Military Review

Plasma in military science. Projects and prospects

70
Not so long ago it became known that one of the unique samples of special equipment of domestic development in the near future will be used as a training tool. According to the domestic press, next year the military-industrial corporation “Scientific and Production Association of Mechanical Engineering” (the city of Reutov) will transfer to several universities the electronic warfare system based on a plasma generator. This equipment was developed in due time for the Meteorit cruise missiles that did not go into series. In the original project, the equipment of the original type did not yield the expected results, but in the foreseeable future it will be able to contribute to the further development of technologies, equipment and weapons.


Recall, the project "Meteorit" was launched in the mid-seventies of the last century and was developed by several organizations led by OKB-52 (now the NPO Mashinostroeniya). Also the scientific research institute of thermal processes (now the Research Center named after MV Keldysh) was involved in the work, which was to develop electronic equipment for electronic countermeasures. The EW complex for a promising rocket included a plasma generator, with which an ionized gas cloud was created in the front hemisphere. Such a “shell” of the nose of the rocket made it possible to reduce the probability of its detection by radar stations.

It is expected that the transfer of unique samples of radio-electronic equipment, which will become teaching materials, will to some extent contribute to the training of young professionals. It is quite possible that in the future, scientists and designers, who once studied plasma generators of the “Meteorit” rocket, use similar technologies in their new projects. It should be noted that the use of plasma and equipment forming it has some prospects and may find application in new models of military equipment or weapons.


Rocket "Meteorite". Photo Testpilot.ru


In the context of the practical application of “plasma” technologies, one should first recall the project of the Meteorit cruise missile, during which the first domestic plasma generator suitable for practical use was created. Together with other means of electronic warfare, the rocket should have used so-called. plasma gun. If necessary, counter the radar of the enemy, the rocket automatically had to turn on the appropriate generator, creating a cloud of plasma in the forward hemisphere.

Due to its characteristic properties, ionized gas interfered with the normal operation of radar facilities. Depending on various factors, the “plasma gun” could hide the rocket or prevent the enemy station from seizing or escorting the rocket. In addition to reducing the level of the reflected signal, the plasma allowed to “mask” the compressor of the turbojet engine. This element of the aircraft has a characteristic shape and reflects the radio signal, but it can not be fundamentally reworked to reduce visibility. In the project "Meteorit" the problem of hiding the compressor was solved in the most interesting way.

"Plasma gun" for the new cruise missile reached the testing stage. This equipment was installed on experienced “Meteorit” missiles, with which they were tested at test sites. The complex of electronic warfare, including plasma equipment, showed very high performance. When observing the flight of a rocket using existing radar systems, at least a violation of tracking and tracking of the target was observed. Also there was a disappearance of the mark from the screen.

Over the past years, persistent rumors have been circulating in our country and abroad about the possible creation of promising designs aviation technicians equipped with plasma generators. It is expected that the use of such equipment will dramatically reduce the visibility of the aircraft for enemy air defense. Such technologies are of interest in the context of strike aircraft and rocket technology. So, in the field of cruise missiles, masking with a plasma cloud was already verified during tests conducted by Soviet experts in the eighties of the last century.

There is information about another method of using plasma generators as part of aviation or rocket technology. An interesting feature of ionized gas is the change in its physical properties. In particular, it has a reduced density that can be used to improve the performance of rockets or airplanes. According to rumors, at present, Russian and Chinese aircraft manufacturers are conducting experiments in which aircraft are equipped with special plasma generators. The task of this equipment is to create a plasma "shell" around the outer surface of the aircraft. The result should be a reduction in visibility and a certain improvement in flight performance.

In another area of ​​"application" plasma formation is a side effect that can be used for certain purposes. It is known that when an aircraft moves at hypersonic speeds, a shell of ionized gas is formed around it. At the same time, the heating of atmospheric air is due to friction and the conversion of kinetic energy into heat energy. A curious consequence of this feature of hypersonic technology is the possibility of abandonment of specialized generators: in their role a body with the required resistance to thermal and mechanical loads can act.

The use of plasma generators in order to reduce visibility or improve flight performance has already been studied to some extent, but still remains a matter of the distant future. To make full use of these technologies, new research is required, the results of which will create promising projects. Nevertheless, some methods of plasma application are already used in the existing technology, however, the effect from them may not be so noticeable and attracting attention.


Turbojet engine AL-41F1С, equipped with a plasma ignition system. Photo by Vitalykuzmin.net


In the newest domestic projects of turbojet engines designed for advanced aircraft, so-called plasma ignition. The use of such an ignition system of the air-fuel mixture makes it possible to increase the operating characteristics of the equipment, as well as simplify its design and make maintenance less complicated. All these advantages are achieved with the help of several ideas, primarily the use of a plasma arc that initiates the burning of fuel.

Previously, to increase the altitude or to run at high altitudes, the turbojet engines were equipped with an oxygen feed system that supplies the necessary gas to the combustion chamber. The use of the oxygen system to a certain extent complicates the design of the aircraft, and also requires an appropriate aerodrome infrastructure. The requirements for the project "Advanced Aviation Complex of Frontal Aviation" (PAK FA) set the task of eliminating the need for oxygen recharge. The nozzles of the combustion chamber and afterburner chambers of the new engines have their own plasma systems. When fuel is supplied, an arc is formed, by means of which it is ignited. As a result, there is no need for an additional supply of oxygen.

In theory, plasma can be used not only in auxiliary roles. Several decades ago, research and experiments were conducted in our country, the theme of which was the use of an ionized gas cloud as a striking element. Such principles could be used in missile defense with the aim of destroying the warheads of enemy missiles. However, the original method of missile defense was never brought to practical use, and its prospects at the moment raise great doubts.

The original concept of missile defense implied the use of standard radar detection tools in combination with unusual striking complexes. The composition of the military equipment complex was proposed to include several so-called. Plasmoid guns, consisting of plasma generators and busbars. The task of the latter was the acceleration of a bunch of ionized gas. Depending on the combat mission and the operating parameters of the equipment, the complex could send a jet, divergent flow or toroidal plasma clots to the target. The latter are called "plasmoids".

According to the calculations of the authors of the idea, the combat equipment complex could send toroids at the highest possible speed to an altitude of up to 50 km. The task of the control systems and the combat complex was to send plasma clots to the preemption point of the enemy’s missile warhead. It was assumed that the contact of the plasmoid and the combat unit, the latter will be faced with serious violations of the flow. Getting into the cloud with other physical parameters should have led to the convergence of the combat unit from a given trajectory. In addition, the unit had to undergo overloads, including the beyond, destroying it.

In the past, it was proposed to build a prototype of a missile defense complex and test it with the use of combat unit simulators. However, due to the complexity, high cost and availability of various problems, the original proposal was never tested in practice.

All proposals for the use of plasma and its installations in the field of armaments and military equipment are of great interest in the context of their further development. However, the use of all ideas and suggestions in practice can be associated with a number of characteristic problems. All these shortcomings are associated both with technological features and with problems in the field of practical application. Thus, for the development of promising equipment, it is necessary to solve a number of complex design problems, as well as to form methods of using equipment that allow to obtain the highest possible efficiency.

Plasma in military science. Projects and prospects
Scheme of the missile defense system using plasmoids. Figure E-reading.club


Perhaps the most visible problem of plasma generators with the required characteristics is high power consumption. To create a cloud of ionized gas, the executive bodies of special equipment require an appropriate energy supply. Equipping an aircraft with an electrical generator of the required power is in itself a difficult engineering task. Without its solution, an airplane or a rocket will not be able to use a plasma generator and, as a result, will not receive the required capabilities.

It should be noted that in the framework of the old project "Meteorite" the designers of the OKB-52 and related organizations successfully managed to solve the problem of power supply of the "plasma gun". The results of this are well known: the rocket has become an extremely difficult target for the enemy's air defense systems.

The use of a plasma cloud to mask an aircraft is of great interest in the context of a hidden breakthrough to the intended goals, but this technology also has some operational problems. Becoming a screen for the radiation of enemy radar facilities, the plasma “shell” will necessarily interfere with the operation of the aircraft’s own electronic devices of an aircraft or other aircraft. As a result, communication problems can be observed or the full use of on-board radar can be excluded. Thus, the original equipment to reduce visibility will require the creation of new methods of combat use of aircraft or weapons.

Another challenge for designers and scientists is to protect the design of the aircraft from ionized high-temperature gas. In the case of hypersonic aircraft, this problem is solved already at the stage of the creation of their gliders, initially adapted to such loads. "Ordinary" combat aircraft and missiles while flying at a slower speed and, as a result, do not need special protection from high ambient temperatures.

Thus, for the full use of plasma generators surrounding an aircraft with an ionized gas cloud, an appropriate airframe design is needed to eliminate the negative effect of the “shell” on the skin and other elements of the aircraft.

To date, plasma physics has been sufficiently studied so that ionized gas can be used in practice for various purposes. Some scopes of plasma generator applications have already been studied and identified, as well as the advantages that such equipment can provide. Nevertheless, while the unusual technology did not have time to reach the full practical application. Individual samples of this class have already been tested both independently and as part of larger products. Some devices that use the principles of plasma formation, are already close to the beginning of operation.

One of the samples of special equipment that has come down to tests and tests in practice has become the so-called. plasma gun for cruise missiles. According to the latest reports of the national press, unclaimed samples of such equipment next year should be teaching aids. Surviving products will be transferred to several leading technical universities of the country. Perhaps the use of plasma generators in the training of young professionals in one way or another will contribute to the further development of technology. With successful developments in the future, new technologies will not only be studied and tested, but also used in projects with real prospects.


On the materials of the sites:
http://izvestia.ru/
https://utro.ru/
http://rbase.new-factoria.ru/
http://sdelanounas.ru/
http://airwar.ru/
http://e-reading.club/
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  1. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 26 December 2016 08: 34
    +1
    A set of words. He wrote the humanities.
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 26 December 2016 13: 15
      +1
      From the fact that you apply modern scientific terminology, the end result does not change. Do not make yourself a knowledgeable person because a lot of money is invested in research and not very stupid people work. However, it is useless to wait for the result. The absence of a complex method of analysis on a mathematical basis does not allow us to represent plasma as an element of a complex process. The folly of scientists already consists in the fact that plasma is perceived objectively. At the same time, it is always an element of a comprehensive and high-potential physical email. magnetic process
      1. Vlad.by
        Vlad.by 26 December 2016 16: 28
        +2
        The phrase "the stupidity of scientists" sounds very threatening ...
        Who do you consider yourself a scientist or unlearned?
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 26 December 2016 18: 28
          0
          Do not cling to words. I really respect people who study and understand the laws of the world. Therefore, in this word and vagueness, so it seems about everyone and no one. And then. Not about the status of an individual discussion. We are talking about the question. which has a rationale and a direct path to a solution. Only for some reason no one wants to understand that these laws of the world do not always correspond to our subjective perception. Therefore, sometimes you need to believe in that. that this world was created as a harmonious system and it remains for us at the secondary level to try to understand what has already been created .. Atheists do not understand this, and believers must get rid of dogma ..
          1. Inok10
            Inok10 26 December 2016 23: 27
            +3
            Quote: gridasov
            Do not cling to words. I really respect people who study and understand the laws of the world.

            ... it’s a pity that they are unfamiliar to you ... speech not about people ... about laws ...
            Patent No. 2046545 - Method for transmitting an information signal with relaying by means of an artificial ionized cloud
            ... year of publication of the patent 1995, country of the Russian Federation ... hi
            Patent No. 2074532 - Method for forming an energy clot
            ... year of publication 1997, country of the Russian Federation ...
            ... the topic raised by Kirill Batkovich is uniquely interesting and, therefore, he gives me a plus from me and a low bow ... but ... this topic - Closed ... we can only be content with the fact that it is no longer a secret ... although before the same "Meteorite" our "Probable friends from across the river" still saw and saw in the washerwoman's pose, about to China ... well, maybe with very favorable conditions to the Eastern part of Central Asia ... 3,5 M at a distance of 5000 km. .... wink .. let's remember to the place almost ... "Satchel" ... it seems like everything is so ordinary ... 0,5 GW on two antennas, in total 1 GW creating at a distance of 40 km. at the point of space electric field voltage of 1 kW / m ... now we just think ... 1 kW / m ... is it a lot or a little .... for 20 km. it already provides 4 kW / m ... this is all in open sources ... at 1 kW / m the avionics are not working correctly ... at 4 kW / m - failure ... that's all! ... hi
            1. gridasov
              gridasov 26 December 2016 23: 51
              0
              First, if these patented methods worked, there would be a result. Secondly, I doubt your competence because, according to the name of the second patent, the energy clot is an abstract and completely non-defining expression. Since one must be completely illiterate in physics in order not to understand that it is not an energy clot that can exist as a concept, but only the process of converting one energy concentration into another is possible .. These are complex and systemic processes. In addition, there must be a bearer of the potential of what is called such a bunch. Furthermore . Plasma behavior is completely identical to the behavior of hydrogasdynamic flows. And neither you nor respected experts even know how mathematically it is possible to analyze the turbulent movement of the flow of water and the same air in the structure of the air itself and water with a low-potential state or relative to the outflow surface. For scientists, this is still friction and "even if you crack." Finally, "closeness" does not play a positive role in cognition.
              1. Inok10
                Inok10 27 December 2016 00: 17
                +3
                Quote: gridasov
                Firstly, if these patented methods worked, then the result would be.

                ... who will report to you, then ... laughing
                Quote: gridasov
                Secondly. I doubt your competence because, according to the name of the second patent, an energy clot is an abstract and completely non-defining expression.

                . gridasov ... how can I say so as not to offend the Subject ... Equestrian, as Applied-Melee, is not alien to me, with a fine organization of thinking, technical ... wink ... accordingly ... "to pull out and destroy" in the best traditions of Russian hand-to-hand, it's not difficult for me ... we read for "criticism" gridasov - Fr.
                Quote: gridasov
                I doubt your competence because, according to the name of the second patent, an energy clot is an abstract and completely non-defining expression.

                ... we read the Classification of patent No. 2074532 - A method of forming an energy clot: ... Plasma production; plasma control, Code - IPC H05H 1/00 ​​... gridasovexcept for a broken nose, the jaw and base of the skull are broken, when finishing ... bully
                1. gridasov
                  gridasov 1 January 2017 14: 01
                  0
                  You see, but I have successfully defended my image of "fool and blessed". So don't be too nervous. Still, the bunch should have some parameters of dimension, vectors of the process of compaction or expansion of the process. There must be parameters of the potential, because there is a dimension. And as banal as in the patent it is nothing definite. That means "powder". Moreover, to make it clear to you that the conversation is not only about the plasma itself as an objective phenomenon, the conversation should go about such dimensions of the levels of interaction of email. magnetic circuits, which will cause the corresponding potential of this plasma. After all, look at how rocket scientists analyze the surfaces of the rocket body in flight. They calculate the coefficients of friction and build equations with variable values. It would be much more profitable and convenient to construct a mathematical process in the analysis of the transformation of all or dominant components, based on the algorithms of such transformations. Then we can determine the potential of the interaction of the rocket surface with the flight environment. Striving for hyperspeeds will force one way or another to look for new methods of analysis. Well, at the end, we can say that if the analysis is carried out according to my method, then the solutions come more specific. You can simply change the polarization of the surface of the outflow. If I'm wrong, I'm like water off a duck's back. But for me to fall into the underworld if I cheated and everything does not look as it is said.
                  1. Inok10
                    Inok10 3 January 2017 00: 30
                    +3
                    Quote: gridasov
                    You see, but I have successfully defended my image of "fool and blessed".

                    ... no how ... from the word at all ... alas, there is a difference between aerodynamics and plasma aerodynamics ... and alas, respectively:
                    Quote: gridasov
                    After all, look at how rocketers analyze the surfaces of a rocket’s body during flight. They calculate the coefficients of friction and build equations with variable values. It would be much more profitable and more convenient to build a mathematical process in the analysis of the transformation of all or dominant components, based on the algorithms of such transformations ..

                    ... for plasma aerodynamics ... it's completely different ... laughing
        2. The stranger
          The stranger 1 January 2017 02: 34
          +1
          Come on, don’t wash the keyboard. This is a bot known for its complex mathematical and otherworldly addictions.
          1. gridasov
            gridasov 1 January 2017 14: 07
            0
            Do not impose your abilities on others. Responsible for yourself and only for yourself. I’m sure that you and yourself do not know much. If you don’t understand something, then study and learn. I have never and never said that I have no specific application and that cannot be expressed mathematically. To prove - I do not prove this is true, but I make you think the subconscious mechanism of those who have internal potential. It is more convenient to work with the subconscious mechanism of the brain - it does not waste time on empty relationships. And even opponents can be understood as the arguments are justified. And you do not have these arguments.
    2. Sevastiec
      Sevastiec 27 December 2016 06: 09
      0
      Took off the tongue. The entire article can be shortened to two paragraphs.
  2. Santa Fe
    Santa Fe 26 December 2016 09: 36
    +3
    1. Like any metal containing free electrons, ionized gas (plasma) has excellent electrical conductivity.

    2. the higher the electrical conductivity of the reflecting medium, the stronger the reflection of radio waves from the interface between two media.

    A confirmation of the high reflectivity of plasma is the reflection of radio waves from the Earth’s ionosphere.

    CONCLUSION: the plasma is not able to hide the object, it’s also ridiculous and pseudoscientific, like ... for example, charging banks from a TV with Kashpirovsky

    The most noticeable problem of plasma generators with the required characteristics is high energy consumption.

    No eshkin cat

    There is another noticeable problem - how to keep such a cloud of ionized gas

    Open the window in the car and push it with deodorant, one-two-three, one more spray, then another ... this is 100 km / h
    NOW SPEED 5000 km / h

    You remind me of the magnetic field. and here is H. there. To be required highly ionized high-temperature plasma, (over a million K). 1 000 000 K = 999 727 ° C. Can you imagine that?


    FOR ADMINISTRATIVE USE
    The first (and last) flight of a top-secret “stealth plane” with a plasma generator installed on board laughing
    1. Rus2012
      Rus2012 26 December 2016 10: 15
      +1
      Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
      There is another noticeable problem - how to keep such a cloud of ionized gas

      Oleg, this is not the point ...
      Just remember: when high-speed objects move, under certain conditions (altitude and speed) plasma formation (plasma cloud) occurs. For example, at altitudes of 70-20 km when flying objects at speeds of 5-2 km / sec (warhead, and other elements of the launch vehicle, the Gazelle missile defense missile ...)
      And if you "help" this process, then with less ... :)))

      Yet again...
      Just remember the "awe and uncertainty" of the radar operators when monitoring objects in the "northern lights" ...
    2. aiw
      aiw 26 December 2016 10: 29
      +4
      Mdya ... Oleg, you again demonstrate your ignorance of physics.

      About plasma conductivity - compare the density of free charge carriers in a plasma cloud and in a metal.

      About the magnetic field and temperature in million K. I did not understand what it was ... fool

      According to the subject of the article, for effective masking it is necessary to create a plasma layer with a thickness of several wavelengths, and at the same time it must have the correct conductivity gradient. Hypothetically, this is possible, but in practice ... FIG knows.

      About plasmoids touched. Thanks at least for what are not plasmids wassat Reminds fake about the installation for dispersing clouds with a stream of ions.
    3. Vadim237
      Vadim237 26 December 2016 11: 10
      0
      For hypersonic missiles, a fairing can be installed on the nose. from the material which during heating, due to the oncoming air flow, will evaporate and create a plasma cloud around the rocket - to reduce the resistance and heating of the body.
      1. The stranger
        The stranger 1 January 2017 02: 58
        0
        So if you want it - you don’t want it - it will form :) The flame of a match is the same plasma :) And actually, we live in a plasma Universe. In which manifestations of even solid plasma are very rare. Somehow the planets, and everything on them. Well, except for the flame, and the plasma dreams of dreamers.
        "Plasma", from the point of view of physics, is simply an ionized state of matter. Neutral, i.e. neionized is generally an exception in nature; in the everyday sense, it is rather degenerate. There is a lot of it only at school, and even then - rather as a starting point. Like a spherical horse in a vacuum, so that the consciousness that first encountered the term would have something to cling to for comparison ..
        The ideas in this article are actually about using clouds and charged particle beams. Well, to be easier in weight, and stronger in energy. The same laser beam, but without a laser and light. This is certainly a gross profanity, but in terms of weapons - not far from the point. In terms of invisibility cloak - even closer.
        True, the humanist wrote, therefore, it is simply a list of projects, and not a popular science article. Therefore, either extra enthusiasm or extra criticism in the comments. And so - yes, the topic is not disclosed.
    4. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 26 December 2016 12: 44
      +1
      Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
      plasma is not able to hide an object, it is also ridiculous and pseudoscientific, like ... for example, charging banks from a TV with Kashpirovsky

      Duc ....... charged the same!
      Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
      zip it with a deodorant, one, two, three, another spray, then another ..

      You, my friend, leave the dreams of the drug addict alone!
    5. gridasov
      gridasov 26 December 2016 13: 19
      0
      It is you who are engaged in pseudoscience imposing upon others your very subjective opinion. Plasma, like everything else, has its own dimension, which means a set of properties that can distort the same ray of light. And since nature is identical, you have to accept that a ray of light can be both curved and reflected, and therefore the object may not be visible
      1. avg-mgn
        avg-mgn 26 December 2016 14: 22
        +2
        Calm down, you're right! It can not, maybe, or maybe, yes for sure ..., a waste of money and time. Rejoice that not yours!
      2. Vlad.by
        Vlad.by 26 December 2016 16: 37
        +1
        Colleague, haven't you previously called not to treat plasma "in detail"?
        "... The stupidity of scientists is that plasma is perceived objectively ..."
        Excuse me, if you do not perceive it objectively, where does the "dimension and complex of properties" come from?
        You already decide what is primary, an egg or a chicken
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 26 December 2016 18: 45
          0
          In these matters, it is necessary to maintain parity between the fact that plasma as a phenomenon has its own individual properties, but it is worth taking into account. that these properties are a consequence of the interaction of two or multipolar "circuits", which, by the interaction of their potentials, cause plasma.
          1. Vlad.by
            Vlad.by 30 December 2016 14: 32
            +1
            Do you like the arrogant syllable, however.
            I'll tell you this - the result of a successful crossing of the road along a pedestrian crossing is precisely a consequence of the interaction of "multipolar circuits". And with very large potentials. But I don't see plasma on the roads.
            1. gridasov
              gridasov 1 January 2017 21: 16
              0
              In your example, it will really be quite enough to carry out an analysis at the level of those interactions that determine the mechanical processes associated with automobiles and the totality of the psychophysical parameters of all participants in the process, namely people. In general, this is a complex process. But! theoretically, it is possible to carry out analysis at the level of interaction of all participants in the process as local information spaces with certain vectors that determine the development of each process in its own algorithm. Then you can simply see that moment in the development of this complex of the process, which we call the tragic case, when nobody seems to want it, but all circumstances led to the source of the highest tension. And here we can already argue at what level of dimension such interactions of email occurred. magnetic circuits, which led to an explosion of tension of events and further complete relaxation or destruction of tension.
              I will return to the recent and not the last tragedy with the loss of life. "Heavenly kingdom to all of them" I grieve with all my relatives and friends. But so that such tragedies do not recur, you need to know absolutely all the causes of the disaster. So that's it. This airport is located in a certain local zone of active interactions of air flows from the mountains and from the sea. All this is enhanced by spin phenomena in the formation of downdraft and upward air currents with high moisture saturation. ... Therefore, if the wing of an aircraft falls into such an air flow where a vector multidirectional along the spin is formed, then with certain interactions with the flaps, there will not be enough mechanical force to move them, or they will be squeezed out in a completely unnecessary direction. ... But at a transonic air flow velocity in the back, there is a section on the wing where destruction is likely as simply torn pieces of the wing plane.In general, the lack of thrust properties of the engines and the large wing spacing do not contribute to the safe flight of people. At the same time, I keep talking about the physical process based on new algorithms, which is easily embodied in hardware as a fundamentally new aircraft engine with the highest quality capabilities not only for increased thrust, but also for the distribution of air flows. But all this melts in the air. People do not know how to feel the grief of others. Therefore, in their weakness, everyone will believe in miracles and there will be new tragedies. After all, the potential of space is very high, and its dynamic processes make modern technology even more dangerous to use.
              1. Vlad.by
                Vlad.by 11 January 2017 15: 09
                0
                Do not go children to Africa for a walk ...
                In Africa, gorillas, evil crocodiles ...
                and backs are multidirectional.
                In general, it is surprising that the birds have enough strength to flap their wings, with these backs ...
                1. gridasov
                  gridasov 11 January 2017 15: 30
                  0
                  And you know that in the articular joint it moves in a circle, which means that the wing works as if in two "hemispheres" of air movement. Moreover, the force on the wing is created by a very small radius of the shoulder, and the rest of the plumage only creates a smoothing air flow.
  3. avt
    avt 26 December 2016 10: 02
    +3
    ,

    And with this plasma you will reach insanity, - and This is quite an honor.
    But somehow I heard that now among physicists it's like how to deal with a perpetual motion machine. Already no honor. Again, judging by the fact that the same physicists are not really talking about ball lightning, the conclusion is twofold: First, they know nothing; The second - all the same, they sipped something and the topic was simply hidden from outsiders. What makes it even more sensational - they know nothing. bully Here, Cyril got a collection of this knowledge of ignorance in the open press, which can really be entitled by type
    Quote: Aviator_
    A set of words

    Well - "A set of words about plasma in military affairs." Well, actually, you can also write about force fields, well, about a "protective anti-missile dome" Actually, as Kirill pointed out in the article, they will be united by the lack of energy sources today. Well, analogues of what Tesla did, as it is nowhere publicly reflected in our life.
    1. Rus2012
      Rus2012 26 December 2016 10: 18
      +2
      Quote: avt
      Well - "A set of words about plasma in military affairs".

      ... by the way, under the Council of Deputies the words "plasma" and some others - automatically made up Taboos for open materials ...
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 26 December 2016 18: 59
        0
        You are absolutely right and it would be worth continuing. Personally, I have to strain enough to talk about new methods and obtaining ultrahigh levels of interaction potentials that cause an extended range of plasma phenomena, as well as leveling the magnetic interactions. At the same time, I would not want to communicate outside of certain sites. All this is extremely important.
      2. psiho117
        psiho117 28 December 2016 01: 08
        +1
        Quote: Rus2012

        ... by the way, under the Council of Deputies the words "plasma" and some others - automatically made up Taboos for open materials ...

        Oh well, really ... grandmother's tales are all.
        not even a laser (and it was really secret crap) and then none of the textbook on physics 10 classes were cut, only we did not know the name of such a bourgeois fellow For us it was a quantum-optical generator, and the word LASER is the same abbreviation, only in English (they are terrible as they like to abbreviate in capital letters).

        and about plasma it was written in the very first textbooks on physics - for plasma is the fourth aggregate state of matter, and no one was afraid of this word.
    2. gridasov
      gridasov 26 December 2016 13: 24
      +1
      In the article, everything is like in the brains of direct researchers, everything is interspersed - both fantasies and real effects. Scientists do not have a method for analyzing large information data sets. And the majority are not even able to master this terminology. At the same time, we can say that humanity is doomed to "luck" in understanding such processes. The fact that there are no analogues of Tesla's works is so obvious, since the scientist worked with energy density and understood the importance of the algorithms for the dispersion and concentration of magnetic force fluxes, and contemporaries do not work with such concepts.
      1. avg-mgn
        avg-mgn 26 December 2016 14: 24
        0
        And most are not even able to master this terminology.Well, you mastered it. Give time to most scientists and they will cope.
      2. Vlad.by
        Vlad.by 26 December 2016 16: 44
        +1
        There are as many analysis methods as you want - there are not enough resources, financial, computational, temporary ...
        Do not scare us, we are scared.
        In addition, you are so confident in stating what and how Tesla worked, that your face is directly visible behind the Master’s back.
        And what do you build do not go?
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 26 December 2016 18: 50
          0
          You are deeply mistaken in believing that the fundamental foundations of analysis methods are so numerous. Analysis methods directly depend on the mathematical model that we use in the form of using numbers. We count numbers by comparing their individual properties. But for the analysis of high-capacity information processes it is necessary to use a completely different fundamental property of numbers. Then processes that are not obvious by their obviousness will be understandable, but on the basis of properties and cause-effect interactions can be distinguished as elements or stages.
          1. Vlad.by
            Vlad.by 30 December 2016 14: 22
            +1
            They said beautifully. Would you be so kind as to state exactly which "completely different fundamental property of numbers" should be used to analyze "high-capacity information processes"?
            By the way, about the fundamental foundations of the methods of analysis - I agree that there are not many "fundamental" ones. But "private" is a dime a dozen. And all mathematical.
            Can you offer others?
            1. The stranger
              The stranger 1 January 2017 03: 06
              +1
              Yes, agree already, agree! And then he will start to brawl.
              Maybe a virtual, and you have to call real orderlies from the server room. Although they are sysadmins, they also have the New Year, and also do not like to be distracted from the booze.
              1. Vlad.by
                Vlad.by 11 January 2017 15: 20
                0
                Oh, right too drinks laughing
              2. gridasov
                gridasov 11 January 2017 15: 36
                0
                I won’t start to rage! At the same time, it’s always interesting for me to see people with their own eyes who imagined themselves so smart, but after explanation they suddenly became such, and what, well, I made a mistake, well, underestimated, etc.
            2. gridasov
              gridasov 11 January 2017 15: 32
              0
              This is exactly what we are talking about! Only intelligent people are needed. Because after understanding that the whole function of the constant value of the number will have to be mastered and how the multipolar transistor is built on the "numbers of the nat series."
            3. gridasov
              gridasov 11 January 2017 15: 43
              0
              I will probably repeat myself and say that a number has such a function as its constant value. It is on this property of the number that you can build a model of mathematical space with the maximum possible variations and combinations of the interaction of their components. That is, these numbers themselves. Imagine that all binary code is written sequentially to a string, etc. And in our case, we record not moving the code, but creating a spatial combination. We not only do not move the code, but also do not waste energy moving it. In doing so, building systems radially fractal in capacity, we always build one local space inside the other, and therefore each of them is an integral part of another but more capacious space. In fact, all this can not be described in words, but shown on a banal sheet of paper and not say a word. Only a complete fool will not see the obvious.
              1. Vlad.by
                Vlad.by 7 February 2017 11: 01
                0
                You will forgive me, but I’m lost in your code ... now I don’t understand whether I should be selected sequentially-horizontally from the radial-fractal capacity. And here it is dark and smells somehow bad ...
                By the way, I managed to place the local spaces inside one another, it took even less alcohol than expected.
                But finding a way out of rectal-fractal did not help. You will not help?
                1. gridasov
                  gridasov 7 February 2017 16: 10
                  0
                  If it smells bad and you feel that you do not like it, then leave this event. I can try to answer specific questions. Moreover, what are rectal, I also do not know. Fractal and radial numerical constructions are yes.
  4. Rus2012
    Rus2012 26 December 2016 10: 02
    +2
    Quote: author
    Previously, to increase altitude or to start at high altitudes, turbojet engines were equipped oxygen systemsupplying the necessary gas to the combustion chamber. The use of the oxygen system to some extent complicates the design of the aircraft, and also requires appropriate airfield infrastructure. The requirements for the project “Advanced Aviation Complex of Frontline Aviation” (PAK FA) set the task of eliminating the need for oxygen recharge. The nozzles of the combustion chamber and the afterburner of the new engines have their own plasma systems. When fuel is supplied, an arc is formed by which it is ignited. As a result, there is no need for additional oxygen supply.


    Quote: Aviator_
    A set of words.

    Indeed, a set of phrases!

    ... for information:
    - on modern military gas turbine engines with FC (afterburner), the afterburner was ignited by the "fire path". This is when in the main chamber (or between the stages of the turbine) an additional injector injects fuel, which ignites and is "thrown" into the afterburner and ignites the main fuel there.

    - "oxygen make-up" - an effective way to increase the launch altitude (from 7 thousand, up to 16 thousand. Can we catch the difference?).
    BUT!
    Due to the fact that on the 5th generation (at least in the Yankees) there are no oxygen cylinders, there is only an oxygen generator for the pilot. In connection with the above - the use of "oxygen supply" is difficult. Indeed, you need to put a system of balloon-cylinders with oxygen. Therefore, there is a requirement - "no oxygen supply for the OK (main chamber)". To start the OK GTE, both the traditional ignition system was used, and ...
    Again, remember - the "plasma ignition system" is used only for FC due to certain features!
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 26 December 2016 13: 31
      0
      You only state the fact that modern designers work on the ideas of theoreticians who did not come to understand the essence of plasma as a physical effect and that it cannot exist by itself. There are no attempts to even understand the processuality of phenomena in which plasma is an integral element some kind of complex process.
      By the way, as some people call my posts opuses, but nevertheless I repeatedly repeat that the turbo fuel pump itself and whether the compressor, etc. itself can be a generator of ultra-high el. magnetic impulses, which means to form an "electric magnetic field" as amateurs say. Because the field is the concept of statics, and email. magnetic processes always have dimension in polarization and vectority, etc. Therefore, it is always worth talking about fluxes, not fields. Besides, the field is always limited by the dimension after which it interacts with other magnetic fluxes.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 27 December 2016 08: 24
        +3
        Dear, please give a definition of the field. Depending on the result, I will decide for myself whether it is worthwhile to enter into a conversation with you.
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 1 January 2017 16: 51
          0
          Unfortunately, you will not understand me. Therefore, I am not trying to explain. The reason is that you, as a peasant, may consider the field as an area determined from geometric parameters. We work with the "field" as a dynamic system in which complexes of transformations take place both within the entire set of interactions and in external ones. Therefore, such information-intensive processes cannot be calculated as special cases. Well, or you can, but this is talentless work. It is necessary to build systems of mathematical interactions in their algorithmic interconnection. However, this cannot be done on a function of a variable value of a number, because you will receive a mathematical sequence, the values ​​of which will still remain unconnected. Moreover, everything will be in linear vectority, and there are no radial models for calculating multi-vector processes. Therefore, talking about sex is like talking between a deaf and a dumb
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 1 January 2017 19: 01
            +2
            "The waves rolled over the pier and fell down with a swift jack" (I. Ilf, E. Petrov, 12 chairs) As far as you are concerned, I will never understand this. No respect, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of MIPT
            1. gridasov
              gridasov 1 January 2017 19: 53
              0
              I knew you would answer that way. Ambition was already felt in your question. But the thing is completely different. I do not in any way encroach on your merits, status and achievements. And I told you for sure, we just use different methods of analysis. You did not even focus on this. For me it would be more important if you argued that I was wrong.
              1. gridasov
                gridasov 1 January 2017 20: 07
                0
                Let me add that even the calculation of the magnetic force flows of the sphere of the same planet on which we live is incomplete. But it is so incomplete that in practice the elementary solenoid or the banal segment of a linear conductor is incorrectly calculated. You do not have a method for distributing the magnetic force flux in a conductor with different potentials at its ends. Therefore, it is impossible to understand how the magnetic fluxes of a conductor differ without current or with current at the level of electron emission. But the most important thing is that with your analysis technique you will never come to such a decision when you can create such an ultrahigh potential difference at the ends of the conductor without applying any energy to it yourself. And this is a new reactor in which you can create such a non-radioactive material potential difference that will be higher than the radial polarization of known radioactive materials. In addition, the method of converting radial radiation or a perturbation impulse into a linear one is still unattainable, which would be very useful in the so-called atomic engines. In general, ambitions in such conversations are inappropriate. Of course, if I talk with an adequate scientist
  5. gridasov
    gridasov 1 January 2017 16: 42
    0
    I am reading new and new statements that they intend to carry out the creation of a heavy rocket for the expansion of space and the Moon. And at the same time there are absolutely no breakthrough achievements in physics. This means that there are proportional dependences of the carrying capacity of the entire rocket on the key dimensions and operation parameters of the engines, which means that it also entails a mass of fuel for acceleration and launch of a rocket into orbits. At the same time, the limit of possible rotor speeds of turbo-fuel superchargers has already been reached. There are no new types of fuel that create the necessary energy density. In general, without a solution, at first a complex of theoretical measures, there are simply no prerequisites for creating heavy missiles.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 1 January 2017 20: 23
      +2
      Define the field.
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 2 January 2017 14: 40
        0
        I repeat that with words it is impossible to express the multifaceted nature of the interaction of those processes that occur at each point both inside and outside of what we can mean as a field. But this can be shown mathematically on the basis of constructing a numerical space in which the equivalent of physical interactions as an information space can be expressed. Then that means. that all possible variations and probabilistic combinations of all these interactions are expressed through the information capacity of this space. So we can analyze all the processes relative to the axis of interactions under consideration and at each point of this space as a field. And please do not try to reduce everything to blind primitivism.
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 2 January 2017 14: 52
          +2
          It is precisely that "the versatility of the interaction of all processes ..." is first expressed by in wordsThen formulas and algorithms, then - drawings and products. And if this is not done, then nothing will happen. At all.
          1. gridasov
            gridasov 2 January 2017 17: 26
            0
            Formulas and equations NO. Because they will always show a private solution. In addition, all the parameters of the interaction process cannot be entered into the formula. Highly dynamic processes in their transformation can also not be calculated by formulas. The fullness of the process on the entire dynamic scale can be described by the method of mathematical analysis using the function of a constant value of a number. Then and only then is the mathematical space, namely that field of interactions of any dimension. And by the way, you can see the mathematical model of the smallest physical particle that cannot be obtained by any physical methods. And this basis of everything will have the totality of the determined parameters of the existence of itself and surrounded by the same formations. Further, everything is formed as fractal structures up to real material objects. This primary formation is expressed not in the form of a static model, but in the form of a dynamic model of magnetic force flows, which form the space that is between these flows and has a radial gravitational potential, which makes it as the primary object of the universe. All reasoning about antimatter becomes apparent in its unreasonableness.
            1. Aviator_
              Aviator_ 2 January 2017 20: 39
              +2
              I hasten to upset you - everything that surrounds you has passed just such a path - words, theories, formulas, calculations, drawings, products. Your suggestions are from the virtual world, there, probably, you are most comfortable. Can you define the gravitational potential (simple, not radial)?
              1. gridasov
                gridasov 2 January 2017 22: 27
                0
                Excuse me, but I’d better ask you a question. You know what a matroid is, scale invariant structures. And do you know what their essence is? What are they considered for? What is their imperfection? And I also wonder if you can build a model of the turbulent process of the outflow of air relative to the same air or hard surface? And in general, how does the process of ionization or polarization of air currents and the same surface of the rocket.?
                1. Aviator_
                  Aviator_ 3 January 2017 11: 21
                  +2
                  So. The concept of gravitational potential is unknown to you. Further. I have never encountered a "matroid" in my daily activities (aerogasdynamics) and have no idea about it. I get around. At the moment, there are more than 5 turbulence models, starting with k-epsilon, and so on. What should you write about? Everything is used, from the homogeneous isotropic (Kolmogorov) 40s of the last century. The problem of jet outflow with the formation of vortex coherent structures has also been solved, both theoretically and experimentally. I can enlighten you - these vortex structures are, in addition, the source of sound. About the processes of electrization of the surface, streamlined by an external flow (it has always been called so), next time.
                  1. gridasov
                    gridasov 3 January 2017 12: 38
                    0
                    I am not going to play ping-pong with words - do you know about it, and you about it. No model of turbulent flow outflow considers turbulence as a stage of the energy level of flow transformation. That is, turbulence is considered as a substantive and particular solution. Moreover, no one came close to understanding why and how laminar flows turn into turbulent and further sonoluminescent in pronounced properties. Therefore, in dynamic flows there is a whole scale of known and used by scientists e-mail. magnetic effects. But this means that there is no concept of the greater part of the entire aggregate of physical. Therefore, no one knows how to connect the electrification of the surface of the expiration from the dimension of this surface and from the huge complex of properties of the stream itself, which is in the algorithms of its own transformation ..
                    Try to imbue with reasoning the idea that the whole essence of the physical world has equivalent information security expressed by a banal number. Therefore, subconsciously, scientists also research matrices, scale-invariant structures, matroids and everything else that will be invented. That is, it is precisely attempts to find a systemic relationship between what is happening in the world and how to express it as information.
                    1. Aviator_
                      Aviator_ 3 January 2017 15: 26
                      +2
                      You are not here with this stream of words. As a professional who graduated from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology with a degree in aerodynamics and thermodynamics and is still working in this field, I say. Good luck. Surprisingly, there was nothing about torsion fields.
                      1. gridasov
                        gridasov 3 January 2017 15: 49
                        0
                        I admit that I always prepare myself for the perception of such information, which may be completely not associative with my ideas. Therefore, the criteria in the search for new information often come down to the fact that I don’t understand this, and a person is trying to justify it. Then I develop. You have your own ideas about self-perfection. By the way, everything that I talked about was only superficial, not my invention. Man has not been given a completely interconnected picture of the universe. I just quoted those who are obviously capable of it. .Happy New Year, too ! And happiness!
  6. gridasov
    gridasov 3 January 2017 17: 22
    0
    The simplest engineering solutions, but hidden behind the unhealthy ambitions of modern scientists, can lead to the possibility of mastering engines with a completely new quality of physical processes. Let the science fiction and designers draw the rest.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 3 January 2017 19: 13
      +1
      Remained a trifle. Define the information. At least according to Shannon. And then evolve.
      P.S. I think the least about self-improvement. Work is stuck.
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 8 January 2017 17: 03
        0
        It is difficult for an untrained mind to understand that all physical processes and phenomena have a direct correspondence to the information component. But if there is information corresponding to physical phenomena and everything that happens, then there is a tool for expressing this information. But about this separately sometime. Therefore, information is precisely the whole complex eventfulness of what, in essence, is a property of what can happen in any local space of analysis. When people understand that if they have the opportunity to use a tool for analyzing information as a whole set of events in space, then the concept of time, excluding the astronomical fractal level of events, will become the equivalent of constructing a mechanism for the development of events in this space. Therefore, as soon as someone says the phrase that this cannot be, then it already exists. However, a new understanding of information also arises, that on the basis of the function of constant value of a number, it is possible to construct a fractal radial method for analyzing the entire set of events. And this means that our world is a level that fits into a certain capacity of such events that can occur in our habitat. But! nothing else can happen in it that does not correspond to the variance within this container. In fact, everything is very simple, which means that in the analysis of very large information data there should not and cannot be anything superfluous that can clog this technique. It is very important to understand that the term "functions of constant value of a number" does not exist anywhere and the number cannot be considered in this case as a separate value or expression. This means that it is always and everywhere in the joint interaction with other numbers. This means that we can use the property of number without implying it in the form that we use now as a symbol. So we, as people, cannot give an exhaustive definition of information because we are limited by objective and subjective capabilities to perceive everything as obvious, But our brain, as a tool of analysis, can be expanded in perception by moving from the perception of everything as a method of perceiving a particular and objectivity to perception at the level of procedural algorithmic interactions.
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 8 January 2017 22: 57
          +1
          So. There is no definition of information either. If only I would google something. I do not even allow such students to count. Good luck.
          1. gridasov
            gridasov 8 January 2017 23: 11
            0
            And you experiment and try to make students understand what I said.
            1. Aviator_
              Aviator_ 9 January 2017 08: 53
              +1
              To your regret, I have tech students, and your opus is in a completely different department.
            2. Aviator_
              Aviator_ 9 January 2017 08: 53
              +1
              To your regret, I have tech students, and your opus is in a completely different department.
              1. gridasov
                gridasov 11 January 2017 15: 50
                0
                My opuses are blueprints and calculation of an aircraft engine according to one initial parameter. Believe me, one of my lectures would be more than enough for your students to stop believing in you and completely switch to my views. And I would show them only one drawing. You are self-confident and hopeless, and I am convinced of this with each of your statements. I repeat once again that you are considering the processes without understanding the dominant significance of what exactly happens in the hydrodynamic flow, and therefore you do not see the transformations in the ionization of the outflow surfaces and the causes of destruction.
                1. Aviator_
                  Aviator_ 12 January 2017 00: 38
                  +1
                  "My lecture alone would have been more than enough to make your students stop believing you ..." For questions of faith, contact a church, mosque, or synagogue. Good luck.
  7. gridasov
    gridasov 12 January 2017 11: 31
    0
    Finally, it remains only to add, for those who are keen on the theoretical foundations of understanding, the essence of plasma, that in all its combination of properties, plasma is always !!! represents the running-in moment of motion, between the magnetic interaction circuits Hence, it is also explained that the plasma in its versatility behaves like a hydro-gas dynamic flow, and hence the dimension of the plasma behavior can be described in the same way as a low-potential one similar to the properties of a laminar flow and "turbulent and sonoluminescent" "states when the plasma is in a state of high-potential interaction of the circuits. Therefore, remembering that someone reproached me with my enthusiasm for spins, I can say that the linear motion of any dimensional body always causes a rotating moment of motion. But !!! And rotation of the body with a certain dimension causes its linear motion.The only difference is that when the linear motion is initiated, the process is energy-consuming, and in the second case it can be made not energy-consuming. Therefore, our turbine is built according to the second principle. Of course, everything is said very simplistically. But who will understand will understand!