Military Review

Enfield №2 - revolver, created for the sake of convenience

86
How often in stories weapons We find examples of purely subjective evaluation of one or another of its samples? And if objective factors were superimposed on them, then this led to the most real “adventures of inventions.”



Here it is - Enfield revolver "Revolver No. 2 Mk I". Even outwardly it is clear that this is a very technological product, the trunk in which is milled together with the top of the frame.

For example, the same Samuel Colt created a breakthrough pattern, with the very first model carved out of his own wood. He set up production, stubbornly went to the goal, built the factory city "Coltsville", which became the prototype of the "city of the future" in Jules Verne's novel "500 million begums" and ... everything! Then it was as if it were closed, and when the inventor came to him through the drilled drum for cartridges with a metal sleeve, he drove him away! He went to "Smith and Wesson" and so appeared "Smith and Wesson" №1, and then all the other revolvers. And then Colt’s widow had to hire engineers to bypass the Smith and Wesson patents, which made the famous Peacemaker Colt appear so late.


And here he broke. An extractor is pulled out of the drum.

The same story repeated then in Russia. The Smith and Wesson revolver, adopted by the Russian army, showed an excellent destructive force of the bullet, surpassing, surprisingly, the destructive force of the bullet of the Berdan rifle of the same caliber. What didn't you like? And the belt on which the holster was hanging was twisting due to its severity! So what? They would come up with shoulder straps and ... everything! But no, they decided to adopt the Nagan revolver, in fact, a one-time weapon, since it was in no way comparable to the “American” in terms of the speed of discharge and loading. He was discharged with just one movement. The gun was to be “cleaned” with the extractor seven times in a row, then the cartridges were inserted seven times. Were there any objective reasons for replacing one sample with another? Only one - both revolvers and pistols became more and more status weapons, and in real combat they were used less and less. But rearmament cost a lot of money. It was simpler to replace the black powder in the Smith and Wesson cartridges with smokeless ones, and introduce shoulder straps (by the way, they were then introduced!) In order to solve the “warping” and “smoke” problems. But what a destructive force! After all, with the Smithsons, they were hunting for bison ...


And now the extractor is hidden, and the revolver can be charged.

So progress in military affairs is not always absolute, sometimes it is very relative.

We have a similar example in England, where even in the 1870s of the 19th century, the English company "Webley and Son" (since 1897 was called "Webeley-Scott") began producing its revolvers. In 1887, the revolver of the Webley-Green system was released, which entered service with the British army and was used ... up to the 1963 year. Why so long? The fact is that the company offered the army a revolver with a tipping frame, which, firstly, was simple in fabrication, and secondly, it allowed to provide a very high reloading rate, comparable to the reloading speed of revolvers with a reversing drum.

Revolvers "Vebley" had a disconnecting body, consisting of two parts connected by a hinge. In order to recharge it, the barrel had to be folded down (just like in the Smith and Wesson system), the case was “breaking”, and the extractor automatically triggered, simultaneously ejecting all six cartridge cases from the reels. After that, all the drum chambers had to be filled in manually, but, nevertheless, the time savings were very significant.


Above the revolver caliber .455 Mk I arr. 1915, bottom .388 Mk IV.

The firm chose a truly impressive caliber for its revolver: O, 455 or .455 (11,6-mm), but in reality it was a bit smaller - .441 inches or 11,2-mm. Model Mk I arr. 1887, just had this caliber, but all subsequent models, for example, the model Mk IV obr. 1913, had this caliber.

The original barrel length was 102-mm (4 inches), but then it was increased to 152-mm (6 inches). Coupled with a powerful powder charge and a blunt heavy bullet whose speed was 189 m / s, the revolver ensured the defeat of any living target, be it the most bloodthirsty and strong “savage”, but it was not easy to shoot such a revolver, despite the convenient “bird's” type handle head". The “webla” revolvers at that time exceeded their counterparts in shooting accuracy, but, again, there was one reason - a very soft descent. But the recoil when shooting was very significant. As, however, and the weight of the same Mk IV, constituting 1,09 kg without cartridges.


"Webley-Scott" Mk IV - "military model".

In the 1915, the Mk IV received another handle, sights, but the changes ended there, although a convenient six-clip was invented to it, which accelerated the reloading process even more. The revolver showed itself well in battle: he was not afraid of dirt, dust, moisture, but even if the cartridges ran out or he misfired, it could be used, without fear, as a baton. Breaking anything in it was simply impossible! Moreover, it was equipped especially for trench warfare ... with the Pritchard-Griner bayonet, which was mounted on the trunk over the front sight with an emphasis on the frame.

Enfield №2 - revolver, created for the sake of convenience

The Pritchard-Greener bayonet was a completely monstrous weapon.

To shoot this revolver even faster, Colonel GV Fosbury in the 1896 year patented its original modification - the self-loading revolver “Webley-Fosbury”, perhaps the most original revolver in the world.

It also had two parts, but only when fired, the upper part of the frame, which included the barrel, drum and trigger, rolled back along the guides of the lower part of the frame. The recoil cylindrical spring was in the handle and worked on a special lever, which the moving part came back. During this “ride”, the drum was cranked back and forth to feed the next cartridge to the line of fire and cocked. Again, this provided a very soft descent, simply incomparable with Naganovsky, and allowed to shoot very accurately, if not for one circumstance. The strong impact was reinforced by the movement of massive parts of a revolver, which made shooting it not very comfortable. At one time it was fashionable to buy the pilots of the then airplanes, who hoped that with the help of the “automatic revolver” they would be more likely to hit the enemy in the air. But then it turned out that the machine gun was still more reliable in aerial combat, but the weight in the 1,25 kg was too great. Moreover, in the trenches, this sample was useless because it was sensitive to contamination. Nevertheless, he managed to enter both history and literature (although he was not officially armed), so if in any book you read that someone was armed with an automatic revolver there is no fiction meant precisely "Webley-Fosbury."


Scheme device revolver "Webley-Fosbury."

However, immediately after the end of the First World War, it became clear that it was simply unwise to spend a lot of time and effort on training British Crown troops to shoot from such a heavy revolver. This time, and the consumption of ammunition - that is, money. And all this for what? In a critical situation, someone killed a couple of opponents? Yes, they (in this situation) are not worth the metal that is spent on the manufacture of these weapons. Therefore, it was decided that now the army needs a small, and most importantly - an easy and convenient revolver, shooting smaller-caliber cartridges. The .38 caliber was chosen - that is, the 9,65-mm. The military decided that it would be easier to shoot, which means that the time spent learning to shoot and, consequently, the consumption of ammunition would be reduced.


Mk IV - the end of the handle.

The company "Webley-Scott" then did not hesitate for a long time, but simply reduced the .NUMX revolver, and in this form offered it to the army team. It just happened that they approved the design, but the company did not give the order for a new revolver, but placed it at the Royal Factory of Small Arms in Enfield. And in 455, the revolver went into production, but not under the brand name “Webley”, but under the brand “Enfield” “Revolver No. 1926 Mk I”. It weighed 2 g, had a barrel length 767-mm and bullet speed 127 m / s. It was believed that the shooter armed with them should hit a target from him at a distance of 183 meters, no further. And at this distance a new revolver worked very well.


Mk IV - the frame fastener lever is clearly visible. You had to press it with your thumb, after which the revolver opened.

Since every weapon depends on the cartridge, it must be said that the cartridge used in this revolver. And it was significantly different from the German 9-mm cartridge "Parabellum". With the .38 caliber, the weight of the 200 facets bullet of the British patron was more than twice and heavier, but now it flew twice as slowly as the German one.

In any case, Vebley & Scott was discouraged by this turn of affairs, but ... decided to start producing its own .38 caliber revolver and gave it the name Mk IV, although the only difference between it and its army counterpart was marking the handle. However, they also had certain differences inside, so they were not interchangeable.


Mk IV - U-shaped fastener of the upper part of the frame and the hammer head is clearly visible, short and durable.

The rapid motorization of the British army and the creation of large armored forces led to the fact that the new revolver also entered service. tank crews, and it was then that it turned out that it was not very convenient for tankers, since the trigger spoke in a tight tank was sure to cling to something. The solution was found quickly - it was simply removed, so that shooting from the new revolver, designated No. 2 Mk I * ("with a star *"), became possible only by self-cocking. As always, this reduced the accuracy of shooting, but only slightly, and they decided to neglect this drawback.


A revolver with a retracted trigger of the 1942 model of the year.

Well, by the 1942 year of the British army, mass character was needed, not the quality of the weapon, so any simplification was perceived by the military favorably, if only it would increase the output of the weapon. Therefore, the design of the revolver simplified even more, in particular, removed the fuse. The new sample number XXUMX Mk I ** (“with two stars”) has become even cheaper to produce, only if it fell on a hard surface, an accidental shot could happen. Moreover, now the commercial revolvers of the Mk IV went into action, so that the company “Vebley-Scott” still got its share of the war. Interestingly, immediately after the end of the war, all Mk I ** revolvers from the troops were withdrawn, but then returned back with the fuse installed.


But this revolver (meaning the Enfield model) lies in the left hand. The shape of the handle is convenient for gripping, the revolver does not seem heavy, the descent is very easy compared to the Nagan revolver. Large sights are clearly visible and facilitate aiming.

Both of these revolvers were widely used not only during the Second World War, but also were in service with the British army until the 60-s of the XX century. Then they were transferred to the police, where they could be seen even at the end of 80's.
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  1. Landing Station6
    Landing Station6 27 December 2016 15: 24
    +6
    Beautiful revolver. The special charm of a faceted trunk.
  2. Indiffeent
    Indiffeent 27 December 2016 15: 29
    +8
    Thank you so much! -More such articles, since 10 years I have been reading Zhuk’s encyclopedia books, but so that I can paint one type of weapon, learn a lot of new and interesting things, and read a cup of coffee!
    We are waiting for more !!!
    1. kalibr
      27 December 2016 15: 43
      +8
      I also read the Beetle, and therefore I realized that there is no limit to improvement. But in order to make such materials you need to hold the weapon in your hands, you need to disassemble it, and it is desirable to shoot, which is unthinkable in the Russian Federation .. In a word, to what extent our hands will reach and write. But it is difficult.
      1. Indiffeent
        Indiffeent 27 December 2016 16: 01
        +4
        The fact of the matter is that oh, how difficult and time consuming to draw up such an article. Because the author and respect and respect for the work done and patience!
      2. Reserve officer
        Reserve officer 27 December 2016 22: 40
        +10
        I really like revolvers. They are ergonomically designed so that the trunk is an extension of the arm.
        Let me explain my idea. In my youth, I was engaged in pistol bullet shooting, fulfilled the standard of the USSR master of sports. There were two main exercises in which I specialized - high-speed shooting from a pistol at rotating silhouettes (exercise MP-8, if anyone is in the subject) and a revolver (RP exercises of various types). It happened that in the shooting range and "hooligans" - shot at the banks swinging on a string from the waist. So - everyone got from the revolver, from the pistol - nobody. A completely different grip. From a revolver - as if you were just pointing your index finger at the target. And catching the vertical with a pistol in this position is much more difficult.
        And the guys who shot were kms and ms. Not newbies.
        I always read any information on revolvers with great pleasure. Many thanks to the author.
        1. kalibr
          28 December 2016 08: 47
          +3
          Although I was not a reserve officer, I was a third shooting sports student and even managed to learn how to be a shooting instructor. Also in front of the girls in the shooting range, I shot at nails swaying on a thread ... So I seduced one. Not resist! And - yes, a revolver is better in terms of ergonomics. Soon there will be another material on revolvers. Watch out for.
          1. kytx
            kytx 29 December 2016 01: 06
            +2
            I once had a chance to hold an ancient Smith-Wesson in my hands, I was amazed at the comfort of the grip, and sits in my hand like a native. compared with him, the ergonomics of the absurd shafting and descent are unexpectedly light and soft for such a huge fool.
    2. GEV67
      GEV67 27 December 2016 15: 46
      +3
      I join the above.
      1. kalibr
        27 December 2016 16: 17
        +2
        Well, thanks, glad you liked it. A kind word is also pleasant for a cat, and even more so for a man!
        1. Indiffeent
          Indiffeent 27 December 2016 16: 39
          +2
          wrong word, thank you!
  3. Knizhnik
    Knizhnik 27 December 2016 15: 35
    +10

    Webley Scott, Army ...
    1. kalibr
      27 December 2016 15: 44
      +3
      Oh, I forgot about this series, I forgot ... And there it is well shown! This is just the 1887 model of the year.
      1. Knizhnik
        Knizhnik 27 December 2016 16: 21
        +5

        Now Holmes ... although another model is called "Sherlock Holmes's revolver"
  4. AlNikolaich
    AlNikolaich 27 December 2016 16: 33
    +8
    Dear Vyacheslav! Thanks for the interesting article. But, in spite of everything, I want to argue with you. You reacted a little unfairly here to Nagan. And they took him not for an indelible holster, but for its compliance with the required parameters. In particular, good accuracy and stopping action of the bullet, and especially low weight and dimensions. Before the revolver, we had our own smith-wesson of the 1871 model of the year. Good, break the type, with a single-acting trigger system .. And there was a caliber of your own, Russian 44 (4 lines). Only heavy and long barrel. And out of date by the beginning of the century. And yet, the caliber of the gun is like that of the Mosin rifle, and you can use the same workpieces and machine tools for the trunks. And the cost of weapons and ammunition is a significant factor, and according to it, the gun is winning ...
    1. Indiffeent
      Indiffeent 27 December 2016 16: 53
      +5
      There was a huge disadvantage at Naganas described above by the author — longer reload time — I suppose, trying to put myself in the place of an officer or lower rank trying to reload Nagan with trembling hands .. either under fire or when 30-50 steps are left to the enemy, and as he said the submachine gunner who went through the entire war with PPP and then with PPS and testing the PPS said about the PPS yes good ... but overheating of the barrel during intensive shooting (with PPSh there was no such overheating already) - and .... the complexity of the parsing is especially special in winter time in case of failure of automation, it’s like grit-time but you need to unscrew the lid from the back, get the shutter, fix the failure .. A TIME IS NOT --- !!! - And at the PPSh, I just moved the lock back and broke it, the whole bolt group was in full view, do cho hosh with it. , PPSh is also dull g ... oh grit but better still than PPS. Grit that someone claims that PPS was the best submachine gun we grit is the one who thrash who did not fight with him, he grit is good for those who are with him in the attack does not go and does not conduct intense military operations. It is good for calculating guns, drove, guarding, etc. and to drop it, it’s gritty — you’ll get harder — the receiver is bent, the cartridges are skewed, failures when firing. The folding butt is rubbish. In battle you won’t hit anyone on the head, it’s not safe, as the PCA can demolish the head as well. quickly broke up and the blow about not only the opponent’s helmet, but even stronger ground (he has a short-stroke shutter so that he doesn’t need to open a little and catch the cartridge into the chamber, but he spends a lot of heat and pushes the capsule-hook grit-do not let them fight God’s hand-to-hand fighting is dangerous. The shock absorber quickly broke the shutter casing from the shutter operation, the horn in the PCA in general - the output with one cartridge - you are tormented to charge it, the spring loosens quickly (the same problem for the PPD) plus a large dispersion when firing from for its small mass (PPD ). Tambourine and PCA in skillful hands was the best-2 of the most important advantages-mass plus single fire as they were taught, 6 tambourines and you are a king, yes, not comfortable but calmer in battle!
      1. Vladimirets
        Vladimirets 27 December 2016 17: 40
        +6
        Quote: Indiffeent
        There was a huge drawback at Naganas described above by the author — longer reload time — I suppose, trying to put myself in the place of an officer or lower rank trying to reload Nagan with trembling hands or under fire, or when 30-50 steps remain before the enemy — and as he said the submachine gunner who went through the entire war with PPP and then with PPS and testing the PPS said about the PPS yes good ... but overheating of the barrel during intensive shooting (with PPSh there was no such overheating already) - and .... the complexity of the parsing is especially special in winter time in case of failure of automation, it’s like grit-time but you need to unscrew the lid from the back, get the shutter, fix the failure .. A TIME IS NOT --- !!! - And at the PPSh, I just moved the lock back and broke it, the whole bolt group was in full view, do cho hosh with it. , PPSh is also dull g ... oh grit but better still than PPS. Grit that someone claims that PPS was the best submachine gun we grit is the one who thrash who did not fight with him, he grit is good for those who are with him in the attack does not go and does not conduct intense military operations. It is good for calculating guns, drove, guarding, etc. and to drop it, it’s gritty — you’ll get harder — the receiver is bent, the cartridges are skewed, failures when firing. The folding butt is rubbish. In battle you won’t hit anyone on the head, it’s not safe, as the PCA can demolish the head as well. quickly broke up and the blow about not only the opponent’s helmet, but even stronger ground (he has a short-stroke shutter so that he doesn’t need to open a little and catch the cartridge into the chamber, but he spends a lot of heat and pushes the capsule-hook grit-do not let them fight God’s hand-to-hand fighting is dangerous. The shock absorber quickly broke the shutter casing from the shutter operation, the horn of the shutter horn in general - the output with one cartridge - you are tormented to charge it, the spring loosens quickly (the same problem for the efficiency) plus a large dispersion when firing from for its small mass (PPD ). The tambourine and PPSh in skillful hands was the best-2 of the most important advantages-mass plus single fire as they were taught, 6 tambourines and you are a king, yes, not comfortable but calmer in battle

        Forced to copy your entire post, are you raving?
        1. Indiffeent
          Indiffeent 27 December 2016 18: 39
          +1
          Here is the first nonsense:
          At the RPM, the trunk is deafly closed, from a long firing it heated up and failed: it jammed or skewed. You can’t cool Degtyarev in a puddle, the trunk is deaf, but it was very hot. Indeed, in battle, especially near Leningrad, the Germans made four to five attacks on our positions. When you reflect, you have to release a sea of ​​fire, so as not to miss, that’s great and the trunk heats up: you spit - saliva boils. PPSh and PPD are basically the same, only different barrels and the bolt part are slightly different. Shpagin is comfortable - just clicked and it all opened: the whole mechanism and the shutter are here. But while Degtyarev you get, but no time.
          Here’s the second nonsense for you! Sudaev’s submachine gun is convenient of course: it’s all metal, the bed is folding and folds up, such a small one. Everywhere you can push and save, but here in the battle is not reliable. Whipped up, the slightest dust and it seizes, warps. For hand-to-hand combat, all the more so: you won’t hit them, with PPSh and PPD at least with a butt you can. In general, the best, as someone believes, cannot be recognized, strongly disagree.

          In hand-to-hand combat, you cannot fight with our machine gun, you can kill yourself. If you hit it with a butt, it can shoot spontaneously: the bolt presses the spring under the action of gravity, pushes the cartridge into the chamber and causes an arbitrary shot. It is necessary to push the shutter, so as not to stagger, not walk. It is impossible to strike sharply, it is impossible to hit either - the fuse saved a little. In our dugout, a soldier came, put an automatic machine, hit the butt with the butt on the ground, and the bolt did not stand on the fuse. The shutter passed a little, shot at the temple and killed the guy. There’s nothing to take, it’s impossible to stab too, without a bayonet. We were given Finns: on the belt or in the bootleg, but this is separate.
          Here is the third nonsense:
          I had to use German weapons, everything happens in battle. You take from a dead German and shoot. It is made more compact, more convenient, there is a bayonet on the machines - a knife is so long (shows). He pressed a button (fuse) and hit with a bayonet, back and forth.

          Here is the fourth part of the ballet:
          It happened to shoot from the MG 34 machine gun, they were taken from the dead and used. He fired from pistols, of course they liked the German more. In terms of convenience, reliability - and pistols, machine guns and machine guns are much more reliable than ours. TT could fall easily when dropped. A fuse, you can’t even name it, it’s just such a valve. I hit it, it flew out and the shutter was free again.
          And here is the link: - get acquainted, do not send our weapons of claim to you for familiarization?
          http://iremember.ru/memoirs/minometchiki/putintse
          v-vasiliy-ivanovich /
          And a little more gag? - horns from pps and pps didn’t fit, pps-had a neck with access to 1 cartridge per pps to 2-pps charging the horn is hard, at pps it is much easier but steel was humming, often or feed springs were broken or weakened- misalignment of the cartridge when feeding - the fuse quickly loosened at the PPSh - in general, it could jump off (from manufacturers complaints) they demanded to redo the fuse according to the MP-38-40 type, und so weiter weiter und weiter ...
          1. Vladimirets
            Vladimirets 27 December 2016 21: 38
            +4
            Quote: Indiffeent
            And a little more gag? - horns from pps and pps didn’t fit, pps-had a neck with access to 1 cartridge per pps to 2-pps charging the horn is hard, at pps it is much easier but steel was humming, often or feed springs were broken or weakened- misalignment of the cartridge when feeding - the fuse quickly loosened at the PPSh - in general, it could jump off (from manufacturers complaints) they demanded to redo the fuse according to the MP-38-40 type, und so weiter weiter und weiter ...

            Once again I ask, regardless of the detailed analysis of your opus, what does this have to do with Anfield's revolver? belay
            1. Indiffeent
              Indiffeent 28 December 2016 13: 30
              +1
              Continuation of the battles over Nagan - it applies to all weapons - I do not consider Nagan a bad revolver - accurate combat and high speed of a bullet
      2. Dekabrist
        Dekabrist 27 December 2016 22: 58
        +5
        Dear Indiffeent.
        To write with the air of a connoisseur about weapons (and about other things) that you never held in your hands, I’m not even talking about using them in real conditions, even with someone’s words - bad manners. If you were to get into a serious weapons forum, you would simply not be understood there.
        1. Indiffeent
          Indiffeent 28 December 2016 13: 38
          +2
          Everyone who writes about weapons never held it in their hands and who held even 90 percent they never shot! -Units! -And who used it in combat conditions-zero !!! - With a rare exception. So my dear, I re-read a bunch of reviews about our weapons from the words of veterans, re-read off.advertising to manufacturers and a list of improvements that could improve the characteristics of weapons. And such a list oh oh oh !!!! including the Degtyarev machine gun, to which they attributed: insufficient range, unsuccessful and the design of the store, its volume, location of the opening for the extraction of cartridges (from the bottom, which is inconvenient, do not put the machine gun on a sandbag, say, only on the bipod) Unsuccessful arrangement of the reciprocating spring weakened by heat during the shooting process (unsuccessful location thereof) -sufficiently strong impact affecting accuracy (tied the rope to the weapon and stretched it with her foot to get stability when shooting) -In general, Degtyarev machine gun was considered unsuccessful machine ...- this is only from what I remembered from memory, there is still a list attached to it. Do not blame the nonsense, the veterans are the source to which you must turn !!!!!! Primarily!!!!
          1. Dekabrist
            Dekabrist 28 December 2016 14: 17
            +1
            You are truly an expert - couch. Now this is a common practice. Under this, even the site was reformatted.
            1. Indiffeent
              Indiffeent 28 December 2016 16: 36
              +2
              Yes, I’m a couch expert who relies on the testimonies of those people who used this weapon, held him in his arms and shot and killed — and from this information my couch’s head also pushes off — as well as from official papers of those people who wrote complaints from the front. And you, my friend, for the lack of arguments (I didn’t see them in your post above) Just go to the person like many people on this site, and the first reaction of the opponent for the lack of any arguments is the transition to the personality of the one and rolling to any kind of caustic nicknames how do you show your wretchedness and actually the same intelligence ...
              Yes, I also forgot, and I remembered according to Degtyarev: overheating of the barrel during intensive shooting with the impossibility of its quick replacement-reclamation-alter the supply of cartridges in a tape-link (steel), make it possible to quickly replace the barrel, transfer the mainspring to another place, etc.
              According to the experience of the first half of World War II, the PD was modernized and since 1944 it was adopted as a PDM. The main differences of the PDM were the return spring transferred to the rear of the receiver, the pistol grip of the fire control, the usual non-automatic fuse and the more durable two-legged bipod with a modified mount to the barrel casing. The DPM machine gun was used until the end of the war, but its disk stores had too many drawbacks, and therefore it was replaced by a combination of a machine gun of the separation level and a RPD platoon for a new intermediate cartridge 7.62x39mm and a RP-46 machine gun for a rifle cartridge 7.62x54mm R .

              The RP-46 machine gun largely repeats the design of the PDM, differing from it in a heavier, more massive barrel, a redesigned gas regulator and an added carrying handle. The main difference was the addition of tape power to the design. In order not to make significant changes to the developed design of the PDM, the tape power unit was made in the form of a separate module installed in place of the disk store. At the same time, this module can be removed and the RP-46 could be used with disk stores from DP / DPM. The drive of the tape feed unit was carried out through a loading handle rigidly connected to the bolt frame, located on the right. A special bracket was located on the tape feed unit, which was worn on the loading handle, and when moving when moving, it moved along with the handle. The tape-receiving and tape-removing holes of the RP-46 were closed with spring-loaded covers to protect them from dust and dirt, the removal of spent cartridges was carried out, like for DP / DPM, down through the window in the shutter frame and receiver.

              RP-46 used an unbroken metal tape from Goryunov's machine guns (SG-43, SGM), for 200 or 250 rounds. The tape was carried in separate tin cans, and when the machine gun was transported in battle, the tape often had to be removed from the machine gun and, upon arrival at a new position, reloaded the machine gun, which was a noticeable drawback of the system.

              In general, Degtyarev's machine guns gained fame as a reliable weapon that honorably passed both the Great Patriotic War and an innumerable number of "small" wars and local conflicts in Southeast Asia, Africa, and other parts of the world.
            2. Indiffeent
              Indiffeent 28 December 2016 16: 47
              +1
              From a couch expert ... when an opponent has nothing to argue with, he goes over to personalities ...
              According to the experience of the first half of World War II, the PD was modernized and since 1944 it was adopted as a PDM. The main differences of the PDM were the return spring transferred to the rear of the receiver, the pistol grip of the fire control, the usual non-automatic fuse and the more durable two-legged bipod with a modified mount to the barrel casing. The DPM machine gun was used until the end of the war, but its disk stores had too many drawbacks, and therefore it was replaced by a combination of a machine gun of the separation level and a RPD platoon for a new intermediate cartridge 7.62x39mm and a RP-46 machine gun for a rifle cartridge 7.62x54mm R .

              The RP-46 machine gun largely repeats the design of the PDM, differing from it in a heavier, more massive barrel, a redesigned gas regulator and an added carrying handle. The main difference was the addition of tape power to the design. In order not to make significant changes to the developed design of the PDM, the tape power unit was made in the form of a separate module installed in place of the disk store. At the same time, this module can be removed and the RP-46 could be used with disk stores from DP / DPM. The drive of the tape feed unit was carried out through a loading handle rigidly connected to the bolt frame, located on the right. A special bracket was located on the tape feed unit, which was worn on the loading handle, and when moving when moving, it moved along with the handle. The tape-receiving and tape-removing holes of the RP-46 were closed with spring-loaded covers to protect them from dust and dirt, the removal of spent cartridges was carried out, like for DP / DPM, down through the window in the shutter frame and receiver.

              RP-46 used an unbroken metal tape from Goryunov's machine guns (SG-43, SGM), for 200 or 250 rounds. The tape was carried in separate tin cans, and when the machine gun was transported in battle, the tape often had to be removed from the machine gun and, upon arrival at a new position, reloaded the machine gun, which was a noticeable drawback of the system.

              In general, Degtyarev's machine guns gained fame as a reliable weapon that honorably passed both the Great Patriotic War and an innumerable number of "small" wars and local conflicts in Southeast Asia, Africa, and other parts of the world.
    2. kalibr
      27 December 2016 17: 02
      +2
      Dear Alexey (guessed right? If not, sorry) Nikolaevich! About "Smith" in the article was ... You write about the same workpieces and machines ... Yes, that's right! But where is it written that the revolver could not be made a turning point? Let's save on trunks and machines - I'm in favor! But you can't save on lives. Of course, 7 charges are not six. But you never know ... why not let the officer quickly reload the weapon. Indeed, in Nagan there was a mechanism for pushing the store onto the trunk. Why not make it a watershed? This is MORE IMPORTANT! That is, the cost of weapons is more important than the cost of people! In this we declare ourselves for centuries. Women give birth to new ones! The same "Wesson" could be reduced in caliber to 7,62-mm to put cartridges with smokeless powder and that's it ... Am I wrong? By the way, "outdated" is not entirely true. They were handed over to the police, where they showed themselves perfectly and ... the revolutionaries also used them!
      1. Mordvin 3
        Mordvin 3 27 December 2016 19: 17
        +7
        Quote: kalibr
        But where is it written that the revolver could not be made crucial?

        And in the terms of reference it was clearly stated that the extraction of the cartridges should take place one at a time. So all the complaints are to these clever gentlemen that they were involved in the army reform. Still, by the way, initially they did not want to accept self-plowing into service.
        1. kalibr
          27 December 2016 19: 35
          +4
          Yes, and this too - self-cocking increases the consumption of cartridges. They didn’t spare money on the plumes to the front shakos. On cartridges - regretted !!!
      2. Glory1974
        Glory1974 27 December 2016 22: 46
        +4
        Probably with automatic extraction of cartridges even unused cartridges flew out. At Nagan one could get a couple of shells and replenish the drum. In some situations, a plus.
      3. AlNikolaich
        AlNikolaich 2 January 2017 21: 02
        0
        Vyacheslav! Smith Wesson is a wonderful revolver! But for his time ... In the Russian-Turkish war, he had no competitors. However, times are changing, and the weapons are the same. And its combat use. And the technology of manufacturing it and cartridges.
    3. moskowit
      moskowit 27 December 2016 20: 46
      +2
      "... and you can use the same workpieces and machines for the barrels ...."

      Not only is it possible ... Namely, rejected trunks were used for "three-rulers" ....
  5. Raphael_83
    Raphael_83 27 December 2016 18: 19
    +2
    Still, a serious scientific past SW. do not hide the author winked Just the presentation of the material, its structuring and illustrative accompaniment - in a popular format, mind you - speak for themselves: design features, history excursions and personal impressions are well combined yes
    In the subject:
    - it is interesting that these units were quite successfully used in the War and after it, in particular in Indochina - and this is in the era of widespread recognition, mass production and use by the armies, police and security forces of semi-automatic pistols of such successful designs and brands as Colts, Browning , Walters, Mausers, Sauers, ChZ, VIS and others - thousands of them! laughing However, the British never knew how to make manual - individual, personal - weapons, this family of revolvers only confirms this, and today nothing has changed.
    - the design of weapons is interesting - in an era when the concepts of industrial, ergonomic, etc. design still simply did not exist - the apparent kurgosiness caused by a short drum against the background of a massive back and frame, and at the same time, elegance and even harmony somewhere - thanks a characteristic thin faceted trunk without an underbarrel extractor casing.
    From SW. hi
    PS
    In the last topic about "Czech" I could not, so I express my gratitude here.
    PPS
    Still like their own comments SW. the author. It is a pity that the reviewed collection seems to be striving for an infinitely small value ... crying
    1. kalibr
      27 December 2016 19: 34
      +1
      I promise that there will be ... more than three materials. But now the session and that’s it. Not to serious work.
      1. Raphael_83
        Raphael_83 27 December 2016 19: 42
        +1
        Well, since the session, and indeed the next stretch of Kaliyuga is declining, I wish you Vyacheslav Olegitch to work calmly, spend the Old and celebrate the New Year. Health, prosperity and success to you and your loved ones. drinks And there, God forbid, there will be time, and the material will turn up, and inspiration will roll. fellow
  6. DesToeR
    DesToeR 27 December 2016 18: 23
    +4
    Quote: kalibr
    But you can’t save on lives. Of course, 7 charges are not six. But you never know what ... why not give the officer the opportunity to quickly reload weapons. Indeed, in Nagan there was a mechanism for moving the store onto the trunk. Why not make it a watershed? This is IMPORTANT! That is, the cost of weapons is more important than the cost of people! In this, we have been declaring ourselves for centuries. Women give birth to new ones!

    The nagant in the Russian army was issued to the officer free of charge. But there was a list of pistols and revolvers recommended for use, which an officer could acquire for his own money and use. As far as I know, this list included such famous pistols as Luger and Mauser. In the Russian Empire, it was allowed to have personal weapons. Choose what you want - everything that your heart desires was in the free sale. I understand that the list existed as a permissive measure to the statutory order. So what about "women give birth" seems to me not entirely appropriate. If you are an officer and decided to connect your life with the service, then I think you will find money for any pistol / revolver you like.
    1. kalibr
      27 December 2016 19: 32
      +3
      This is where the problems began. With money! The officer of the Russian army was paid little! So little that they were not allowed to marry until the captain's rank - he could not adequately support his wife. Kuprin wrote very well about this in his immortal "Duel". That is, someone could buy a Mauser, yes, but someone was happy with a service revolver.
  7. DesToeR
    DesToeR 27 December 2016 19: 22
    +1
    Quote: Indiffeent
    At the RPM, the trunk is deafly closed, from a long firing it heated up and failed: it jammed or skewed. You can’t cool Degtyarev in a puddle, the trunk is deaf, but it was very hot.

    Strongly said! And which submachine gun does not heat up and does not wedge from intense shooting? What instructions for use indicate how to cool in a puddle?
    Quote: Indiffeent
    In hand-to-hand combat, you cannot fight with our machine gun, you can kill yourself. P

    Is this the main battlefield of PP in your opinion? Does it 90% determine the quality of such weapons?
    Quote: Indiffeent
    I had to use German weapons, everything happens in battle.

    Well, the Germans did not disdain our small arms. And the fact that it was of better quality, and it was more expensive ... what the volume of production of PP explicitly speaks for us and for them.
    1. Indiffeent
      Indiffeent 27 December 2016 20: 16
      +1
      There is a link to an interview with a former automatic-read-like, further, everything is heated up from intense shooting, it’s not about that. He’s talking about cooling down the best !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
      !!!!!!!!!!!! It takes longer than PCA to understand !!! PPSh has a frail fuse !!! - it has a threshing floor !!! - threshing floor steel !!! According to an eyewitness, it was possible to get with PPSh, a mosquito in the rain and he was beginning to cover up on the eyes !!! he shot !!! The Germans used our weapons not only because of great love, but because of the fact that they themselves didn’t have enough, plus the culture of communicating with the weapons above, Germans and Degtyarev loved machine guns !!! —the gramophone called them — they usually put flanks in addition to the MG .-he read-the memories of the German officer, by the way in the original.
  8. DesToeR
    DesToeR 27 December 2016 19: 49
    +4
    Quote: kalibr
    from here the problems also began. With money! The officer of the Russian army was paid little! So little that they were not allowed to marry until the captain's rank - he could not adequately support his wife. Cyprin wrote very well about this in his immortal "Duel". That is, someone could buy a Mauser, yes, but someone was happy with a service revolver.

    There were no problems. "In the army, officers' salaries at the beginning of the 1909th century in the Russian Empire, after being raised in 70, were as follows. The lieutenant had a salary of 30 rubles a month, plus 7 kopecks a day for guards and 80 rubles an additional payment for renting housing, a total of 80 rubles. received a salary in the amount of 10 rubles, plus the same apartment and guard another 90 rubles, in the amount of 93 rubles. The headquarters captain received a salary of 123 to 135 rubles, the captain - from 145 to 185 rubles, and the lieutenant colonel from 200 to 320 rubles per month. A colonel of the Tsar's army received from the Tsar a salary of 500 rubles a month, a general as a division commander had a salary of 725 rubles, and a general as a corps commander - XNUMX rubles a month. "
    The Luger "Parabellum" pistol cost from 38 to 52 rubles, the Mauser pistol cost from 38 to 45 rubles. Which, as it is easy to see, was about half of the second lieutenant's monthly salary.
    1. Indiffeent
      Indiffeent 27 December 2016 20: 18
      +1
      Wow! -Thank you for the photo, how interesting it is to see!
    2. kalibr
      27 December 2016 20: 22
      0
      Kuprin "Duel".
  9. diglator
    diglator 27 December 2016 20: 09
    0
    I am reading your articles, thank you for the interesting and entertaining presentation of the material. Only ... here somehow surprised about a tug-holster with a revolver ... But then the officers did not wear a sword belt? And saber, checkers ...
    1. kalibr
      27 December 2016 20: 21
      +1
      The checker was on the belt over his shoulder!
      1. Glory1974
        Glory1974 27 December 2016 22: 41
        +1
        As far as I remember, the tsarist officers had an 2 belt on their shoulder straps, over each shoulder. But in the Soviet Army, through one, and there really did warp from the PM.
        And due to what a revolver so powerful that went to the bison? At Nagan, the drum was advancing on the barrel, which reduced the breakthrough of powder gases.
        I liked the article. Thank you.
        1. kalibr
          28 December 2016 08: 51
          +1
          If you want, I will write in detail about Smith and Wesson. It just so happened that this topic is discussed in detail in my novel "People and Weapons", now it is wandering around publishers.
  10. Mwg
    Mwg 27 December 2016 20: 31
    +1
    Article plus - plus. Respect and respect to the author.
  11. DesToeR
    DesToeR 27 December 2016 20: 39
    +3
    Quote: Indiffeent
    !!!!!!!!!!!! It takes longer than PCA to understand !!! PPSh has a frail fuse !!! - it has a threshing floor !!! - threshing floor steel !!!

    I certainly understand your indignation, based on the story of an eyewitness / participant in those events ... But everything is learned in comparison. So let's take a look around and see what advanced PP samples were produced in developed capital countries at that time. And this is a "masterpiece" of utilitarianism from "foggy Albion" called STEN, which (lo and behold!) Could spontaneously shoot when falling. There is no need to talk about the materials and quality of the steels, and this PP was wedged at the most inopportune moment, well, stores for 32 rounds had to equip only 30 ... This was adopted in 1942. for service with the US Army, the M3 submachine gun, nicknamed "Grease gun" (Russian grease gun). Note that the M3 was put into service when the Thompson PP is already in the army. And how do you say they look worse against the background of these "miracles" of PPSh and PPS? Would you personally go into battle with STEN or PPP?
    1. Indiffeent
      Indiffeent 27 December 2016 21: 49
      0
      Yes, I’m all the same where the machine guns were produced and which guns were produced! -This is not the only statement of the one who used them! -Trust them so-MUCH! -There you can go to the site from the link! ! -So not like what we're all used to. What was the price of the t-34 tank (the most diverse opinions) and the Rifles and everything else. And you won’t be very pleased to read a lot there, what you read there — from weapons, from airplanes to what we did in Germany. And the attitude of the command towards the soldiers and for whom Zhukov was held (different opinions) And why did the Russians initially tear off everything in Germany it could be torn, and if it wasn’t, they drove the tanks and tore them. As tanks of German refugees were crushed by tanks, mowed from attack aircraft, carried around, pulling up guns to the outskirts of the city, the city itself was simply because they didn’t like what they read at the entrance to it. And what were the motives for doing this. About weapons there are many things that you will not read anywhere else. There they say those who were there, fought, lived and died ... Etched with alcohol to die, drowned in wine cellars and a lot of other instructive things ... Toko at first read from early interviews, and then some read something ..
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 27 December 2016 23: 47
        0
        Poisoned with alcohol and simultaneously distributed interviews on the Internet?
        1. Indiffeent
          Indiffeent 28 December 2016 13: 47
          0
          No need to waste time and cut the wise guy, turn it on, say, to her husband. Instead of this, read that you can start by clicking on the link.
          I can only add about alcohol, yes, they were poisoned en masse with pleasure. The Germans knowing our love for alcohol, knowing what part they are facing, intentionally left which thread the settlement had previously left wherever, or on the tracks or else where the alcohol tank or somewhere else-drinking-good good alcohol-. In the morning they just came in and cut our drunken carcasses, like pigs! -So once they cut the marine corps like sheep, we went on the attack and again took the town and .... What would you thought, got drunk and again knocked them out of there. Not a spark Our love of alcohol is important. Why should the Germans hold the defenses against the strongest? -They will give us a gift that we will never refuse ... Read better, don’t try to piss off, it won’t suit you ..
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 28 December 2016 14: 25
            +1
            What a connoisseur of spirits you are! About methyl alcohol poisoning (left by the Germans for poisoning lovers) is not news! But to make a bunch of finished alcoholics from the Red Army is also not worth you !!!
            1. Indiffeent
              Indiffeent 28 December 2016 16: 48
              0
              Я
              gave you a link, read ... preferably from the earliest articles
              http://iremember.ru/
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 28 December 2016 22: 00
                +1
                Oh well, that you do not give me a salary ...
      2. Partisan Kramaha
        Partisan Kramaha 28 December 2016 12: 00
        +3
        And how is it that, after all the atrocities of the "Russian occupiers" listed above, there is still someone who can speak German? They were all suppressed, they shot, posatrah ...
        1. Indiffeent
          Indiffeent 28 December 2016 13: 50
          0
          Yes, ours were beautifully glorified there! -Unfortunately, not very long, about 2 weeks later an order came out and ... They began to put ours against the wall ... and in public. But to read this - when our soldier nailed a couple of fat burghers, well, Frau raped there and at his house it’s nobody-ruins and his family is unknown where or already shot by Germans ...
  12. DesToeR
    DesToeR 27 December 2016 20: 55
    +1
    Quote: Indiffeent
    According to an eyewitness, it was possible to get with PPSh, a mosquito in the rain, and before his eyes he began to become covered in bloom !!!

    Did this fighter try to lubricate his weapon? Cherry on the cake from German developers of small arms. The future of Volkssturm through the eyes of Erma - 9mm submachine gun EMP44 (https://topwar.ru/50424-9mm-pistolet-pulemet-emr
    44-germaniya.html)
    1. Indiffeent
      Indiffeent 27 December 2016 21: 51
      0
      And you ask him, he fought from the age of 41 and fought after the war with the BANDERA! he will tell you, there is a link to his interview, take an interest, like it. Yerma? -I have known about this model since I was 11 years old, how can you say a weapon can be fired, the main thing is to shoot ..
  13. DesToeR
    DesToeR 27 December 2016 22: 24
    0
    Quote: Indiffeent
    There you will find a lot of interesting things for yourself and new! -So not like what we are all used to.

    Interesting - yes! There is no new something for yourself!
  14. DesToeR
    DesToeR 27 December 2016 22: 40
    +3
    Quote: Indiffeent
    And to read a lot there you will not be particularly pleased with what you read there, from weapons, planes ending up with what we did in Germany.

    And war is not a very pleasant thing in general. And remind me, what did the fascists do there, in our homeland, what was pleasant? Someone there they kind of crushed with tanks, like prisoners of war. There were rumors that in the occupied territories, the Sonderkommando burned villages with all the inhabitants, moreover, alive. They destroyed entire cities (I myself am from Minsk if that). I even met somewhere that the Nazis staged genocide on an entire nation ... do not remind which one? It seems that even the German pilots on the Messerschmites loved to shoot from their onboard weapons at hospitals, but these are definitely rumors. Well, a civilized European cannot behave like that in a war. And if all this is true, then let's talk about the words of these non-humans. And finally: there is such a science - statistics. So, believe me, out of 15 million events that happen by chance every day, you can always pull on the one who got drunk "to death", and the one who drowned in the padwala with wine, and the one who raped all German women. But what about the cognitive dissonance in your head? How could such a "ridiculous" nation of semi-literate "Horde" men with primitive tsarist rifles and Stalin's coffins on tracks manage to take Berlin for the third time in the last thousand years? How is Karl ?!
    1. Indiffeent
      Indiffeent 28 December 2016 13: 51
      0
      http://militera.lib.ru/research/dukov_ar/04.html- Я НЕ МОГ ВЫНЕСТИ ЭТОГО ЧТЕНИЯ БОЛЕЕ ПОЛУЧАСА-НЕ ВЫДЕРЖИВАЛА ПСИХИКА- буквы вам в помощь...
    2. Indiffeent
      Indiffeent 28 December 2016 14: 01
      0
      Well, read it here: http: //iremember.ru/
      opinions are different here, here they were talking about T-34 tanks and coffins on wheels, and they were called beautiful tanks, about Yaki, for example, this is what someone who has been flying with them for 41 years ... Nobody wanted to fly on Yaks !!! Here is his opinion, they wanted to fly to LA on Cobra and no one! - on Yak series planes
  15. Dekabrist
    Dekabrist 27 December 2016 22: 48
    +9
    Hello, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    I read the comments and realized two things.
    First - the author found his reader !!! It is always nice (to the author).
    The second - nobody shot from a gun.
    Therefore, I want to stand up for this famous revolver. I want to say right away (for the respected Indiffeent) that with shaking hands it’s no easier to put the store into Beretta than the cartridges in the Nagan drum.
    As for the framework.
    The frame is used to connect all the details and mechanisms of the revolver in a single design.
    There are two types of frames in terms of constructive design.
    Open frame. Such frames do not have an upper wall (strip). They were used mainly in the designs of revolvers when low-powered smoke powder was used. Although rare, you can also find modern revolvers with an open frame. Their design was designed to facilitate the extraction of spent cartridges.
    Closed frame. Their appearance is caused by the emergence of more powerful smokeless propellants, when it was required to strengthen the design of the revolver. That is why the revolver "Nagant" has a closed frame, and "Smith and Wesson", where black powder was used, an open frame. All modern Smith & Wesson revolvers chambered for smokeless powder have a closed frame.
    The issue of reloading such revolvers is solved by folding the drum to the side. And then she was famous.

    This is the Colt New Army 1892, which had a folding drum for simultaneous extraction of cartridges and faster loading.
    Now let's move on to the gun. The whole interest is that in its entire structure the then military did not see the shortcomings listed now. And Nagan revolvers enjoyed a decent reputation.
    In 1878, the Belgian manufacturer Emil Nagan produced the first successful revolver he designed, the cartridges for the revolver were unitary, with black powder and with a capsule on the bottom of the sleeve, the capsule was broken briskly, like on modern revolvers. This revolver caliber 9,4 mm was put into service with the Belgian army.
    After that, the revolvers of the Nagan system were repeatedly modernized, new models appeared that armed law enforcement agencies and armies of different countries. In 1886, a model was created for cartridges equipped with smokeless powder, caliber 7,5 mm. The revolver has become simpler and more reliable, the accuracy of fire has increased. Subsequently, the popularity of weapons grew exponentially and in 1892, a design was developed with the exception of a breakthrough of powder gases, in which, when a drum chamber was fired, it slid onto the barrel, and a specially made for this revolver cartridge with smokeless powder reinforced the obturation. This cartridge was a long sleeve, the bullet was located inside, and the sleeve of the sleeve was narrowed at the tip.
    At the moment of cocking, when self-cocking or when manually cocking the camcorder, the drum was approaching the barrel, and the narrowed case of the sleeve entered the barrel. Therefore, the obturation has become an order of magnitude higher than in all previous varieties of revolvers. All of these design decisions were embodied in the Nagan revolver model of the 1895 model of the year, which was adopted by Russia and is still used sometimes.
    About the work of the commission under the leadership of Major General Chagin, which was engaged in the selection of the model, you can find a lot on the network.
    Here is such a Nagan.
    1. kalibr
      28 December 2016 08: 39
      0
      You, too, Victor, all the best. What can I say? It's like that. But ... you take a gun, and leave me an enfield.
    2. Indiffeent
      Indiffeent 28 December 2016 13: 53
      0
      Therefore, I want to stand up for this famous revolver. I want to say right away (for the respected Indiffeent) that with shaking hands it’s no easier to put the store into Beretta than the cartridges in the Nagan drum.
      But anyway faster ...
  16. Dekabrist
    Dekabrist 27 December 2016 23: 02
    +2
    And so the revolver "Nagant" was refilled.
  17. Dekabrist
    Dekabrist 27 December 2016 23: 18
    +5
    And this is one of the competitors of the Nagant in the competition - Piper's Revelver “Bayard.” As you can see, the drum leans to the side.
  18. Gronsky
    Gronsky 27 December 2016 23: 24
    +8
    Quote: AlNikolaich
    and for its compliance with the required parameters. In particular, good accuracy

    Of course, I’m not a gunsmith, but from a technical point of view, the tipping frame, the moving part of which is combined with the barrel, which is called cuts the eye and should not affect the accuracy in the best way. After all, any hinge is a gap, any gap is a backlash, and any backlash is a deterioration in accuracy. In theory, a gun should provide better accuracy.
  19. aversun
    aversun 28 December 2016 05: 58
    +2
    In 1910, the Nagant M 1910 revolver with a folding drum and simultaneous extraction of all spent cartridges appeared in Belgium. The revolver used a system of obturation of powder gases similar to the model of 1895.

    http://weaponland.ru/load/revolver_nagant_m_1910/
    117-1-0-649
    As for the greater lethal action of the Russian Smith-Wesson compared to the Berdan rifle, this statement of the author is ridiculous. The Berdan bullet is 2 times heavier, the caliber is larger, the initial speed is also 2 times more.
    1. kalibr
      28 December 2016 08: 36
      0
      You want to say that I came up with this? Alas ... everything that is written here in black letters is taken from various, and very solid sources. But there’s not enough space to give links to everything. By the way, Smith and Berdan have the same caliber!
      1. Dekabrist
        Dekabrist 28 December 2016 09: 49
        +2
        Regarding the energy of revolver and rifle bullets, this is of course a mistake.
        Information on these cartridges is available.
        Since the 1871 of the year, instead of the very obsolete single-shot, muzzle-loading capsule pistols, the Smith-Wesson revolver of the 1869 model of the year began to come into service, officially called the 4,2 Smith-Wesson linear revolver.
        Based on the .44 Smith & Wesson cartridge, which was not particularly accurate, the new cartridge, named .44 Russian, proved to be very successful, spreading not only in Russia but also in Europe and America, and later became the basis for creating such famous cartridges as .44 Smith & Wesson Special in 1907 and .44 Smith & Wesson Magnum in 1955
        The bullet fired from this revolver had tremendous lethal force, since the non-shell lead bullet, having considerable weight and relatively high speed, was capable of piercing 2-3 pine boards an inch thick (approx. 25 mm) from a distance of 35 meters when hit on target deformed, almost doubled in diameter and transferring energy to surrounding tissues. Due to this, the revolving bullet, having relatively little energy - about 300 J, performed its task very efficiently, and one shot could stop the horse from fifty steps (for comparison, shell bullets of modern combat pistols chambered like 9x19 have initial speeds of 400-500 m / s and muzzle energy 500-700J). Such a strange, at first glance, requirement for personal weapons is explained by the fact that cavalry in those years was one of the main branches of the army, and weapons were used not only in enemy manpower, but also in horses. Subsequently, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the use of such bullets in military weapons was recognized inhumane and barbaric and prohibited by the Hague Convention.
        The 10.75x58 R Berdan cartridge is known with the designations:
        10.75x58 R Berdan Ruso / 10.75x57 R Berdan / 10.67x58 R Berdan / 11x57 R Berdan Bulgaro Mod.1871 / .43 Berdan / .42 Berdan No. 1 & No. 2 Russian Mod. 1869 & Bulgarian Mod.1871 / .420 Berdan Ruso / 10.66 Berdan Ruso / 10.6 Russian Berdan / 10.8x57.5 R / 11 mm Berdan Bulgaro / DWM 39 / GR 61 / SAA 8160 / SAA 8165 / XCR XNBCXN
        Berdan's cartridge consists of a seamless brass bottle sleeve, capsule, charge, prosalnik and bullet.

        The sleeve inside has a brass cup for hardening the cap and a central capsule.

        The charge of gun nitrate-coal powder (with brown coal) weighs for the 1,19 infantry rifle evil. (5 g), for cavalry weapons - 1 evil. (Xnumx g).

        On a gunpowder put in a paper cup prosalnik from a mixture of fat and wax. Prosalnik serves for better obturation and softening soot in the trunk. In the cavalry cartridge there are two prosalniks.

        A bullet weighing 5 evil. 63 USD (24,16 g) - cylinder-animated stamped from pure lead (a heavy shell-free bullet from pure lead inflicted very serious injuries, especially when it got into the bone), in a paper wrapper. Outside, the bullet wrap is sealed to reduce bullet friction in the barrel when fired. At the bottom of the bullet there is a recess for placing a nodule of the end of the paper.
        Berdan's infantry cartridge weighed 9 angry. 23 shares (39,4 g). The initial speed and muzzle energy of the bullet of this cartridge were 442 m / s and 2346 J., respectively. When shooting from an infantry rifle at inch pine boards at 200 steps, the bullet punched from 7 to 9 boards, at 800 steps - from 4 to 7,5 boards, on 1200 boards steps - from 4 to 4,5 boards, on 2000 steps - from 1,5 to 3 boards. From 100 to 200 steps, a bullet punched 3 iron sheets into an 1 line (2,5 mm) thick each.

        The bullet of the cavalry cartridge had an initial speed and muzzle energy, respectively, 415 m / s and 2069 J.
        As you can see, the numbers speak for themselves.
    2. Indiffeent
      Indiffeent 28 December 2016 13: 56
      +1
      Yes, and because she flew out of the carcass making an even smooth hole there, the revolving bullet tore the mortal carcass several times faster (this is called having stopping power) - see ballistics
      1. Dekabrist
        Dekabrist 28 December 2016 14: 42
        +4
        A question for a sofa expert - have you seen in your life a "carcass", as you put it, into which an ogival lead bullet from a rifle hit? Unfortunately, the new format of the site allows "experts" to shake their heads to people who really want to learn something, and in return they receive "revelations" from couch soldiers, naval commanders, strategists. In short, sofa troops.
        1. Indiffeent
          Indiffeent 28 December 2016 17: 16
          0
          Read the Beetle’s ballistics — everything is spelled out there — what can a rifle bullet do instead of a powerful revolving cartridge .. a live rifle bullet will make a hole, such a bullet will collapse due to its flight speed much later ... In short, open the ballistics for cartridges, with different effects on those or organs, when the bullet is deformed, how much it will go inside this or that part of the body, secondary signs of bullet damage, etc., the frequency of tissue contractions around the wound channel, etc. In general, a bullet fired from 50 meters from a revolver of such power, I think, my opinion is good more work than a bullet fired from, say, a Berdan rifle with a crane bolt from the same distance .. (of course, the fact that a bullet without a shell is of course suggests)
          I repeat once again, don’t get personal, it’s not cultural, here everyone has the right to their opinion and they don’t offend people for their opinion
      2. Bormanxnumx
        Bormanxnumx 28 December 2016 19: 41
        +1
        Yes, and because she flew out of the carcass making an even smooth hole there, the revolving bullet tore the mortal carcass several times faster (this is called having stopping power) - see ballistics

        Interestingly, what prevents a rifle bullet of a cylindrical-revitalized form stamped from pure lead (the bullet of a rifle cartridge of Berdan is exactly this), with an initial speed of almost two times that of a revolver — to dig an even larger hole and plus with an even deeper wound channel? Or do you think that an increase in speed leads to a decrease in bullet deformation?
        Read the ballistics of the Beetle - everything is spelled out there

        With all due respect to AB Beetle, and he made a great contribution to the popularization of small arms, he was primarily an artist and he did not notice fundamental works on wound ballistics.
        1. Indiffeent
          Indiffeent 28 December 2016 23: 12
          0
          Maybe the authors were mistaken, we have an encyclopedia on small arms injuries — bullet characteristics — from their types to the countries of the manufacturers. It was probably a mistake over the years ago. I read this instructively
  20. Oslyabya
    Oslyabya 28 December 2016 08: 58
    +2
    Very competent material, excellent presentation - thanks to the author for the work!
    And a question to society: to what extent am I aware, according to our legislation, these revolvers fall into the section of "historical weapons" (if I remember correctly)? And can they be freely acquired as objects of cultural heritage? Without making changes to their design to prevent firing from them?
    Can someone clarify this issue?
    Thank you!
    1. Dekabrist
      Dekabrist 28 December 2016 10: 02
      +3
      The need for the acquisition and storage of weapons arises for various reasons. This may be a love of hunting, taking care of one’s own security, a desire to collect a collection, or fulfilling a duty. In any of these cases, before you buy and put weapons at home, you must obtain the right to store and carry them. If such paper is already on hand, then you can safely go to a special store in order to purchase the right weapon. Next, the purchased trunk should be registered with the FRA (licensing and permitting department).

      Classification of civil weapons

      For the purpose of self-defense and hunting, civilian weapons are most often acquired, which should not shoot in bursts, and its drum capacity should not exceed ten rounds. In this category there are:

      Weapons for personal protection (gas cartridges, traumatic pistols, stun guns);
      Weapons for hunting (cold bladed, firearms, pneumatic);
      Weapons used in some sports (firearms with rifled barrel, smoothbore guns, pneumatic, bladed cold, throwing);
      Signal weapon.
      Legal possession of weapons

      In order to keep civilian or military weapons at home, it is not enough to obtain permits. According to the 1996 Law on Weapons, Article 22 "Storage of civilian and service weapons and ammunition for them", there are certain standards for its location in a person's home. This piece of legislation is rather vague about pistols, revolvers, shotguns, etc. must be safe and inaccessible to unauthorized people. In more detail and understandably, the conditions for keeping weapons at home are described in Chapter 59 of Decree No. 21 of the Government of the Russian Federation dated July 1998, 814 "On Measures to Regulate the Circulation of Civilian and Service Weapons and Ammunition for It in the Territory of the Russian Federation." Based on this document, the following conclusions can be drawn:

      Weapons and ammunition must be stored at the owner’s place of residence;
      This should be done in safes, metal cabinets, strong drawers, studded with iron.
      These norms are supplemented by the order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia No. 288 of 12 on April 1999, the annex to which provides more detailed and specific information, for example:

      Collection weapons should be stored in a specially equipped room with a security and fire alarm and a metal door with an enhanced locking system. If this is a room on the first or last floor of the house, then its windows should be equipped with bars. If alarm installation is not possible, then the safe or cabinet should be attached to the wall with two bolts;
      Ammunition should be kept separate from weapons. It is possible to use a safe, in which there is a special compartment for storing cartridges;
      Weapon cabinets and safes must be made of steel not less than 3 mm in thickness. Be sure to equip them with locks.
      The local police officer can check the conditions for finding weapons at home, which, if violations are discovered, initiates a fine on the violator. If it turns out that the owner does not have the documents in order, then a fine and a possible refusal to subsequently receive all the necessary documents will follow.
      1. Oslyabya
        Oslyabya 29 December 2016 08: 14
        +1
        Thank you, hunting has been around for a long time! It was the historical weapon that was interested. From time to time at the Moscow exhibition "Blade" I see Pashikhin's stand with whole armfuls of revolvers, derringers and historic chemical weapons. It is purchased freely, with an attachment and the issuance of the necessary documents.
        So I thought - is it all deactivated? ..
        1. kalibr
          29 December 2016 08: 26
          0
          I think this is being followed! The first puncture is "forgotten" and there can be very serious consequences. It is unlikely that the owner needs it.
    2. kalibr
      28 December 2016 13: 29
      +1
      In this revolver - this can be seen in the photo, THREE holes are drilled from below in the trunk one after another! And drilled the middle part of the drum. Spoiled for glory!
  21. DesToeR
    DesToeR 28 December 2016 17: 52
    0
    Quote: Indiffeent
    Well, read it here: http: //iremember.ru/
    opinions are different here, and here about the T-34 tanks were also called coffins on wheels, and they were called beautiful tanks

    How many people have so many opinions ...
    Quote: Indiffeent
    about Yaks, for example, this is said by someone who has been flying with them for 41 years ... Nobody wanted to fly on Yaks !!! Here is his opinion, they wanted to fly to LA on Cobra and no one! - on Yak series planes

    Exactly? And what documents besides the site can you confirm this. OBS? But the fact that the French from "Normandie-Neumann" chose YAK aircraft, how do you explain? You live gorgeous - without straining your brain. One of the veterans wrote that this or that weapon is bad - and voila ... Have you heard of such an American aircraft as the P-51? Maybe you are familiar with the plane R-39? By your logic, these are probably very lousy planes. After all, the British "scrapped" both of these cars. The Americans are proud of only one of them, and on the other, Pokryshkin nassled near the Luftwaffe aircraft regiment. So much for the British, who "Nobody wanted to fly" ...
    1. Indiffeent
      Indiffeent 28 December 2016 18: 33
      +1
      Read Pokryshkin and Yak which the designer offered him as a gift - Pokryshkin refused - and did the right thing. Normandy flew on the Yaks, but apparently they gave it, and the cars were not the first models Yak 3 44 years old was an extremely high-speed machine. R-39, The LA-7 was devoid of those engine drawbacks that it had in the early versions. The P-51 was a high-altitude man and was not suitable for maneuverable combat. And I did not write anything about "shitty p-39 is nonsense, where did you read such an opinion.? - The P-39 was an iron iron at low altitudes, a phlegamtic for acceleration, not went, as they said, behind the gas sector because of gasoline, despite the fact that our high-octane was supplied, They were interfered with often with our grades, which led to the breakage of the connecting rods. And therefore Pokryshkin used the Cobra like the Germans - this plane had 2 significant advantages over our machines - high dive speed (catching up in the sheer even fock-wulfs and powerful weapons). As a result, and his folrmula: altitude speed maneuver fire-get involved in maneuvering fights on a cobra below 3 thousand meters and you are a corpse. when used correctly, it was a formidable machine. Yak series with engines from Hispano Suiza damn-complete comfort with its 1200 horses did not leave pilots a chance for vertical battle. Lavochkin with his PRAD AND WHITNEY that tried to rivet Shvetsov was not designed for force he was unable to defeat the M-71 ... the supercharger stages were not given to him ... it was such a feeling - to cover the Ilov - for this he was perfect - but to accompany them - was the most terrible and deadly business
  22. ARIKE
    ARIKE 28 December 2016 18: 04
    +1
    Wonderful, many thanks to the author, little "talked" with them, the exotic already, the campaign, and each meeting is memorable - a weapon that is pleasant to use, there is something in it that is captivating, or what ?!
    Write more on revolvers; it seems that you will find a grateful reader on these devices!
    Yours!
    1. kalibr
      28 December 2016 22: 12
      0
      Ah, if it would still be so easy to get them ?! There is a whole story behind buying each sample from my friend. And above all, financial ...
  23. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 28 December 2016 19: 14
    +1
    Thanks for the article, as always - on top!
  24. DesToeR
    DesToeR 28 December 2016 23: 22
    0
    Quote: Indiffeent
    "shitty p-39 is nonsense, where you read such an opinion.

    Nowhere. I just applied your method of evaluating weapons. Using this universal method, any weapon of any country can be "lowered" below the plinth. There is one sane thought in your long post on common facts:
    Quote: Indiffeent
    but when used correctly it was a formidable car.

    This is already warmer. The truth is somewhere near...
  25. zoknyay82
    zoknyay82 5 February 2017 19: 10
    +1
    Many thanks to Vyacheslav Shpakovsky for an excellent review of the legendary Weblay! More such wonderful articles, do not respect for flattery.