Military Review

Shooting at the mine "Vuek". How did the Polish miners die

Thirty-five years ago, 16 December 1981, in Poland, there was a famous clash of workers with the police, which included history as "pacifying the Vuek mine." It became one of the most tragic episodes in the revitalization of the anti-communist movement in Poland and the activities of the notorious Solidarity trade union, which played a key role in destabilizing the situation in the NDP at the end of the 1980s. Now the events at the Vuek mine are used as one of the proofs of the “crime” of the pro-Soviet regime in Poland, however one can hardly consider the tragedy of those years so unequivocally.

Shooting at the mine "Vuek". How did the Polish miners die

As you know, the growth of opposition sentiment in Poland led to the introduction of martial law in 1981. This was facilitated by the activities of the Solidarity trade union, headed by Lech Walesa. As early as February 11, 1981 was appointed Prime Minister of Poland, Army General Wojciech Jaruzelski, who had been Minister of Defense of the country since 1969. October 18 1981. He became the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers Party (PUWP). 12 December 1981, Wojciech Jaruzelski imposed martial law on the territory of the NDP. He informed the Soviet leadership of this, stressing that he assumes all responsibility for the consequences of this important step. The introduction of martial law was the last measure of the Polish Communists in an attempt to neutralize the activities of the opposition. Representatives of the most radical wing of the PUWP demanded that the party and state leadership immediately deal with opposition leaders. In the first days of martial law, Lech Walesa and more than 3 of thousands of other Solidarity activists were detained by the police.

The positions of Solidarity were strong among the Polish miners. When police and security forces began detaining opposition activists on the night of December 13, the chairman of the trade union committee of the coal mine Vuek, Jan Ludwiczek, was arrested. The Vuyek mine was located near the city of Katowice in southern Poland, in the historic land of Upper Silesia. The very next day, the miners became aware of the arrest of Jan Ludwiczek. Workers began to gather in groups, express indignation at what was happening. The protest moods were roused by trade union activists, who decided to go on strike at the mine in order to secure the release of Ludwiczek and the cessation of the persecution of Solidarity activists. The trade union committee demanded to immediately release Jan Ludwiczek, and also to stop the campaign against Solidarity and to cancel the martial law imposed in the country. At first, the authorities tried to calm the trade union leaders by entering into negotiations with them, but both sides did not understand each other and the negotiations failed.

Understanding perfectly well that the authorities would soon give the order to suppress the demonstration by force, the miners began to build barricades. Groups of activists set up observer posts near the mine, in time to notify the rest of the approach of the police. The actions of the strikers were supported by some local residents, which was understandable - after all, their relatives and friends worked at the mine. Residents wore warm clothes to miners, helped with food. At the same time, performances began in other coal mines. December 15 authorities dispersed protesters at the July Manifesto and Staszic mines.

On the morning of December 16, the Polish leadership issued an order to introduce special police units into the enterprise’s territory. To break up demonstrations and fight against riots in Poland, there was a special structure - ZOMO (Zmotoryzowane Odwody Milicji Obywatelskiej, which can be translated as “Motorized support of civilian police”). ZOMO was a police special unit, somewhat reminiscent of the modern Russian riot police. True, the decision to create a ZOMO in Poland was made much earlier than in the Soviet Union began to create special police units.

Even 24 December 1956 of the year, the NDP Council of Ministers, comprehending the events in Poznan in June 1956, realized the need to create police units of increased mobility, with good training and special motivation of personnel. For the first time of its existence, ZOMO was staffed by volunteers from the police and the army, who were attracted by a good salary and preferential conditions of service. But by 1970. the number of volunteers willing to carry out such a specific service has drastically decreased, so the authorities had to resort to recruiting ZOMO by conscription. Of course, this affected the quality of the detachments, although the core of the special forces were still ideologically correct personnel.

In Polish society, ZOMO was treated very coolly, and the opposition did not hide their hatred towards the Polish “riot policemen” at all. This was also not surprising, since police units used to disperse demonstrations and prosecute dissenters often encounter many complaints from the public. It seems that their service is necessary, but its specificity sets up not only oppositionists, but also many ordinary citizens against police special forces. So the ZOMO detachments, which protected public order, fought against crime and participated in the elimination of emergency situations, went down in history due to their use against the Polish opposition. And 1981-1983. became the time of maximum use of ZOMO. Their numbers grew from 6,5 to 12 thousands of fighters.

ZOMO formed the basis of government units deployed on the morning of December 16, 1981 to the Vuek mine. 8 ZOMO companies arrived in the mine area, as well as ORMO units (police reservists), 3 army motorized rifle companies and 1 tank company. The government forces were armed with 30 armored vehicles and 7 water cannons. The number of miners willing to take part in the confrontation was 500-700 people. At 9 a.m., the deputy chief of the regional military headquarters, Colonel Peter Gubka, Colonel Cheslav Pekarski and Vice President of Katowice Jerzy Siran arrived at the mine. Officials demanded that the workers immediately disperse and stop the illegal actions, but the miners did not obey the orders of the city and military authorities.

Despite the cold weather, an order was given to disperse workers with water cannons. After that, the mine began to bombard special means with tear gas. At the beginning of the operation, government forces tried to do without blood and hoped to disperse the protesters with the help of special means. But it did not work out. Then the tanks went into action, with the help of which they began to ram the walls of the enterprise and barricades. After the ZOMO fighters broke into the mine, the workers clashed with them. Armed with tools — above all, with shovels and stones, they attacked special forces soldiers. Wounded 41 fighter ZOMO and 1 soldier.

At around noon 11-12, the commandant of the voivode of the civil police in Katowice, police colonel Jerzy Gruba, contacted the minister of internal affairs, lieutenant-general Cheslav Kischak. He said that the mine was in a dangerous situation, the miners did not obey the orders of the police and resist with the help of improvised items. The colonel said that the commanders of the ZOMO detachments are requesting permission to use weapons against the protesters. General Kischak did not allow the use of weapons and ordered the withdrawal of police forces from the enterprise’s territory in order to consider further actions by the authorities against the protesting miners. However, at the mine itself, the situation by this time was heated to the limit.

Fighters of a special platoon of ZOMO, commanded by ensign Romuald Zislak, entered the territory of the mine. The platoon was not equipped with the necessary shields and batons in such situations, but was armed only with submachine guns. The number of the platoon was about twenty people, it included two teams of fighters. In the midst of clashes, the fighters of the special platoon of ZOMO opened fire to kill with military weapons. Nine protesters were killed - Jan Stavisisky, Joachim Gnida, Jozef Chekalsky, Krzysztof Giza, Ryszard Gzik, Bohuslav Kopchak, Andrzej Pelka, Zbigniew Wilk and Zenon Zayonts. More than twenty people from among the protesters were injured.

The miners' resistance was crushed by 17.30 16 December 1981. To 19.00, the miners left the enterprise. Speech at the Vuek Mine was crushed. Between 19 and 22 December, the police detained seven people, who were accused by the investigating authorities of directing the strikers. Three of them were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment - from three to four years. At first, the Polish leadership did not advertise the details of what happened at the Vuek mine, and only two weeks after the suppression of workers' speeches, Chairman of the Council of the State Henrik Jablonski told the people about what had happened, but did not criticize the use of force by the special forces of the Interior Ministry of Poland.

Events at the Vuek Mine showed that the Polish leadership was ready for the most extreme measures in suppressing anti-Communist opposition speeches. At the same time, interestingly, the division general (Lieutenant-General) Cheslav Kischak (1925-2015, pictured), who headed the Ministry of Interior of the People’s Republic of Poland and was the main head of ZOMO, was not a supporter of total suppression of opposition movements in the country, although resorted to tough measures in the fight against "Solidarity". Kiszak simply had no other choice, because otherwise Poland could plunge into chaos.

After the collapse of the communist government in Poland and the country's transition to pro-Western positions, the glorification of events at the Vuhek mine began. The dead miners were declared national heroes. In 1991, Polish law enforcement began an investigation into the use of weapons at the Vuek mine. However, the trial, which took place in 1997, ended with the justification of eleven special ZOMO platoon soldiers who took part in those events. Eleven more people were exempted from punishment for the lack of evidence of their involvement in the shooting of the miners. However, in 1998, this court decision was reversed by the appellate instance, after which the case was returned for further investigation. In 2001, the district court in Katowice again determined that it was impossible to find a complete set of evidence in the case of the shooting of miners at the Vuek mine, therefore it is impossible to establish the true perpetrators. Again, this judgment was appealed.

More than a quarter of a century after the events at the Vuek mine, in 2007, the trial ended with convictions against former law enforcement officers of the PNRM. Fifteen people appeared before the court - middle-aged men who served in the special platoon of ZOMO in 1981. The defendants' defense argued that there was no evidence that policemen had been involved in the shooting of the miners, and that means that the defendants must be acquitted. The former ZOMO fighters themselves also denied their guilt and demanded to acquit them. But the case of the shooting at the Vuek mine had a political color, to some extent being symbolic for modern Poland. Therefore, the judges could not go to justify the “Zomovites”, even in the absence of substantial evidence.

Most of the defendants received from 2,5 to 3 years in prison. Romuald Zislak received the longest term, serving as commander of a special platoon. He was sentenced to eleven years in prison. At the same time, the court was unable to establish who directly gave the order to open fire on the miners. Initially, this was suspected of Mariana Okrytny, who served as deputy police chief of Katowice, but no evidence of his involvement in the order was found, so the court was forced to acquit the former police officer.

In 1989, ZOMO was dissolved. The Polish press has since created a very negative image of the fighters of these units, the word “Zomovets” has become a household word. It is noteworthy that, although ordinary fighters and junior commanders of the detachment were brought to criminal responsibility in post-communist Poland, the top leadership of law enforcement agencies of the Polish People's Republic did not suffer any punishment. The same general Kischak, after 1990, retired from state and political affairs and survived the rest of his days safely. It was only at the end of the first decade of the new century that the court recalled an elderly, retired general. In 2009, Kischak was given 2 of the year without the right to amnesty for religious discrimination - evidence was found that in 1985, the general allegedly fired a police officer from the service because his daughter had passed the first communion in the Catholic Church. In the 2012 year, 87-year-old Kischak was convicted of preparing and executing "illegal martial law" in Poland in 1981. However, in 2015, the former Minister of the Interior died at the age of 90.

The use of firearms against unarmed miners, for obvious reasons, is estimated in the society negatively. However, it is not necessary to associate this event exclusively with the features of the regime of General Jaruzelski. Such brutal measures against the protesters have repeatedly been resorted to and continue to be resorted to by police services in many countries of the world, including the United States and the states of Western Europe, whose authorities most of all like to talk about human rights.

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  1. V.ic
    V.ic 16 December 2016 06: 33
    If it were not for Wojciech Jaruzelski and the guys about whom the article is told, the NDP would have had a "Maidan" with a lot of blood, and so ... it would have cost a little blood.
    1. ligre
      ligre April 25 2017 14: 00
      The worst thing is that when there was a shortage in the USSR, Poland and other countries of the social camps of eastern Europe drove meat, milk, grain every day by trains, all the best, God forbid, there was nothing shortage there.
  2. sergeyzzz
    sergeyzzz 16 December 2016 07: 49
    This is how liberals are ruining the country from the inside; the Polish authorities did everything right.
    1. captain
      captain 16 December 2016 09: 03
      Quote: sergeyzzz
      This is how liberals are ruining the country from the inside; the Polish authorities did everything right.

      Apparently not everyone did the right thing if they are being defamed now, and the people did not come to the defense. And no propaganda would help if the people were determined to protect former police officers.
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 16 December 2016 10: 11
        This whole infection has not gone anywhere in the following years. Probably gone underground.
  3. Basil50
    Basil50 16 December 2016 09: 00
    Unions around the world are fighting for the right to work and earn money. The unique * solidarity * is that they fought for the right NOT to WORK. After seizing power and in order to consolidate their own * conquest *, the Polish government dismantled shipyards and many other enterprises, turning the country into an agrarian one. Scratched pride, ambition and stayed with promises.
    1. veteran66
      veteran66 16 December 2016 13: 06
      Quote: Vasily50
      Polish government dismantled shipyards

      Well, yes, it just took and ruined, only it is not clear where the Gaster from East Germany are now working. On TV they showed that, it turns out, at the Polish shipyards. Yes, it was necessary to reconstruct or abandon some shipyards in Gdynia, Szczecin and Gdansk. But it was the same "suitcase without a handle", the legacy of an ineffective socialist economy, but now: "Five years after the collapse, employment in the shipbuilding industry has grown from 23 thousand to 32 thousand."
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 16 December 2016 13: 29
        Well, that's the economic boom. Moreover, the tax on bld.dl.o. found for them. Panama himself is not at the rank of something to do. A dream comes true * of solidarity *, without working to have something. By the way, Poland has many repair shops. So the industry is also growing.
    2. veteran66
      veteran66 16 December 2016 13: 34
      Quote: Vasily50
      they fought for the right NOT to WORK.

      they fought for the right to receive normally for what they earned, the Polish miners emigrated to Holland, Germany, France, to receive normal money there for their work, and that something was not heard that hard workers sought from Holland, Germany, France and other countries to a socialist paradise.
    3. pshek
      pshek 31 January 2017 01: 39
      "the Polish government dismantled the shipyards and many other enterprises, turning the country into an agricultural"

      You don’t know much about Poland’s economy profile. Industry, with which it is not as primitive as for Epatronate, the USSR over Poland, makes up 70% of exports.

      And never in the post-war period was this level more. And these are not Soviet licenses of primitive technology, but technology on a world level.
  4. antivirus
    antivirus 16 December 2016 09: 01
    So they destroyed our Poland.
    MS Gorbachev apparently received an offer from London, which he could not refuse: "Return Vost Europe. We rented out for 49 years and the lease ends."
    By agreement of the parties. The collapse of the CMEA of the Internal Affairs Directorate, and then of the USSR, was not kept (not one Gorbi merged)
    1. pshek
      pshek 31 January 2017 01: 41
      Why do you give yourself the right to rule 40 million people, who are you?

      We you and your
      we do not want.
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 31 January 2017 08: 06
        Now it is clear that Poland itself "crawled" under the ally.
        They took another into their cartridges. The time will come and again you will praise the next "eternal" sovereign of your swamps.
        The simple cycle is approximately the life expectancy of one generation (70-80 years).
      2. iouris
        iouris April 11 2017 11: 03
        After 1991 you have a different patronage. And in 1981 there was a different political situation and the Jaruzelsky group acted according to the only possible scenario, i.e. right, because on December 1 we had to enter the NDP. I wish you happiness.
  5. den-protector
    den-protector 16 December 2016 10: 58
    The article of the liberal smacks of smell. "Jaruzelski's regime", you must blurt it out. This is about the same as they are now commenting on the events in Syria in our zomboyaschik. although generally positive, they will not fail to add about the "Assad regime", "the Assad army", as if Bashar al-Assad is some tribal leader of the Tumba-Yumba tribe, and not the president of the country. Wojciech and his team did everything right. They didn’t know, however, what a mean thing their older brother was preparing for them. And Solidarity is still a bureau, a branch of Western intelligence services. The Poles in the whole country and in particular the workers, as usual, were used as consumables, playing along with their ambition.
    1. veteran66
      veteran66 16 December 2016 13: 11
      Quote: den-protector
      "Assad regime", "Assad army"

      Isn’t that so? or maybe
      Quote: den-protector
      Bashar al-Assad some tribal leader of the Tumba Yumba tribe
      You would read about the beginning of all this mess in Syria that happened five years ago. They would have learned a lot of new things, precisely from the discord between the bandits of one clan with the bandits (in the service of the state) - of another clan (Asad's). I do not in any way justify ISIS (they need to be killed), but the Basharov militants and their "moderate opponents" stand up to each other. Bashar just "our son of a bitch". Politics, nothing personal.
      1. Zuborez
        Zuborez 16 December 2016 20: 30
        Muddy you're an eccentric, veteran66.
        And about the socialist paradise, and about Syria, and about "clear boys" out of solidarity.
        1. veteran66
          veteran66 17 December 2016 11: 50
          Quote: ZuboreZ
          about "clear boys" out of solidarity.

          you yourself are muddy, I did not write anything about "solidarity". You need to read more, and not sit on the forums.
  6. Niccola Mack
    Niccola Mack 16 December 2016 11: 12
    As always - for which they fought, they ran into something.
    They were the elite of the working class - they became nobody - but pride and ambition amassed notably.
    By the way, Walesa (nicknamed "Bolek") turned out to be an agent of the Polish special services - many documents were published (seemingly genuine).
    They overlooked the “Cossack” - broke off the hook and began to lead his game.
    Quite a common situation - the authorities were underworked!
    1. veteran66
      veteran66 16 December 2016 13: 27
      Quote: Nikkola Mac
      Were the working class elite - became nobody

      why nobody? Here is an example: "in neighboring Poland, according to the newspaper" Dziennik Zachodni ", miners on average receive about 5800 zloty" dirty "(14 800 hryvnia)." Considering that these are data for 2012, then approximately 56 rubles. This is on average, i.e. qualified GROZ or a combine operator up to about 500 sput. Our miners also receive less: "At the moment (June 90), the average salary of miners in Russia, according to statistics, is 2016 rubles." Plus, they also have a social network by European standards. So everything is normal.
      1. Niccola Mack
        Niccola Mack 16 December 2016 14: 12
        And here I come across such articles - which is the most interesting - Ukrainian (that is, perhaps also biased).

        Of the one hundred mines in Poland, two-thirds were shut down. In the worst of times, diggers worked.

        The guide and former miner Jerzy Velinsky with nostalgia recalls: how they dug, how they drank after the shift, how they were left without work

        “There are different state programs according to which miners are retrained. But you understand, if a person becomes a miner, then he is unlikely to become a seamstress or an electrician,” says Jerzy Wielinski, a former miner.

        "It is very painful when the mines are closed. In this region, they gave several thousand jobs. Now there are much fewer," says Jan Kowal, a Zabrze resident.
        1. veteran66
          veteran66 16 December 2016 15: 21
          Quote: Nikkola Mac
          Of the one hundred mines in Poland, two-thirds were shut down.

          so mines are shut down everywhere, the need for coal has fallen, a trend, however
          1. Niccola Mack
            Niccola Mack 18 December 2016 08: 35
            Why did you fall?
            But because a ruling class appeared and crushed all means of production and wealth for themselves. The rest of the strata are interested in him only as a means of functioning of the state (administrative management, courts, police, army, church, etc.) and workers - whom they try to pay (especially the lowest positions) as little as possible - and many in general on the principle of "if only have not died ahead of time. "
            All the rest are not interested in them at all - especially if the resources in the country are limited.
            So the general level of consumption has decreased many times (more precisely, it has decreased and moved to the ruling class).
            What socialism - no level, the middle level is trying to provide for everyone, and comes from the principle of "economy - for the bulk" and not "economy for the ruling class."
            But the concrete implementation, as history shows, much more depends on specific people and not on social formations. Especially considering that there have never been any "theoretical formations" - always "only confusion".
            1. veteran66
              veteran66 11 January 2017 09: 24
              Quote: Nikkola Mac
              Why did you fall?
              And because the ruling class appeared and crushed all means of production and wealth for themselves.

              everything is much simpler, technology ... for example, steel is already brewed in electric furnaces, and not in open-hearth furnaces on coke. Heating is no longer even on fuel oil, but on gas. Although electricity consumes a lot of coal, it is gradually switching to cleaner types of fuel.
      2. Rastas
        Rastas 16 December 2016 22: 06
        The problem, veteran, is that initially Solidarity came out under completely socialist slogans - self-government, the election of a trade union, cooperation. And it turned out that many who supported Solidarity lost their jobs in the 90s and went to the West to seek their fortune. The wages for those who remained have become more, only in capitalist realities you have to pay for everything, the same communal apartment has increased several times during this time, the social sector, which was free under socialism, is also now paid by the workers. and most importantly, Komorowski admitted this, 97% of Polish industry no longer belongs to Poland.
        1. veteran66
          veteran66 17 December 2016 12: 00
          Quote: Rastas
          acted under completely socialist slogans - self-government, election of a trade union, cooperation.

          Well, where were these signs of socialism in the USSR, in Poland they began to put pressure on them, the people just won’t go on strike and under fire, we also had Novocherkassk and not only him.
          Quote: Rastas
          in the 90s they lost their jobs and went looking for happiness in the West.

          "To seek their fortune to the west" we went from the 48th, when they tasted the delights of socialism and that few people returned, on the contrary, families were called there. Looks like they found their happiness.
          Quote: Rastas
          in capitalist realities you have to pay for everything

          it’s better I’ll get well and pay for the services that I need and are provided with quality, than going to the designated clinic to the doctor assigned to mediocrity, swearing at the ZhEK about slightly live batteries and lack of hot water.
      3. Gamer
        Gamer April 3 2017 22: 44
        (14 800 hryvnias)
        I confirm. It was for this amount that my friend worked with his wife at the Samsung factory, soldered the boards. Feeding, housing - at the expense of the company, everything is official, no scam. And another comrade, from the LPR I worked in St. Petersburg, I didn’t get a penny, I barely got home. We are waiting for an article on the Polish economic miracle.
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 17 December 2016 13: 05
      And if now miners in Russia start a strike (delay in salaries, increase in salaries)
      and build barricades, I wonder on whose side will be the VO forum: workers or riot police?
      1. Freeman
        Freeman 17 December 2016 15: 50
        voyaka uh Today, 13: 05
        And if now miners in Russia start a strike (delay in salaries, increase in salaries)
        and build barricades, I wonder on whose side will be the VO forum: workers or riot police?

        It's all about property.
        When everything was state-owned, that is, as if “nationwide,” the demands for “personal improvements” looked like a desire to live better at the expense of others.
        Now that the overwhelming majority of property has been distributed to private hands, the same actions are a classic example of the struggle between "labor and capital".
        Under the conditions of modern Russian "capitalism" this also applies to the so-called "state" enterprises and institutions, when the salaries of the bulk of workers differ from the salaries of "managers" not even "at times", but "by orders of magnitude."
        1. veteran66
          veteran66 17 December 2016 19: 15
          Quote: Freeman
          it looked like a desire to live better at the expense of others.

          ok)))))) These "others" lived at the expense of hard workers, and when hard workers wanted themselves honestly earned, then "others" actively resisted this.
          1. Freeman
            Freeman 18 December 2016 07: 36
            veteran66 Yesterday, 19:15
            These "others" lived at the expense of hard workers

            Please explain who do you mean by "these others"?
            Who are these - teachers, doctors, "siloviki"? Formally, they lived as if at the expense of "hard workers" - since they did not "produce", but "provided services." And in the conditions of a planned economy, when all resources were allocated in advance, it was possible to pay more "to the first", if the increase was not foreseen in the plans - it was possible only at the expense of the "second". Naturally, the "second" did not like it very much, tk. any work was honorable and all were formally equal. That is why miners' strikes in the USSR during the "perestroika" period did not receive widespread support.
            Did you mean the so-called "nomenclature"?
            1. veteran66
              veteran66 11 January 2017 09: 12
              Quote: Freeman
              Did you mean the so-called "nomenclature"?

              her too, but it's not just her
              Quote: Freeman
              And in the conditions of a planned economy, when all resources were allocated in advance, it was possible to pay more "to the first", if the increase was not foreseen in the plans - it was possible only at the expense of the "second".

              here! This is an artificial economy, and you have to pay according to the demand for the profession and not according to the rank. In the west, a person with a higher education (any) is already held in high esteem and gets well, but at the same time the miners are also not sickly. They showed a program about how the French mines "died"; there they showed a former French miner giving an interview in front of his cottage. So he said that they themselves contributed to the destruction of the industry, tk. With the help of trade unions, they knocked out such salaries and social programs for themselves that it became cheaper to transport coal from Australia, the mines were closed, they were fired, but the pension is paid regularly and very good. There is a good parable (or maybe true) when one scientist approached his boss and asked why I was paid less than the famous football coach, to which his boss replied: “That's when your lectures will gather as many people as they come to the stadiums , to cheer for the team of this coach, then we will pay you the same "
      2. Gamer
        Gamer April 3 2017 22: 45
        I remember when the Lugansk miners were broken through the knee at the first Kuchma forum, and there were no golden eagles with their clubs% $ * @ *%
    3. antivirus
      antivirus 31 January 2017 08: 11
      They overlooked the “Cossack” - broke off the hook and began to lead his game.
      Quite a common situation - the authorities were underworked!
      Vague suspicions torment me --- there was a triple game of giveaways. see mine above about "passed for 49 years and asked to return" Because "Boleka" and did not touch. Like Ukria and Syria - change coins in the Big game.
  7. Gray brother
    Gray brother 16 December 2016 11: 32
    I wonder if the ZOMO fighters had gunshot wounds? They could have provoked it - the agent provocateur fired at the employees, well, they got an answer.
    Revolutions need dead heroes, however, the very order to open fire could be such a provocation.
  8. fa2998
    fa2998 16 December 2016 12: 02
    Quote: sergeyzzz
    Polish authorities did everything right

    It should be noted the humanity of the Polish court. Of the seven accused "conspirators", only three received child sentences, the rest were acquitted. And they tried to deal with the police - who is to blame for the deaths.
    After Novocherkassk, people shot at us according to the court’s verdict (and they won’t find the graves) on the basis of a regular operational survey.
    It started with the usual economic requirements. But socialism is the pinnacle of the social pyramid, the most progressive system — and if you don’t like something, you are already an anti-Soviet and a conspirator! fool hi
    1. bakhshiyan rachik
      bakhshiyan rachik 16 December 2016 13: 09
      poor jaruzelsky. he knew well where all this freedom of speech would lead
  9. Lieutenant Teterin
    Lieutenant Teterin 16 December 2016 12: 28
    I read the article and comments and noticed one interesting fact: when talking about strikes in the Russian Empire, as a rule, most of the commentators talk about "the need for workers to protect the labor rights of the working class", but if we are talking about strikes in socialist countries, then few people speak about the protection of labor rights. The same story is with the use of weapons against demonstrators - if this is done in Ingushetia, then this is a "crime of the bloody tsar", but if the socialist authorities "did everything right" ...
    1. Gamer
      Gamer April 3 2017 22: 46
      komunyaki those are still ghouls, with them you can’t strike, instantly in the gulag
  10. Freeman
    Freeman 16 December 2016 13: 36
    Quote: V.ic
    If it were not for Wojciech Jaruzelski and the guys about whom the article is told, the NDP would have had a "Maidan" with a lot of blood, and so ... it would have cost a little blood.

    If not for Jaruzelski, it would have been the introduction of our troops. And the suppression of the uprising in Hungary in 1956 would have seemed to the Poles "public censure", compared to what they would have done. And if the Germans also pulled themselves up, then - "everything, put out the light." We (TsGV) were very angry with them.
  11. Des10
    Des10 16 December 2016 14: 34
    One thing is the struggle of the working people for their rights, another is planned and paid for by other countries.
    Jaruzelsky's actions are correct.
    And to attack a person with epaulettes - in all states and --- always --- there will be a corresponding answer.
    That under the "tsar", that under the dictator, that under "democracy" and other good regimes --- do not touch the sovereigns in the servants.
  12. Glory1974
    Glory1974 16 December 2016 18: 12
    The Americans have already admitted that Solidarity is a CIA project. So the author needs to figure out better what kind of "sacral" victims were there and who arranged it.
  13. Caretaker
    Caretaker 16 December 2016 22: 35
    ... The use of firearms against unarmed miners, for obvious reasons, is assessed negatively in society ...
    Author: Ilya Polonsky

    The author has not read his own article! Provocateurs were armed with various types of knives.
    The use of firearms against persons armed with cold steel is a normal practice.
  14. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 16 December 2016 22: 48
    The article is crude. Basically - about the shooting of the mutinous lumpen, who wanted, like now the Ukrainian pots and heads, to Europa. It would be necessary to have more parallels with our Riga OMON, the events in Tbilisi (there was an army, but everything in one chain), about the Ukrainian "Berkut" also had to be mentioned. In general, it pulls a threefold.
    1. veteran66
      veteran66 17 December 2016 12: 04
      Quote: Aviator_
      execution of rebellious lumpen

      oh how! That "miners - the guard of labor" and immediately into the lumpen! Lumpen only support revolutions, which "take away and divide everything", and people wanted to work and receive a normal salary for this, and for this salary they buy normal food and consumer goods, and when prices rise, the salary falls, and in stores there is nothing to buy nobody wants to.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 17 December 2016 16: 06
        This is the same "guard of labor" as the Kemerovo miners, who with their strikes supported the drunkenness of the regional committee - Yeltsin.
  15. iouris
    iouris 17 December 2016 02: 07
    Wojciech Jaruzelski remained in history as one of the few real Polish national statesmen, responsible politicians who stood at the helm of the Polish state at a critical moment. It was he who did not allow the consequences that should have occurred as a result of the introduction of troops of the USSR and ATS into the territory of the NDP. I know for sure that we were half a step away from this. A real soldier, a principled and decent general. There were no such generals in the USSR in 1985. In the end, we have what we have.
  16. Mordvin 3
    Mordvin 3 17 December 2016 02: 23
    Quote: iouris
    It was he who did not allow the consequences that should have occurred as a result of the introduction of troops of the USSR and ATS into the territory of the NDP. I know for sure that we were half a step away from this

    Are you sure that our troops were not there? Like Ivan Krushinsky. winked
  17. Vitalson
    Vitalson 21 December 2016 11: 05
    How sorry I am for Veteran 66 that he was born and lives in such a "worthless" country like Russia. He would have been in Geropa, but he didn’t get a visa.