Military Review

About towers on pedestals, and not only ...

43
Life is a funny thing. Recently, at the request of his wife, he climbed into the sofa, where a heap of papers was gathering dust, in order to throw away all this waste paper and found there a number of old "tank-workshop" materials and ... decided to "drive" them into the Antiplagiat system. I drove it and saw that they had a high level of novelty. That is, something was planned for publication, something was published, but did not get on the Web, in a word, I did a little bit of money and it turned out to be good material for VO on the topic of Czech tanks... And then he looked there again, and there was a "continuation of the banquet" about the towers of Czech and not only Czech tanks, which fell on the pedestals of various fortified lines.



The most frequently encountered tower from a tank on a concrete base is, of course, the tower from the Renault tank R-35.

And it was so that when my magazine “Tankomaster” began to come out and spread, many considered it almost a miracle — during Soviet times, our people did not indulge in such information. In the special security of the library to them. IN AND. Lenin kept even the drawings of the T-27 wedge. The fear was - “as if something did not work out”, and it was so strong that the very first issue of the magazine was generally written in manuscript! Nobody wanted me to type it for any money, and my friend artist I. Zeynalov had to write all the text to him by hand! Well, and printed it in some scientific research institute on a hectograph (not one printing house undertook!), As if the Bolshevik leaflets in the underground.

About towers on pedestals, and not only ...

And here they are a whole set, and in one fortified area: on the left 38 (t), then either T-I or T-II, then "Renault".


A famous shot in which American soldiers walk past the turret of tank T-II.


Another tower T-II.


Tower T-II in the area of ​​Marseille.

But over time, the journal got better and better, and then it began to be published in Moscow as an addendum to Technique Youth. And here it began: both model companies and individual citizens “from there” began to overcome me with requests for help (and the most often original ones, for example, send good drawings of the Russian 1941 hut for the diorama with the T-III tank), and proposals for cooperation . One came from the United States from St. Louis (that's where my TAM got!), Where the author worked as the chief biologist at the local zoo and part-time owned the company "Turk Turret", which was engaged in collecting information about the turret tanks used in the war stationary . The biologist wanted to get two things from me: first, he needed ... a bone from a walrus penis (!). It turns out that walruses have bone there and this is a rarity. And secondly - the information on the photo, where there were towers of German tanks, found here in Russia and in Poland. I never found a bone to him, because there were no “tank makers” among the Chukchi, but with the photo it burned out. Moreover, in one of the five firms, and in Penza in 90, there were as many as five firms producing models of tanks and podiums for dioramas, they decided to release a podium for a diorama with a piece of German fortified line from one of these photos. It should have a shaft, a concrete bunker built into it under the tower of the T-II tank, pillars, racks, a pair of “hedgehogs”, there were several craters on the ground, and you should have bought the soldier figures yourself. I remember that there was also “grass” there, but we made a few such podiums - they were expensive and did not use demand.


Fortress Tobruk.

But ... about the towers of tanks installed permanently, I, besides TAM, also wrote in “Technician-Youth”, and “Technique and armament”, so that communication with this American was not in vain. What turned out in the end? But what: the Germans during the Second World War showed themselves to be highly practical, economical and thrifty people, so they managed to use the equipment and enemies and allies very rationally.


Another Renault Tower.

For example, judging by the photos, even our Soviet BT-7 towers were used as stationary fire installations, from which the upper armor plate was cut off and installed on a concrete base dug into the ground. By 1942, the Germans had so many captured tanks that standard designs were developed for the installation of Soviet tanks such as the T-34 and KV, and there were two options - concrete and timbered!


The tower from 38 (t) - so where did they all go ?!

At the same time, concrete foundation projects were developed for the German tanks themselves, which were already decommissioned: TI, T-II, 38 (t). Surprisingly, T-II towers often, at least in Poland, were found, re-equipped with 37-mm cannons from T-III tanks. The ammunition was stored in the underground part of such a bunker, so that the narrowness in the tower was not a hindrance to such modernization. They were placed on pedestals and towers from T-III and T-IV themselves, the latter at the end of the war being placed in various places, including at the crossroads of streets. The second largest were the towers of the French tanks "Hotchkiss", "Renault" AMH, which strengthened the coast of France, Holland and Belgium. And in France they were placed in the north, in Brittany, in Normandy, and in the south - in the area of ​​Marseille.


The AMC-35 tower is for some reason painted with “bricks”. Belgium.

The most famous, of course, defensive fortified line of Germany was the "Atlantic Wall". On it, the Germans built both very powerful, with walls of multimeter thickness, DOTs with 128 and 152-mm caliber guns, and "machine gun nests" in the form of ... a concrete pipe without a roof! Sitting in this ... "fortification" was supposed to be a soldier with a MG-34 machine gun and ... everything! I leaned out, put the machine gun and shoot! But they are bombing, shooting, dropping to the bottom and sitting, trembling with fear, hoping that the bomb will not fall into such a tiny “hole”.


Tower from T-III with 37-mm gun.


And this is a tower from T-III with an 50-mm gun in Russian snow.

But, in addition, the Germans built along the coast a lot of concrete pedestals for two people, on top of which they erected towers from the tanks R-35, H-35 / 39, AMC-35 - in a word, they strengthened the defense with everything they had under their arms! The distance between the towers was chosen so that the guns of the towers (or machine guns, if the guns were not installed) blocked it with fire. Structurally, it was a concrete parallelepiped with a staircase and a door. Moreover, the internal under-turret volume made it quite comfortable for two soldiers to stay there, one of whom was charging, pointing the gun at the target, well, shooting from it, and the second was giving him ammunition from the bottom, that is, the tower was not one person, as in a tank, but essentially - two, which allowed to increase the rate of fire. Twin towers AMC-35 are also very actively used. A base of a slightly different type was developed for them, and there are several photos from different places with the installation of a tower from this tank. But there were very few tanks of this type in the French army, so the main suppliers of tower installations remained the Renault and Hotchxes.




Drawings of concrete bunkers for towers.

The towers of the Czechoslovak tank 38 (t) were also widely used. And where only they were not put: in Italy, and on the border of Germany, and in Czechoslovakia itself. Then, after the cancellation, the towers of Czech tanks produced in Sweden will also be used to strengthen the coastal defenses and will be installed along its eastern coast to counteract the Soviet landing forces.


Panorama of the coast in Normandy with Nazi anti-fortifications and a broken tower from the Renault.

As the Soviet and Allied forces approached Germany, the defense problem became sharper and sharper, but the towers of the decommissioned tanks could not solve it. After all, their 37-47-mm guns were powerless against the armor of Soviet and Anglo-American tanks. In North Africa, the Germans used towers and captured tanks. For example, the Tobruk fortress was defended by towers from downed Matilda tanks.


Stationary installation of the tower tank "Panther".


Tower "Panther" in Italy.

In addition to tanks, the Panther towers were used for installation as long-term firing points (DOT). For this purpose, they were used as regular turrets of Ausf tanks. D and Ausf. A, as well as special towers, which differed reinforced to 56 mm roof and the absence of the commander's turret.


"Panther" PzKpfw V Ausf. A in Munster. Germany.

There were two modifications of pillboxes using the Panther turret: Pantherturm I (Stahluntersatz) - the turret of the tank was mounted on a chase mounted on an armored base welded from 80 mm thick armor sheets, with a 100 mm base thickness. The foundation itself consisted of two sections - residential and combat. Upper was fighting, and on it was installed the tower, where was the ammunition. The lower compartment was intended for the rest of the DOT team. It had two exits, the first - through a secret door to the outside, the second - into the transitional section to the fighting compartment.


Tower from the "Panther" on the box base. "Line Gotha", September 1944 of the year.

The Pantherturm III (Betonsockel) is a variant of a bunker with a concrete base, which differed from the Pantherturm I only in the increased size of reinforced concrete compartments, but it had no special structural differences.

Also produced simplified modifications of pillboxes with towers only in the upper fighting compartment. This project included the installation of the tower on the armored box with access through the hatch, and with four brackets in the corners for the hooks of the crane. The box with the tower was transported in the back of a truck. At the site, it was removed by a crane and installed in a hole that had been opened in advance, and covered with excavated soil. The tower, therefore, was flush with the ground and became unobtrusive. Very often, the Germans put them at the crossroads of streets or somewhere on the lawn on the side. Due to the fact that the engine of such towers was absent, the tower was turned exclusively by hand, that is, slowly.


The armored box with a turret from the Panther tank, of the Pantherturm I (Stahluntersatz) type.

All types of these firing points were used on the Atlantic Wall, on the Goth Line in Italy, on the Eastern Front, and also on the streets and squares of German cities. Often, damaged Panther tanks buried in the turret were used as pillboxes.


Another armored box with a tower from the "Panther" (simplified version). To make it more even, a log was planted under it.

At the end of March 1945, the 268 Pantherturm-DOTs were produced. But, of course, if there was a tank available with a broken chassis, but the whole tower, it could also be removed and used in such an installation. Inside the concrete casemate even beds were provided for rest. So, theoretically, such a stationary tower could resist long enough.


Very interesting photo. On it, the Alecto self-propelled guns based on the Tetrarch airborne tank pass by the Panther without wheels installed at the side of the road.

Sometimes such “boxes with towers” ​​were mounted on railway platforms, which turned the train with them into a kind of armored train.
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  1. Mystery12345
    Mystery12345 8 January 2017 06: 02
    10
    The author: Vyacheslav Shpakovsky
    very informative article, especially about:
    ... a walrus penis bone (!) was required. It turns out that walruses have bone there and this is very rare
    yes
    1. svp67
      svp67 8 January 2017 06: 30
      +8
      Quote: Mystery12345
      very informative article, especially about:

      All in accordance with the title of the article
      About towers on pedestals and not only…
      1. Lopatov
        Lopatov 8 January 2017 11: 54
        13
        Quote: svp67
        and not only…

        As for "... and not only", one can recall the absolute leader in this category, the Swiss.
        They created not just a stationary tower, they created a special machine for moving it, 10,5 cm Panzerabwehrsystem "Centurion"

        The price of the issue (alterations from a normal but outdated tank) is 38 thousand dollars apiece
    2. tanit
      tanit 8 January 2017 07: 32
      +6
      And not a word about dying of hunger, but you tried to find about them in the article, right? In the end, what interested you is what you quoted. Not surprised.
  2. commbatant
    commbatant 8 January 2017 06: 07
    +2
    I was expecting to see a photo with Soviet towers from the "Steel Line", and fortified areas on the Kuril Islands ...
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 8 January 2017 08: 08
      +8
      Quote: commbatant
      I was expecting to see a photo with Soviet towers from the "Steel Line", and fortified areas on the Kuril Islands ...

      In the Far East, in the "Steel Belt" tanks were usually placed. The tank installation scheme is given on the website, the address of which is given below.
      http://fortification.ru/forum/index.php?topic=472
      8.0
      1. commbatant
        commbatant 8 January 2017 13: 25
        +4

        tower from t-54/55
    2. kalibr
      8 January 2017 08: 37
      +6
      Soviet towers are a separate topic. In "Tankomaster" there was material about T-34 towers in Bulgaria on the border with Turkey, about towers on the Iturup island ... but ... just imagine: my PR student comes to Iturup with her young husband and at the same time to write a diploma for practice " PR ensuring the tourist attractiveness of Iturup Island ". She knows my interest, takes photos of tank turrets and that's it. Admire them, teacher, I don't know anything else. And my husband could not help with anything - not an expert. And what and how to write here? "Here is a photo - on the left, on the right, there is water at the bottom. A tank tower on Iturup Island." Here is at least some selection of text and photo material.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 8 January 2017 13: 24
        +4
        Quote: kalibr

        1
        kalibr Today, 08:37 ↑
        Soviet towers are a separate topic. In "Tankomaster" there was material about towers from T-34 in Bulgaria on the border with Turkey, about towers on the Iturup island ...

        Vyacheslav Olegovich! I agree with you. I'm a little about something else. When the mess began with the PRC, in the 60-70s, I don’t know where they came from, probably they were stored somewhere. Machine-gun towers similar to the towers of the T-26 tank of the 1931 model and towers similar to the towers of light armored cars began to be put on the bridgeheads FAA type
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 8 January 2017 13: 37
          +3
          Quote: Amurets
          towers of light armored vehicles of the FAA type


          The tanks that were in the defense nodes of the "Steel Belt" were practically not re-equipped, the transmission was removed and all the free space was filled with ammunition. Tanks of various types were installed. One unit consisted of the IS-2 and IS-3 tanks. The other tanks were T-54 and T-55, and there were also tanks that had a flamethrower next to the gun. I have not seen the T-34.
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 8 January 2017 17: 40
          0
          FAI- Ford -A Izhora plant!
  3. bionik
    bionik 8 January 2017 06: 53
    +8
    Värntorn 4a, installation of the Strv m / 42 tower on the bunker, which is part of the coastal defense system.
    1. bionik
      bionik 8 January 2017 09: 33
      +4
      The Strv m / 42 is a Swedish medium tank during World War II. Developed by Landsverk AB in 1941-1942 based on the Strv m / 40 light tank. In 1943-1944, 282 Strv m / 42 were released in several versions. The tank for a long time formed the basis of the tank park of Sweden. In 1957, the Strv m / 42 was modernized by installing a new turret with a long-barrel 75 mm gun, received the designation Strv 74. In this form, they remained in service with the Swedish army until the end of the 1970s.
  4. bionik
    bionik 8 January 2017 07: 03
    13
    Photo 1. Photo 2. The Panther towers began to be installed as bunkers starting in 1943. Some of the towers were removed from the serial Panthers, but most of the towers were specially made for installation as anti-tank bunkers. Specially made towers did not have a commander’s turret of full tanks - it was replaced with a simple hatch, and the roof of the tower was reinforced with 40 mm armor, which made it possible to withstand shelling with 150 mm shells (on a standard serial Panther tower, the tower roof armor was only 17 mm) . By February 1944, the Dortmund Hoerder Huttenverein factory had produced 112 Panther Ostwallturm sets. The second order for 155 Panther Ostwallturm was given to Ruhrstahl, which had completed it by August 1944. The towers themselves were assembled into a single structure from these construction kits by the Demag-Falkansee factory. The company assembled 98 Panther Ostwallturm by the end of May 1944, planning to continue to assemble 15 towers per month.

    There were two ways of installing the towers, the first - installing the tower on a Pantherturm I (Stahluntersatz) box welded from armored plates, and the second - installing the tower on a reinforced concrete bunker, known as Pantherturm III (Betonsockel). Wa Pruf Fest IV (an army fortification service) issued an official technology drawing dated November 30, 1944, which showed how to install the Panther tower on wooden blocks in order to fill this frame with concrete. Pantherturm III (Betonsockel) was built on the same principle as Pantherturm I (Stahlimtersatz), only the dimensions of its compartments were slightly larger, since the walls of the compartments were not made of steel, but of reinforced concrete. A large number of baskets of this type were installed in German cities declared “fortified cities”.
    1. Razvedka_Boem
      Razvedka_Boem 8 January 2017 09: 05
      +4
      and the roof of the tower was reinforced with 40 mm armor, which made it possible to withstand shelling with 150 mm shells

      I believe it will be more accurate - it was able to withstand shell fragments of caliber up to 150 mm.
    2. your1970
      your1970 8 January 2017 15: 48
      +4
      yes, really spoiled the blood of our grandfathers judging by the number of panther sleeves from the second picture
      1. Rubon
        Rubon 8 January 2017 18: 02
        +4
        The shells, judging by the photo, are clearly not from 75mm, most likely someone threw off their shooting from 88mm near the tower.
  5. bionik
    bionik 8 January 2017 07: 33
    11
    A firing point with a tower from the T-18.Reconstruction of the DFS with a T-26 tank turret in the exposition of the "Stalin's line" complex
    In the nomenclature of long-term and field fortifications, tank towers and tanks (TOT, DTOT) appeared. In the initial period of the war, due to the incomplete construction of fortified areas on the new border, as well as for a number of other reasons, they did not fulfill their mission to cover the state border : the enemy in most directions managed to overcome the cover strip on the move. Only a few fortified areas were able to partially delay its advance. “There is no doubt,” wrote Marshal of the Soviet Union I.Kh. Baghramyan, “that if we were able to maintain the combat readiness of the old fortified areas before the full commissioning of the new fortified areas, this would immeasurably increase the defensive capabilities of the troops.”
    Persistent battles in the Osovets, Vladimir-Volynsky, Minsk and Kiev URs can serve as a vivid confirmation. Here, along with the gun bunkers, firing points with towers and tanks T-18 and T-26 were used. The Kiev UR, in which the TOT of 135 tanks removed from service were installed, played a special role in repelling the enemy offensive. The most famous fact is the battle of the crew consisting of Sergeant Gvozdev and Private Lupov on June 2, 1941, which destroyed three German tanks, one armored personnel carrier, and several vehicles from a firing point with a 45-mm gun installed to guard the bridge on the Drut River (near the village of Belynichi). and scattered to the company of infantry. The enemy offensive in this area was delayed by almost a day. The crew was presented to the orders of the Battle of the Red Banner.
    1. igordok
      igordok 8 January 2017 09: 43
      +9
      Alas, in the Pskov SD there was not a single bunker with a tower. And in Ostrovsky UR at least one bunker (KNP), and even that is not completed. Usually it is half flooded. When recently drained, the formwork has not yet been removed since construction.


      Although near Pskov there are a lot of photos of the crazy T-18, etc.
  6. bionik
    bionik 8 January 2017 08: 06
    +9
    The so-called special tank company Berlin, which consisted of tanks incapable of independent movement, participated in the defense of Berlin. They were dug at the intersections of streets and were used as fixed firing points. Altogether, the Berlin company included 10 Panther tanks and 12 Pz IV tanks. From the history of the capture of Berlin:

    On April 28, 1945, the 219th Tank Brigade of the 12th Guards Corps of Krivosheev of the 2nd Guards Tank Army met the tanks of the Berlin company dug into the ground near the metro station on Kaiser-Damm-Bismarck-Strasse.

    Without wasting time fighting with these centers of defense, the brigade carried out a roundabout maneuver and continued the offensive towards Tiergarten Park.

    Later, these rooted tanks were successfully cleaned by the 35th mechanized brigade of the same corps.
  7. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 8 January 2017 09: 07
    12
    Plus good
    The article is interesting. Tank towers in general can be considered as a separate type of weapons what In addition to their own life in tanks, they found application in URs, both in the West and in our country. Another area of ​​application for tank turrets is the creation of "river tanks"

    Well, you can’t remind about armored trains
    1. Rurikovich
      Rurikovich 8 January 2017 21: 28
      +4
      "river tank"

      And then from the comment threw illustration request
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 11 January 2017 00: 12
        +1
        Quote: Rurikovich
        river tank "

        Well then, you can add this photo here: an armored boat on a pedestal at the place where the Red Army crossed into China in August 1945.
  8. adma
    adma 8 January 2017 09: 19
    10
    Quote: commbatant
    I was expecting to see a photo with Soviet towers from the "Steel Line", and fortified areas on the Kuril Islands ...

    Zabvo 19 UR









    And this is from the Far East.





    Kuril Islands



    When I served in ZabVO, in a tank regiment, in Bezrechka, NTOTchiki often came to us from the fortified area for regular firing. Shot from a place, without the use of a stabilizer and guidance drives. Directed only by hand.
    1. commbatant
      commbatant 8 January 2017 13: 30
      +2
      thanks for the photo
    2. Mr shrek
      Mr shrek 8 January 2017 13: 38
      +2
      It was such a thing with us, the defense line in the Borzi region (first photo). I still found them in place, but alas, now they have not been around for 15-20 years, they have been dismantled.
      1. adma
        adma 8 January 2017 17: 26
        +3
        I served in the Impeccable, so they constantly frightened us - "Let's send it to the UR to rot .." laughing
        1. Mr shrek
          Mr shrek 9 January 2017 04: 03
          0
          I myself live in Chita, but about 16 years ago I regularly ran to Zabaikalsk and Krasnokamensk on business trips, the towers were already dismantled ... But in the mid-nineties they were still there, and then I managed to admire them laughing Now in Bezrechka there is practically nothing left ... as in Mirnaya and in the Steppe ...
          It’s just decided to restore the Steppe, also at one time found how the Rooks flew there lol On August 6, 2010, when they were relocated to Domna Grach in the Aga Hangil area, he fell, almost at home, right next to the federal state.
  9. Crimea26
    Crimea26 8 January 2017 12: 50
    +7
    All your "Tankomaster" ("Penza cycle") I have in the "Golden Fund")))) As soon as I came out on you, I am amazed!))) And in Sevastopol there is a bunker with a turret plate T-26. They say there is another similar one in the bushes nearby, but I have not seen it. Here's whose building, ours and German, I don't know. We guarded the approaches to the airfield in Kachaya Bay - both sides could build ...
    1. kalibr
      8 January 2017 13: 51
      +5
      Well, it must be ... Somewhere preserved ... And I have nothing left, all "stole" friends ... "Give, give, give!" So here is a shoemaker without boots. There was a whole epoch ... But now there is IN !!!!
  10. Raphael_83
    Raphael_83 8 January 2017 16: 52
    +2
    Stunned! No, of course, I knew that the Hans rationally used the captured and their own, understaffed equipment, I knew about its similar use, but so on such a scale and so thoughtfully!
    Thank you. hi
    PS
    So I discovered something new for myself - I mean the last "screenshot": I did not know what kind of cuttlefish they did on the chassis of airmobile tanks.
    PPS
    Right now I remembered: my uncle in Oktyabrsky had a selection of small different issues of the "master" and supplements to "TM" at the time it was ... lost somewhere when moving crying
  11. hohol95
    hohol95 8 January 2017 17: 44
    +6

    Soviet DoT!
  12. hohol95
    hohol95 8 January 2017 17: 46
    +5

    Another scheme!
  13. Barakuda
    Barakuda 8 January 2017 19: 07
    +2
    I will add for a change

    Artillery armored firing point (BOT) "Pobeda" - tower KV-220 with 85-mm cannon

    IS-3 in the Far East, which confirms the inscription on the trunk. smile

    From the same opera

    And here the tower was already cut
    1. Barakuda
      Barakuda 8 January 2017 21: 58
      0
      What was the photo cut off for? If only they would say ... I'm not from myself .. sad
      1. igordok
        igordok 9 January 2017 00: 55
        0
        As a rule, one photo is put in the comment. As a rule, the latter. Previous flies. To put a few, you have to be smart.
  14. Monarchist
    Monarchist 8 January 2017 19: 40
    +2
    As a child, I was in Leningrad and heard there: supposedly the Nevsky Piglet, the tower torn from the tank was used as a mini-pillbox
  15. Gorinich
    Gorinich 9 January 2017 19: 28
    0
    From the first words of the material, I thought it was Shpakovsky, looked at the end, it turned out to be exactly him :) As a producer of material, he is good, as a writer - none.
    1. kalibr
      9 January 2017 20: 31
      +1
      It’s good that I can do something at least ...
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. gladcu2
      gladcu2 9 January 2017 21: 00
      +4
      Gorinich

      Me, for example. I like the writing style very much. Lightweight, not conservative. With a minimum amount of foreign words. There is no allegory. There is no "party dryness" characteristic of publications 30 years ago. Specifications do not take up much space, but there is a personal impression. In my opinion, the presence of "gag", their impressions is the basis of the style.
  16. horava
    horava 21 December 2017 19: 02
    0
    in 1975, our "blue division" was re-equipped and all 250 IP 2 and IP 3 were buried on the Soviet-Chinese border