Military Review

Alexander Griboedov. Killed for Russia

11
Sacred memory of diplomats who honestly defended the interests of Russia and perished while performing their duties. The most famous of them was also an outstanding poet and thinker.




Alexander Griboyedov - how does it start? Before us is a classic, bright prodigy. The extraordinary tenacity of the mind manifested itself in it frighteningly early. It is not so important where and what he studied officially - in the Noble hostel, and then at Moscow University. He was easily given and foreign languages, and philosophy, and mathematics. Poet, musician, politician, warrior - in all his incarnations, he manifested himself clearly. By the age of fifteen, he could easily be considered a person with a university education. Perhaps, early scholarship determined the essence of the most famous Griboedov's creation - “Grief from the mind”. It was not easy for him to get rid of his sense of superiority over all. It was not easy to adapt both in the service and in the colorful world of art. Alexander Sergeevich was not quarrelsome and sharp. By nature - a stinging knight. He participated in the 1812 war of the year, however, by the will of fate on the sidelines, and then he dreamed of writing a tragedy about these heroic events. In the spring of 1816 th left military service, not reaching high ranks. And in 1817, his brilliant diplomatic career began. 16 July 1818, Count Karl Nesselrode, wrote in writing to the Commander-in-Chief of the Caucasian Army, General Alexei Yermolov, that “official Persian is appointed Charge d'Affaires of Persia, Griboedov’s secretary, and clerical staff of Amburger.” Nesselrode loved brevity, but with this brief mention a Caucasian chapter opened in the life of our hero.

At that time, Griboedov was torn between creativity and service, and sometimes he dreamed of "quitting the diplomatic service and responding from a sad country, where instead of learning something, you forget what you know." He did not like service in a distant foreign country. But General Yermolov - the wisest of the wise - was filled with deep respect for the young talent. It was he - at that time a powerful commander - who had rescued Griboyedov from Persia, making him his secretary "in a foreign part." Loving Griboyedov as a son, according to Denis Davydov, he tried not to load him with daily work. Georgia is not Persia, here Griboyedov breathed freely and plenty was written.

Alexander Griboedov. Killed for Russia


The diplomat who gained strength did not forget about literary matters. Attempts to create an epic drama, the tragedy of Shakespearean scope remained in the sketches. The service distracted Griboyedov from creativity, and the mania of perfection made it difficult to work quickly. “Woe from Wit” is the only major finished work of Griboyedov. The biting comedy was fully published in the official press a few decades after Griboedov’s death. Although by that time she had changed the face of Russian literature, had influenced our best writers, caused controversy ... Dozens of witty replicas entered Russian speech, became winged. Alexander Pushkin also remarked: "Half of the poems should be included in proverbs." So it happened. According to Chatsky, Famusov and Molchalin were judged on social types. Comedy Griboedova perfect. We do not have a more refined poetic play. Comedy was considered unbearably free-thinking, but Griboedov clearly acted from patriotic positions. Sarcasm, he did not regret neither for Famusov nor for Skalozub. The first attempt to put "Woe from Wit" on the stage was interrupted by the Governor General Mikhail Miloradovich. But in 1830's, the comedy saw the scene in both capitals. This is a mysterious work, it will be solved for centuries - and with benefit. Satirical comedy and psychological drama in one tangle, like grin and misery.

December 1825 is another milestone in destiny. In the testimony of the Decembrist Sergei Trubetskoy flashed the name of Griboyedov, and he was under investigation. And then Alexey Ermolov took the young employee under his wing. The general sympathetically prepared Griboedov for the arrest, destroyed all his papers so that they did not fall into the hands of the investigating authorities, and wrote to Petersburg: “I have the honor to forward Mr. Griboedov to Your Excellency. He was arrested in such a way that he could not destroy the documents that were with him. But he didn’t have anything but the few that I send you. ” He was under investigation until June 2, 1826, steadfastly denied his involvement in the conspiracy, and eventually proved non-participation in the insurgency. Is free! And again, “serve is pleased,” although “it is sickening to be serviced.”

Because of the arrest, he was released with a “cleaning certificate” - and the diplomat again went to Tiflis. General Paskevich, who replaced Yermolov, also highly appreciated Griboyedov's abilities and, if he sometimes persecuted him for his reckless courage, he did not hide his respect. During negotiations with the Persians, Paskevich fully relied on Griboedov’s diplomatic prudence and openly admired him.



The primary political benefit performance of Griboedov was the Turkmanchaysky peace treaty, which marked the victory over Persia, secured the territorial acquisitions of the Russian Empire, the hegemony of Russia in the Caspian Sea and in the eastern trade. Contemporaries did not dispute the main role of Griboyedov in the development and signing of this breakthrough document. General Paskevich gave Griboyedov the honor of “bringing a contract” to the emperor. Nikolai Pavlovich granted him the rank of state councilor, the Order of St. Anne, adorned with diamonds, and four thousand gold coins. Griboedov accepted enthusiastic smiles, but was afraid of the courtly routine, held out independently.

In Tiflis, he was greeted with even greater pomp, even called Griboedov-Persian. Paskevich gave a salute in his honor, as was done in St. Petersburg, when all the cannons of the Peter and Paul Fortress fired simultaneously a 201 volley. Well, after all, it was he, Griboedov, brought to Nicholas I the long-awaited and victorious Turkmanchaysky agreement.

It is not surprising that in Persia, the very same Turkmanchay Treaty was perceived as a national catastrophe. Russia entered the war with Turkey, and the Persians hoped to evade execution of the treaty, taking advantage of the confused international situation. They did not even think of fulfilling many agreements, hoping that the Russian tsar would not start a new war.

A noisy anti-Russian campaign started in the eastern country. Bazaar speakers incited fanatical rage amongst the people, mixed with pseudo-religious yeast. And Griboyedov just had to demand the Iranians another part of the indemnity ... He tried to smooth over the contradiction, called Petersburg to accept silk or jewelry instead of money. However, the emperor's verdict was strict: the contract should be carried out clearly. Later, this will give a reason for evil tongues to reproach the emperor with the intentional destruction of Griboyedov by the hands of the Persian crowd. It is unlikely that such a cunning plan existed in reality, but it must be admitted that Nicholas put his diplomat in a deliberately impasse.

The Russian Embassy was not located in the capital of Persia, but in Tabriz. In Tehran in the beginning. 1829, Griboedov stayed temporarily - to introduce the Shah. Of course, an experienced politician felt the nerve of the situation. He asked his wife to leave Tabriz for a while, to return to Georgia, and they managed to arrange such a trip. Griboedov wrote to his wife every day. “It’s sad without you, it’s impossible anymore. Now I truly feel what it means to love ... ”is the last message of her husband, which she read.

Mudzhtahidy (influential Islamic theologians) convinced the heated people that Griboedov was the culprit of the introduction of new taxes, an atheist, a conqueror ... Hate did not know the limits, the mujtahids caused a spirit of fanaticism. In addition, Griboyedov was accused of concealing Armenians. He really hid several Armenians on the embassy’s territory in order to transport them to Russia. But acted in accordance with the Turkmanchay Treaty! These hot Persians were ready to give up their obligations.

Behind these furious speeches stood Allayar Khan, the disgraced minister, a politician of an adventurous warehouse who was trying to regain his lost influence. For the Shah, these disturbances were an unpleasant surprise, a trap from which he tried to extricate himself. Shah tried to avoid a new war with Russia, and led it to her.


Alexander Griboedov died in this house.

30 January 1829, the spiritual authorities declared a holy war to the Russians. The crowd gathered at the mosque, went to the house of the Russian mission. A bloody pogrom began. That day, the entire composition of the embassy was destroyed in Tehran; one senior secretary, Ivan Maltsov, an extraordinarily cautious man, survived. He offered salvation and Griboyedov. It was only necessary to hide, go into the underground tunnels ... "The Russian nobleman does not play hide and seek" - that was the answer. His death was proud and brave. I met with uninvited guests with a saber, demanded obedience from them. After all, he was in Russia! The security of the embassy - 35 Cossacks - adequately repelled the attack. Dozens of angry fanatics remained forever on the pavement, but the Cossacks were killed, one and all. Alexander Sergeyevich also died. Having received a blow on the head with a stone, he fell. Immediately a hail of stones fell on him, swords screeched over the body.

For the death of Griboyedov and the entire Russian mission, the shah made an official apology to Emperor Nicholas, to which he attached a unique diamond. The emperor found it reasonable to be compliant. He accepted the gift and deferred the payment of the indemnity for five years. In the difficult days of the Russian-Turkish war, Nikolai did not want to spoil relations with the Persians. He closed his eyes to the opinion of Paskevich, who spoke of the fatal British influence on the Persian crowd. “I am consuming the ill-starred Tehran incident to eternal oblivion,” said the emperor. It turned out that the rioters and provocateurs have achieved their ...


Diamond "Shah"

“Almaz, according to the Persians, was supposed to atone for the terrible guilt of the murderers of the Russian minister Griboyedov. The stone added to the royal collection. They were admired by the courtiers, and foreign ambassadors asked the highest permission to look at such a rarity. However, in which carats one can express the damage inflicted on Russia by the brutal murder of one of its greatest creators? .. ”says one of Griboedov’s biographies.

He loved Mount Mtatsminda, towering over Tiflis. There, in the monastery of St. David, and bequeathed to bury himself. The liturgy was performed by the exarch of Georgia, Archbishop Moses.



“The more enlightened a person is, the more useful it is to the Fatherland,” said Griboedov. And as far as possible I followed this program. His image has not faded over the centuries. But, alas, the murderers of Griboyedov seemed to have left the front pages of today's or tomorrow's newspapers - lively. Here we are, of course, not only about Islamic radicals, although first of all about them. Everywhere there are big provocations and irresponsible manipulation of the worst instincts. Terrorists "bliss in the world." All the more instructive for us is the biography of Griboyedov, a writer and politician who combined subtle intelligence with military courage.
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  1. cap
    cap 25 December 2016 15: 30
    +7
    The article is good. A few photos will complement the text.
    Nina Chavchavadze In 1828, Griboedov married a Georgian woman, Princess Nina Chavchavadze, the daughter of his friend, a Georgian poet. But he is again forced to go to Persia and conduct difficult negotiations, engage in political disputes, conflicts.
    Pantheon in Tbilisi, where he was buried with his wife, Georgian Princess Dino Nino Chavchavadze. Who married at 16 became a widow at 18.
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 25 December 2016 17: 11
      +4
      By whom. Let me add you: Nino Chavchavadze believed the touching epitaph: "Your mind and deeds will survive the centuries. Why did my love outlive you?"
      Long ago, the newspaper "Soviet Kuban" wrote that the younger sister Nino was married to Murat the younger. The sisters were very friendly with each other.
      1. Cat
        Cat 25 December 2016 17: 30
        +5
        Not the first and not the last who gave his life to the block of history for his Fatherland.
  2. moskowit
    moskowit 25 December 2016 16: 50
    +10
    "... I moved across the river. Two oxen, harnessed to a cart, climbed a steep road. Several Georgians accompanied the cart." Where are you from? " - I asked them. "From Tehran." - "What are you taking?" - "Griboyedov. It was the body of the murdered Griboyedov, which was forwarded to Tiflis ..." (A.S. Pushkin "Journey to Arzrum")
  3. midshipman
    midshipman 25 December 2016 16: 56
    +10
    Great article. M.A. Miloradovich saved A.S. from arrest. Pushkin and also postponed the production of Woe from Wit. Apparently, he respected Griboyedov very much and took care of him. But this is history.
    I bow to such Russian talents. I have the honor.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 25 December 2016 17: 08
    +8
    «Diamond, according to the Persians, was supposed to atone for the terrible guilt of the murderers of the Russian minister Griboedov. The stone replenished the royal collection. However, in what carats can the damage done to Russia by the brutal murder of one of its greatest creators be expressed? .."- says one of the biographies of Griboedov.

    However, historians believe that the ransom of Griboedov’s death for the famous diamond is still more a beautiful legend than reality. Griboedov sheltered a certain Armenian, who was in the service of the Shah as a eunuch and keeper of jewelry, and two Georgian girls who escaped from the harem of the ruler. Under the terms of the peace signed by Persia, the Armenians and Georgians were considered subjects of Russia, since the territories of which they were immigrants became part of Russia. The Shah was furious, believing that the eunuch could give the Russians important information and bring along some of the jewels. He could not personally neutralize the escaped eunuch, so he provoked popular unrest against the Russians.She did not expect such a bloody denouement, he initially expected that because of the unrest Griboedov would be returned to Russia, but the events took an unexpected tragic turn.
    1. cap
      cap 25 December 2016 17: 48
      +2
      Quote: parusnik
      The Shah did not expect such a bloody denouement, initially he hoped that due to the unrest Griboedov would be returned to Russia, but the events took an unexpected tragic turn.

      After the brutal murder of Griboedov in 1829, the Persian shah sent his grandson to the court of Tsar Nicholas I, through whom he handed him a massive Shah diamond weighing 88 carats as a gift and apology for the death of the Russian envoy. This diamond can still be seen in the Kremlin Diamond Fund.

      Michael Pevzner worked in Moscow as an employee of the National Democratic Institute. The views expressed in the article belong exclusively to its author.http: //inosmi.ru/world/20120921/199584548.
      html hi
    2. Vladislav 73
      Vladislav 73 26 December 2016 11: 37
      0
      .Griboedov sheltered in the diplomatic mission a certain Armenian, who was in the service of the shah as a eunuch and keeper of valuables, and two Georgian girls who escaped from the ruler’s harem
      Sailboat. Yes, I also read this interpretation of events. The girls didn’t seem to be from the Shah’s harem, but some noble Persian, but this is particular. According to Persian laws, neither eunuchs, nor harem girls by any people, and even more so whose- they were not citizens, but were OWNERSHIP of the owner, therefore, the provisions of the treatise did not apply to them. And in the eyes of the Persians Griboedov stole the property of the shah and the noble Persian, and did not hide people. In addition, Abbas Mirza, in charge of the embassies in Tabriz, was closely associated with the British, who were very dissatisfied with the strengthening of Russia in Persia, and were not averse to eliminating the rival. And what is better for these masters of provocation than an attack on the embassy and, possibly, a new war between Russia and Persia? In short, the East is a delicate matter.
      1. Dekabrist
        Dekabrist 26 December 2016 15: 02
        +3
        One of the options I met.
        On the evening of the day when the Russian envoy was given a farewell audience, a man knocked at the gates of the embassy's house, declaring that he wanted to use the prisoner's right to return to his homeland. It was Mirza-Yakub Markaryan, the treasurer, "endrund" of the inner chambers of the Shah's palace.
        Shah eunuchs at the court had a solid influence and were a really invaluable source of information.
        More important than Yakub in position was only the first eunuch, Manucher Khan, but, to the deep regret of the Russian diplomats, he supported the British, and it is possible that Griboedov decided to take a chance, tempted to take out a figure almost equal to Manucher Khan from the Persian limits in order to take advantage of if not by influence, then at least by the knowledge of this person. There is a version that the ambassador’s decision was influenced by a trusted official, Shakh-Nazarov: survivors of the massacre in their reports claimed that Mirza-Yakub gave Shah-Nazarov a bribe to 500 Chervontsev. Like it or not, but Griboedov declared Mirzu-Yakub under his protection.
        Learning about this, Tehran was horrified: the Russians, who had turned everyone against themselves here, became aware of the most intimate palace secrets. In response, Yakub's luggage was arrested, which he was going to take with him to Erivan; the shah's envoys came to the embassy twenty times, trying to explain that the eunuch of a harem is like a wife to its owner, and the removal of Yakub is tantamount to kidnapping the shah's wife. They were arrogantly replied that the ambassador did not cancel his patronage, once announced, and the members of Griboyedov's retinue, listening to discussions about the Shah's wives, made jokes. Finally, the last envoy of the shah announced that Mirza-Yakub owes the shah's treasury 50 thousand tumans and now wants to hide from paying the money, using the right to return to his homeland. The Persian side offered a compromise option: the embassy goes to Tabriz in full force, and Mirza-Yakub (under guarantees of immunity) remains in Tehran until the trial and financial matters are settled - they promised to release him later. But everyone understood perfectly well that in this case, the eunuch would live exactly as long as it would take for the dust to settle on the road raised by the departing embassy caravan. Griboyedov refused this option, proposing to investigate the case before leaving the embassy in the presence of Russian officials. The Persian side, which was clearly at a loss, entrusted this matter to the first eunuch, Endrun Manuchehr Khan. Mirza-Yakub went to a meeting with an important dignitary accompanied by the translator of the embassy Shah-Nazarov and titular adviser Maltsov. They were received very badly: the reception room was full of "hajji" who began to shout insults at Yakub and spit at him, he also did not remain in debt, a fight almost broke out in the reception room, on Shakh-Nazarov, who defended Yakub, tore his outer garments , and the eunuch himself could hardly be taken back to the embassy. The city was seething. Griboyedov requested a private audience with the Shah and received it, but the matter could not be settled. The Shah was very irritated and said: "Go on, Mr. Messenger! Take all my wives away from me, the Shah will be silent! But Naib-Sultan is going to Petersburg and will have an opportunity to complain about you personally to the Emperor!"
        If interested: link to the full article: http: //www.centrasia.ru/newsA.php? St = 12
        66270060
        1. Vladislav 73
          Vladislav 73 26 December 2016 17: 18
          +1
          Quote: Dekabrist
          It was Mirza-Yakub Markaryan, the treasurer, "endrund" of the inner chambers of the Shah's palace.

          The same version is described in detail by Yuri Tynyanov in the book "Death of Vazir-Mukhtar". And in this same book he extremely negatively describes the role in this whole story of the only survivor - the secretary of the embassy Maltsov.
  5. Talgat
    Talgat 26 December 2016 20: 44
    0
    Iran used to be a geopolitical adversary, like Turkey or Japan or Europe. And the great man and writer Griboedov put his life in this confrontation - and Iran was forced to apologize and ask for forgiveness

    Now, due to circumstances, Iran has become in fact almost an ally - that’s what happens