun drives. The gunner and the commander received new sights, as well as control panels. The gunner can now change the increase in day and night branches to x3 or x12. The commander has the same sight as the gunner, only he is placed in a rotating case in the rear of the tower.

The control panels of the commander and the gunner are the same; they also have the same monocular eyepiece, buttons and displays. Also installed new control handles. The fire control system has been improved by adding temperature and side wind sensors.

Leopard 2NG comes with a GPS-based navigation system and a battle management system. It allows you to exchange encrypted data with other units.

The front of the tower and the feed are equipped with laser detectors. If a signal is detected, the system will alert the crew automatically. It can also turn the turret in the direction of the irradiating laser beam and initiate the launch of smoke grenades. This system was originally installed on the tank Leopard 2.

The last element to be worth noting is the remotely controlled combat module on the roof of the tower. It is controlled either by the commander with the help of a sight, or with the help of a special remote control. In this case, the loader also uses the optics installed on the weapon module.

The development of the Leopard 2NG variant was completed in the 2011 year. Since Turkey didn’t buy Leopard 2 anymore and began developing its own Altay MBT, it is unlikely that many upgrade kits were sold. The Leopard 2NG adds new technology to the old tanks, but it does not have the capabilities that the Leopard 2 Revolution has. You should also be skeptical about the experience of the company Aselsan with the modernization of the German tank. At the moment, this set of modernization of foreign customers is not.

Leopard 2A7 + QAT

First appearance: 2015 year A country: Germany / Qatar

In 2009, the German government approved the supply of 36 second-hand Leopard 2A4 tanks to Qatar. Already at that time, the Leopard 2A4 was not the last version of the tank and, ultimately, the project was never implemented. Instead, it was decided to buy the 62 tank Leopard 2A7 +. This is the newest version of the Leopard 2 family and Qatar will be the first operator. The supply of tanks began in 2015 year. All vehicles were new and were not tested in other armies.

Leopard 2A4ID

First appearance: 2013 year A country: Germany / Indonesia

Indonesia tried to buy Leopard 100A2 6 tanks from the Netherlands, but the deal was canceled due to massive protests in the country of tulips. Then Indonesia turned to Germany and in 2013, Indonesia officially entered the Leopard 2 user club. A total of 105 tanks were ordered, which will be delivered in 2014-2020 years. Tanks will be placed under the indexes Leopard 2A4 + and Leopard 2RI.

The first step was the delivery of two tanks that took part in the military parade in October 2013. These tanks were in the Pz 87 version and were purchased from the presence of the Swiss army. They were not finalized, but were only repainted. Snow chains were removed from the tanks, but left their attachment points. The tanks also retained attachment points for machine gun barrels on the right side of the turret, but the silencers on the engine were removed. The tanks also installed new radio stations that can be identified by new large antennas.

Leopard 2A4 + Rl
First appearance: 2014 year A country: Germany / Indonesia

Indonesia ordered the 103 tank Leopard 2, and the first batch will consist of 42 tanks in the so-called Leopard 2A4 + version. The tanks will be based on the Leopard 2A4 version, but with some additional modifications. The most important change is the electric drives of the turret and the guns, which replaced the hydraulic drives. This significantly reduces the risk of injury to crew members, as well as energy consumption. Also in the tower is released some volume, which is now occupied by air conditioning. However, according to reports, the auxiliary power unit has not been installed.

The new gun received new anti-recoil devices, allowing to shoot the newest 120-mm armor-piercing feathered sub-caliber projectiles. The fire control system has also been improved so that new highly programmable high-explosive fragmentation ammunition can be fired. An additional control panel was installed in place of the loader.

Additional armor has not been installed, it remains a privilege only option Leopard 2RI.

Leopard 2RI
First appearance: 2016 year A country: Germany / Indonesia

Leopard 2RI is essentially a Leopard 2A4 + RI with additional booking modules. The 61 tank purchased is similar to the A4 + RI variant, but differs in the booking modules shown on the Evolution MVT model at Eurosatory 2014. They have additional booking modules installed on the front and sides of the hull and turret, as well as lattice screens around the stern. The tank is also equipped with additional mine protection.

Leopard 2 Tank for driver training

A country: Germany

In order to support the learning process of tank mechanics, Leopard 2 developed a special version. In general, it is based on the experience of a similar version of the Leopard 1 tank and is used only in training centers.

The hull is basically identical to the hull of a conventional tank, but has new fixtures for the turret. The tower itself has nothing to do with the tower tank Leopard 2. It resembles the cab of a truck, inside of which there are seats for an instructor and two soldiers. All controls are similar to controls of a serial tank and the instructor can take control if necessary.

Instead of the main gun installed a small metal pipe. Additional weights on the sides of the tower imitate the missing mass and provide the tank mobility declared by TTX.

Leopard 2 NL Tank for driver training

A country: Germany / Netherlands

The tank in the version of Leopard 2NL was used to prepare the Dutch mechvod. The car is similar to the German version, but does not have a mock gun. This tank is also used by the Austrian army.

Leopard 2E Escuela

First appearance: 2003 year A country: Germany / Spain

The tank for training drivers used in the Spanish army, received the designation Leopard 2E Escuela. Its body is identical to the body version of the Leopard 2E. The turret was replaced by a small cabin similar to that of a Dutch tank driver training.

Продолжение следует ...

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  1. demiurg
    demiurg 8 January 2017 14: 14
    Of course thanks, the article is informative.
    But you could correct the article a bit and show photos of Turkish cats after processing with birds. Just for the sake of general erudition. )))
  2. Crimean partisan 1974
    Crimean partisan 1974 8 January 2017 14: 32
    there is a rather entertaining info - "Canada in Afghanistan did not lose a single Leopard from ATGMs. However, this does not mean that there were no losses at all. In total, 18 Canadian Leopards of various modifications were knocked out, three tanks were destroyed irrevocably. All this was good. damage from mines, land mines and improvised explosive devices. It was the mined roads that became the scourge of the Canadian "Leopards" in Afghanistan. "And also in the topic -" During the offensive on November 2, 2007, the 2A6M tank was blown up by .... BY A SELF-EXPLOSIVE DEVICE !!! !!!, but remained intact. -... (HEHEHE FROM PITARDA). The Chief of Staff of the Canadian Armed Forces, General Rick Hillier, reported that the tank, having blown up on an IED, was decommissioned, but ..... (frankly crap) after repairs returned to ranks.If something is written off in the Armed Forces, then it is never restored, so for those who have not plunged into the support service, well, so here ... Leo-2 in Afghanistan
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 10 January 2017 09: 43
      This is Leopard 1.
      1. Crimean partisan 1974
        Crimean partisan 1974 10 January 2017 17: 41
        Yeah, well done, I noticed, well, duck here and Leo-2 there
        1. Crimean partisan 1974
          Crimean partisan 1974 10 January 2017 17: 49
          shyaya, photo in the studio, "a sick cheerful old doctor came, and here he is AKHA, AHA funny doctor" (song)
  3. Nightrain
    Nightrain 8 January 2017 15: 31
    Well, in Syria and Iraq, the myth of the invulnerable Western armored barriers vanished like smoke.
    What a fantastic PR company failed. Which really does not mean that I think Leoperdy and Abramsa are bad tanks.
  4. this
    this 9 January 2017 01: 23
    If I remember correctly, there is almost no difference for the cumulative jet of what steel the armor is made of - the penetration will differ by a few percent, because the basic composition is ordinary iron, and the remaining impurities are very small, but W and U, metal carbides, boron carbide the barrier for the jet is already more serious, but what about any rubber or the same sand at all about nothing. So being an obstacle to the projectile may not be it for RPGs at all.
    1. Crimean partisan 1974
      Crimean partisan 1974 9 January 2017 11: 35
      ", but W and U, metal carbides, boron carbide - this is already a more serious obstacle to the jet"
      the barrier to the cumulative is the sedic warhead, but the tandem warhead is just such a filler on the hand, the leading charge transferring energy to the filler turns it into a liquid, secondary, main, to carry all this molten good inside, so the grandmother said for two, it’s important meeting with the armor, for example, by attacking the Syrian T-2 ATGM-90 ATGM in the tower, the leading charge was blown up at an angle of almost 30 degrees, it didn’t penetrate, and in turn, Kornetov’s attacks always had a meeting angle of almost 90 degrees, the result is all known dissolved
      1. this
        this 9 January 2017 12: 14
        Read what a cumulative stream is in wiki al where else, or they wrote some kind of blizzard.
        1. TARSUS
          TARSUS 9 January 2017 14: 02
          And don't say, "Crimean Partisan 1974" has such a mess in his head that the horror is just ...
          1. Crimean partisan 1974
            Crimean partisan 1974 10 January 2017 16: 26
            a mess in those heads who submit themselves to the hopes of anachronism, nothing to add
        2. Crimean partisan 1974
          Crimean partisan 1974 10 January 2017 16: 25
          Justify your version of the cumulative jet and processes that occur during this riot of temperature, pressure and focus, well, it’s advisable to delve into the account of tandem cumulative processes, probably this isn’t on the wiki, because you walk a little in the dark, and then we'll talk about the snowstorm
      2. TARSUS
        TARSUS 9 January 2017 14: 12
        Maybe enough tales to tell? I struck there TOU - 2 roof of the ninety tower.
        The dimensions of the armor, as it were, have long been no secret.
        1. Crimean partisan 1974
          Crimean partisan 1974 10 January 2017 16: 42
          there was no penetration, but the triggered DZs were, and the dangling left headlight of the optoelectronic suppression was, so don’t whistle like a cancer on a mountain
          1. TARSUS
            TARSUS 10 January 2017 17: 45
            Well, on the basis of what did you conclude that there was no penetration? By the dangling headlight of the Curtain? Iron logic, what to say))
            1. Crimean partisan 1974
              Crimean partisan 1974 11 January 2017 10: 00
              I don’t need to draw conclusions, it was created by a commission to investigate this fact and the conclusion of MTO specialists, after which this T-90 remained in service, and so on the initial conclusion to the video gunner jumps out of the hatch, if there was a break, the gunner would would pop out like a smoke bomb interspersed with molten red metal,
              1. TARSUS
                TARSUS 11 January 2017 14: 45
                Link to the findings of the commission.
                1. Crimean partisan 1974
                  Crimean partisan 1974 12 January 2017 11: 55
                  link to the conclusions of the commission ????
                  Yes please-
                  1.Deputy General Director of "Uralvagonzavod" for special equipment Vyacheslav Khalitov-please, on Twitter and other social networks
                  2. Editor of the Arsenal of the Fatherland magazine, Victor Murakhovsky, on the forum of the Courage website, said that everything was fine with the tank: he arrived at the Syrian armored repair plant, where he changed the dynamic protection and the head of the sights. that is, a direct participant in the conclusions of the commission,
                  address them directly, it’s not difficult if your knees don’t tremble, and you don’t have to send any kind of links, DARE
                  1. TARSUS
                    TARSUS 12 January 2017 17: 05
                    In words, are you a photo hero not breaking through weakly show? Is it like a mythical SU-25 shooting down a bing over Donbas?
                    1. Crimean partisan 1974
                      Crimean partisan 1974 13 January 2017 12: 33
                      "In words, you are a hero-"
                      words cannot be ejected from a song, the entire outdoor latrine is glued with letters !!!
                      at the expense of the photo, I already gave the exile that the knees still trembled ???
                      at the expense of the downed Boeing !!! there are no myths, there is a gagging of psychopaths, that’s what happened, the Golanians, albeit sodomites, brought their opinion to the outskirts of the geyes, despite the spicy jelly pouring into Western media, the Boeing was shot down by Ukrainian beech, and that’s it, everything else has only a side effect
                      1. TARSUS
                        TARSUS 13 January 2017 16: 48
                        Where in the photo is the impact site clearly visible? Show me exactly the place of contact of the cum jet with the armor. It is made baud in such a way that it would not show the place of penetration.
                      2. TARSUS
                        TARSUS 13 January 2017 16: 51
                        The Dutch directly said that the BUK is Russian. And the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation showed that it was lying, whistling at a briefing on July 21.07.2014, 25 about the Su-26.09.2016 flying there. On September 25, XNUMX, it stated that there was no su-XNUMX.
        2. Vadim237
          Vadim237 10 January 2017 22: 59
          There, the cumulant passed just along the roof of the tower - it was slipping, and the spotlight was ripped off due to the operation of the anti-tank system, and the nearby dynamic blocks fired from the shock wave.
      3. Vadim237
        Vadim237 10 January 2017 22: 52
        You need to study hydroaerodynamics - the cumulative stream is described there, how it is introduced into the armor.
    2. Vadim237
      Vadim237 10 January 2017 22: 45
      An excellent protection against a cumulative jet can be hinged blocks made of metallopene, they are porous - the jet passing through hollow spheres will lose its "density", and there, and most of the armor penetration, these blocks can also protect against BOPS, since the sphere itself the construction is durable - for impact and high pressure and this protection, unlike other materials, is the lightest - 0,7 grams per cubic centimeter.
      1. Crimean partisan 1974
        Crimean partisan 1974 11 January 2017 10: 27
        "from an armored metallopena" - that is, such a smart matyuk-ABLATIVE PROTECTION - is quite suitable for thin-skinned armored vehicles, because the descent vehicles descend for a rather long time in a cloud of 10000 Celsius and more with a coating of 6-15 centimeters, and the kumstruya has approximately the same temperature, but here is the focusing of the jet together with the pressure ..... it then needs to be blurred, which in general does the DZ, and if in a combination of the minimum angles of inclination, then generally the song
        1. pimen
          pimen 11 January 2017 12: 32
          You can use rotating cylinders of small diameter, staggered (instead of lattice screens). It should work against BOPS
      2. this
        this 14 January 2017 09: 28
        Is metal proof possible?
  5. Crimean partisan 1974
    Crimean partisan 1974 10 January 2017 17: 40
    Well, Duc, if you didn’t know, was never a T-64 tank company commander, that’s understandable, unfortunately my Kent was a tank company commander in the gums, are there any more questions about incompetence ???
  6. Crimean partisan 1974
    Crimean partisan 1974 14 January 2017 10: 47
    do not whistle, beech in general the USSR
  7. Crimean partisan 1974
    Crimean partisan 1974 14 January 2017 10: 54
    Quote: TARS
    On September 26.09.2016, 25, it stated that there was no su-XNUMX.

    fucking burned !!!!! But what about the Su-25 pilot's PR, that they say he shot down the first side of the Russian Federation, can he be color blind ?? otherwise it doesn’t fit into the normal framework of an adequate person
    1. TARSUS
      TARSUS 15 January 2017 21: 54
      The Dutch directly stated that the BUK had arrived from Russia and left back. What's not clear? And as for the pilot, questions to the Investigative Committee, and more precisely to their lie detector, for such misinformation. So as I repeat my question, why does the Ministry of Defense refute its own briefing?
  8. Crimean partisan 1974
    Crimean partisan 1974 15 January 2017 12: 54
    "The Dutch said in plain text that the BUK is Russian." - this cannot be, since the official part is still listed in the INVESTIGATION, therefore, no one can officially declare anything, perhaps the case will take a new round after January 20th, this do not go to the grandmother, the nagibator will go away because of a large puddle, so there will be officials, but for now the sodomites are sharpening their teeth on giblets, but not as in the Russian Federation
    1. svp67
      svp67 15 January 2017 13: 03
      Quote: Crimean partisan 1974
      "The Dutch said in plain text that the BUK is Russian." - this cannot be,

      Here it is stupid to argue. These air defense systems were produced only in Russia, so all BUK air defense systems are Russian. Here the question now is different, and what country did this "BUK", produced in Russia, belong to?
      Ukraine rests on everything, desperately proving that it did not have them there, but that's the thing
      but what about this?
  9. Vadim Golubkov
    Vadim Golubkov April 17 2017 01: 11
    Quote: demiurg
    Of course thanks, the article is informative.
    But you could correct the article a bit and show photos of Turkish cats after processing with birds. Just for the sake of general erudition. )))

    So I have such a first thought, otherwise Leopard, Leoparrd ... you’ll break the hell .. and the T-72 is the T-34.
    1. Usher
      Usher 6 November 2017 17: 59
      Who said you fucked his horseradish? Western tanks are huge sheds, they have a thin 20mm substrate, there is an incomprehensible module, like our DZ, only without explosives. And in our frontal projection, there is the main armor (combined) and + mounted on top. And they have a sheet of iron, + mounted. conclusion?
  10. Vadim Golubkov
    Vadim Golubkov April 17 2017 01: 17

    Of course I’m stupid, but I don’t understand, where is the infantry, well, a platoon? Is it so the Syrians are fighting?
  11. Usher
    Usher 6 November 2017 17: 56
    TARSUS, Mmm, if the Dutchman said something, is this a priori true? Are you hurt? Do you know such a saying? "On the fence H.Y. is written"))))