Military Review

SS-20 - "Pioneer", which was always ready

The origin of the mobile RSD-10 soil-based missile system with a medium-range ballistic missile began in the 70-ies. The main developer of the RSD-10 is the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering, the head of design development is Academician A. Nadradze. The creation of the rocket, which received the index 15Ж45, was carried out using the base 2-x steps from the rocket PGRK Temp-2С. Major new developments:
- throttle cut-off control unit for the second stage;
- connecting compartment;
- split head.

SS-20 - "Pioneer", which was always ready

The end of the practical factory work off of all the developed solutions was marked by flight tests of the RSD-10 at the Kapustin Yar test site at the end of September 1974. The designers took about 1.5 year to eliminate the identified problems, and go through a full program of state tests. In mid-March 1976, the state committee signs the acceptance certificate for the RSD-10 and the Pioneer complex is admitted to the Strategic Missile Forces of the Soviet Union. The complex replaced the P-14 missiles in service with the USSR Armed Forces, this caused a well-known alarm in foreign countries and was reflected in the name of the complex - SS-20 or “European Thunderstorm”.

In early August, 1979, a test rocket with improved characteristics called "15ЖХNNXX" entered the test. Tests were held at the same test site as 53ЖX15. More than a year tests lasted and comments were eliminated. In mid-December, 45, the improved complex under the designation "Pioneer UTTH" enters the Strategic Missile Forces. The main differences of the rocket 1980Ж15 - improved control system and unit-instrument unit. Improvements allowed to increase accuracy of hit to 53 meters. Replacing engines increased the radius of BB breeding and increased the range of the complex to 450 thousands of kilometers. At 5.5, the Soviet Union had 1987 650Ж15 and 45Ж15 missiles. All of them were intended to strike back at various sites in Europe, the Middle East, the United States and Asia. RSD-53 and "Pioneer UTTH" were in service until 10 year. According to the INF Treaty, since 1991, the complexes are beginning to be eliminated. First, the missiles were destroyed by launching missiles. It is worth noting that the complexes showed during liquidation launches that all characteristics correspond to factory parameters. The following complexes were eliminated by blasting missiles directly in factory containers, the chassis of the complexes after dismantling, and were sent to the storage areas of automotive vehicles. By the middle of 1991, all the missiles were destroyed. Several units of both rockets and complexes were left as exhibits for domestic and foreign museums of military equipment.

The composition and design of the complexes "Pioneer"
The standard composition of the complex includes the following components:
- ballistic missile 15ЖХNNUMX or 53Ж15;
- PU;
- vehicle for loading missiles;

The rocket consists of two marching stages, an aggregate-instrument block and a head section. Between themselves, they are connected with docking compartments. The control of the 1 th stage consists of a body made of fiberglass and a solid fuel charge, bottom covers and a nozzle, and a nozzle. In the lower section there are engines for braking and equipment for steering gears. To correct the trajectory and flight control, 8 aerodynamic and gas dynamic steering arrays were used. The control of the 2-th stage repeated the basic design of the control of the 1-th stage, but the flight control was carried out according to a different principle. To control the yaw and pitch angles, a method of blowing gas from a gas generator into a part of the nozzle, called supercritical, was used. To control the angles of the roll, the method of running gas on a special device was used. The two-stage propulsion systems used a system to cut off traction. The engine is disconnected by opening a dozen openings in the front of the combustion chamber. The pressure in the chamber drops, and the solid fuel stops burning.

The missile control system is developed by designers under the leadership of Academician N. Pilubin. SU missiles were built with the use of onboard VM, which ensured the achievement of the declared factory characteristics, carrying out routine maintenance and inspections.

All important control units had redundant backup units. This increased the reliability of the control system. All equipment is in a sealed compartment. The head of the split type MIRV with three BB. Power of one BB -150 kilotons. Each combat unit was individually guided to the selected target. Step for breeding BB had its own control system and remote control on solid fuel. The head part is made without aerodynamic fairing, BB to improve the aerodynamic characteristics of the flight stage was located at an angle to the axis of the rocket.

Variants of manufacturing the “Pioneer” MS missiles:
- Mod 1. MS monoblock type. Application range up to 5 thousands of kilometers;
- Mod 2. MS of the separable type. Three BB with IN. Application range up to 5.5 thousands of kilometers;
- Mod 3. MS monoblock type. Power BB- 50 kilotons. Range of application to 7.4 thousands of kilometers. Not commercially available.

The mode of operation meant placing the rocket in a hermetically sealed TPK. The container was placed on a self-propelled PU. Automobile six-axle chassis PU received from the MAZ-547. In addition to TPK with a rocket, there are also equipment for conducting technical control and launching of a rocket on the chassis. Despite its weight - about 80 tons, the speed of the SPU was quite solid - up to 40 km / h, could make movements on any roads, overcome the meter ford and rise to 15 degrees. Turning radius 21 meter. The launch production was carried out from the prepared positions of the “Krona” type or equipped field positions. PU hung on jacks and leveling. The powder pressure accumulator was used to eject a missile from the TLC during launch production. At a given height, the main engine of the 1 th stage was turned on. “Krona” is a metal structure in order to exclude permanent reconnaissance of the movement of the complexes. It has a through gate, which makes it possible to easily maneuver large-sized military equipment. Electric furnaces are located next to the Krona's internal walls, which prevent the possibility of thermal detection inside the Krona. When launching a rocket from the “Krona” with the help of squibs, metal sheets are thrown from the roof. In the educated "slot" raise the container and produce shooting. On the route of the complex of such facilities to mislead a tracking enemy was enough.

The main characteristics of the RSD-10:
- used rocket 15Ж45;
- application range from 600 to 5 thousands of kilometers;
- KVO 0.55 kilometer;
- the mass of MS from the version from 1500 to 1740 kilograms;
- length 15Ж45 16.49 meter;
- length 15Ж45 in TPK 19.32 meter;
- diameter 179 centimeters;
- Mass 15Ж45 37 tons;
- curb weight TPN 42.7 tons;
- length, height and width of PU by three meters;
- drive for lifting TPK - hydraulic type;
- crew of three people.

Additional Information
According to well-known US intelligence, the 1986 had a deployed launcher on the 441 year. According to official data, according to the agreement on the elimination of INF on the 1987 year between the Union and the States, the Union had 405 deployed PU and 245 missiles stored in arsenals and warehouses. During its operation with rockets there was not a single destruction or a single accident. For all the time, 190 missile launches were made, the overall probability of hitting the target is 98 percent.

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  1. Dart weyder
    Dart weyder 1 February 2012 08: 22
    a delightful technique, and she did not get into the INF Treaty (if I'm not mistaken) because it was from 500-5000 km, and MS Gorbachev (padla), so - wrote off for nothing future friends could sleep better belay
    1. neri73-r
      neri73-r 1 February 2012 09: 54
      You seem to be confusing it with the Oka OTRK (according to NATO's classification Spider, that is, a spider), which Gorbaty and Shevornadze wrote into the treaty without any grounds.
      1. Dart weyder
        Dart weyder 1 February 2012 16: 09
        I beg forgiveness, so it is - obbeshsya!
    2. Civil
      Civil 2 February 2012 09: 13
      to get out of the contract, the medium-range complexes, if available, can be put on duty as soon as possible, or rather, before the commissioning of EUROPRO, and also in the east to put a barrier along the border to the dragon.
      1. Kyrgyz
        Kyrgyz 2 February 2012 16: 07
        Quote: Civil
        in the presence of developments, medium-range complexes can be put on duty as soon as possible.

        Yes, not so the shortest, where and by whom will you produce them?
  2. sks1967sks
    sks1967sks 1 February 2012 09: 19
    K stenke Gorbatogo, on, rediska, vo mnogom vinovat. Ego predatelstvo do sih por rashlebivaem, i ne izvestno chem eto zakonchitsia.
  3. svvaulsh
    svvaulsh 1 February 2012 09: 50
    Sorry for the bird!
  4. Ascetic
    Ascetic 1 February 2012 10: 31
    For some reason, the article does not say a word about the development of a complex called "Pioneer-3"
    Like the previous modernized versions of the Pioneer missiles, the new modification was created by improving the combat stage of the 15Zh53 missile, without modifying the main engines. At the combat stage of the 15Zh57 rocket, a propulsion system of a fundamentally new structural scheme was used, with a large supply of fuel, ensuring the implementation of the zone for disengagement of combat equipment requested by the Customer. The new control system equipment ensured the achievement of high accuracy of hits.
    But the main "highlight" of the new complex "Pioneer-3" was completely different. By the mid-80s, the ideology of the combat use of mobile ground missile launchers had changed, autonomous launch capabilities were needed, and all previous modifications of the "Pioneer" missile system could carry a DB only as part of a battalion.
    During the same period, MIT completed work on the creation of the Topol RC, where already The idea of ​​autonomy of self-propelled PU was realized. therefore creation of medium range RK with autonomous mobile PU was no longer a difficult task. To create the RSDshnaya APU, many units and equipment of APU RK "Topol" were used. MAZ-15 chassis was developed for APU RK 157P7916. In terms of weight and dimensions, the APU 15U167 "Pioneer-3" practically corresponded to the SPU 15U136 RK "Pioneer-UTTKh" (15P653). minor changes)
    Apparently in connection with such new features of the Pioneer-3 rocket, the 15Zh57 rocket, although it was essentially just an upgrade of the 15Zh53 rocket (according to the western classification
    SS-20 Mod 2 Saber) was designated SS-X-28.
    A significant difference between the Pioneer-3 RK was also the fact that the missile system (regiment) had already 4 missile divisions (12 launchers) and, as before, one PKP rp.
    On the RK Pioneer-3, it was planned to re-equip the missile divisions, which were armed with the "pioneers" of the first generation (RK 15P645K), as well as divisions with the R-12 complexes.
    In 1986-87 survey and design work was carried out in 49 rd (Lida), 4 rd (Wood) and 40 rd (g. of the Islands).
    Flight tests of "Pioneer-3" were quite successful in 1985-86.
    However, all measures for the deployment of the Pioneer-3 were interrupted at the beginning of 1988 year ... in connection with the signing of the Treaty on the Elimination of Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles (INF) between the USSR and the USA.

    IMHO If it were not for Gorby's refusal to place Pioneer-3 in Belarus, no one would have hinted at the creation of a European missile defense system. Even in the presence of Pershing, it would be practically impossible to actually calculate and hit the APU
  5. Splin
    Splin 1 February 2012 10: 38
    Worthy answer to American Pershing in Europe!
    1. Chukotka resident
      Chukotka resident 1 February 2012 11: 43
      Quote: Splin
      Worthy answer to American Pershing in Europe!

      71-th with Oka was also not bad for those purposes.
  6. Chukotka resident
    Chukotka resident 1 February 2012 10: 43
    Auto RU...
    - And you can prepare an article on the 71 complex. Thank.
    1. Ascetic
      Ascetic 1 February 2012 13: 03
      You can look at
  7. Chukotka resident
    Chukotka resident 1 February 2012 11: 15
    Pioneer was a good complex for Europe, decommissioned by START-2.
  8. dred
    dred 1 February 2012 12: 57
    The last option on the gun case looks like.
  9. 755962
    755962 1 February 2012 13: 06
    Neither pioneers, nor "Pioneers" recourse
    1. Andrey77
      Andrey77 1 February 2012 14: 04
      Not always in the pioneers go, now on the database is no longer the Komsomol. ;) In this area, we went around the United States for years on 3-5. It is a pity that only in this.
  10. Brummbar
    Brummbar 1 February 2012 13: 35
    Yes, a great fool was!
    1. Andrey77
      Andrey77 1 February 2012 14: 09
      For 86 of the year - GREAT!
  11. Andrey77
    Andrey77 1 February 2012 14: 02
    "Pioneer" is really a pioneer. Many solutions worked out on this product have not lost their relevance.
  12. Yuri11076
    Yuri11076 1 February 2012 14: 12
    Yes, how much effort, time and public money was spent on the creation of this beautiful complex, and the tagged traitor with the stroke of a pen which he held in his clumsy pens signed a sentence to this complex ...
    1. Splin
      Splin 1 February 2012 14: 23
      You should not blame Hunchback for this. The pioneer made his main business-political. Reagan sat at the negotiating table and removed the Pershingi from Europe .. I was Hungary with Batey in the first half of 80, I saw on the satellite how Europe protests against American missiles.
  13. vlbelugin
    vlbelugin 1 February 2012 14: 31
    I had the honor to serve in the regiment, which was the first to take up combat duty with the Pioneer complex. 396 missile regiment. Petrikov. Belarus.
    The Americans called him the "Flying Dutchman".
    In 1988, the complex was handed over to the arsenal. And then "Poplar".
    1. Ascetic
      Ascetic 1 February 2012 15: 37
      I was in Petrikov on an internship as a cadet at 1982. The commander was p / n Raevsky Valery ....... if memory serves. And Topol already lieutenant mastered in 54 gv.rd in 1987
      1. vlbelugin
        vlbelugin 2 February 2012 10: 57
        Right. An excellent commander. There would be more of them. Only he was later. We studied with him in 1989 at the Topol in Plisetsk.
        And when they got to the database, he already came as a member of the commission of the Commander-in-Chief.
  14. Strabo
    Strabo 1 February 2012 14: 32
    The developments that were carried out in the 70s were distinguished by their quality and reliability, it is no coincidence that these copies, or rather their remnants, are still "workable". This RSD-10 missile system with a medium-range ballistic missile was a good deterrent. It is a pity that the "Treaty on the Elimination of Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles" (INF) between the USSR and the USA. Weakened our defenses. Moreover, the United States has fulfilled its part of the treaty only half. Another trick, but we were led.
    1. Andrey77
      Andrey77 1 February 2012 15: 46
      I am not a lawyer, but "under the shelter" we have something that the US still needs to catch up somehow. In this, of course, a specific industry, we are "number one". The INF Treaty was concluded between the states and us (roughly - between the blocks). With regard to, for example, China, we can use the INF Treaty whenever we want. You don't have to paint everything black.
      1. Volkhov
        Volkhov 1 February 2012 16: 33
        A pound of meat, but without blood.
        We can use, but we can not have until the contract is valid.
  15. werr17
    werr17 29 March 2012 10: 07
    it's time to create the "Thunderstorm of Europe and Asia", place them in Krasnoyarsk, in the north of the Khabarovsk Territory and in the European part of the Russian Federation
  16. persei
    persei 30 October 2017 14: 21
    Sorry that was removed from service! Such a rocket profukali! So many jobs lost, including in the electronic industry