Military Review

Voevoda Aleksey Nikitich Trubetskoy, godfather of Peter the Great

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Voevoda Aleksey Nikitich Trubetskoy, godfather of Peter the Great

Sverchkov N. Ye. “Departure of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich to the review of the army in 1664”



Russian-Polish War 1632 – 1634 and the failure of Shein near Smolensk only increased the already weighty political contradictions between Russia and the Commonwealth. The Poles expanded their territories fairly well during the Time of Troubles, including the large fortress city of Smolensk, but the position of Poland by the middle of the 17th century was far from stability. Having received a new king with a fair amount of combat experience - Carl X Gustav, Sweden was interested in looking at its southern neighbor across the Baltic.

The storm that erupted in the open spaces of Ukraine did not subside, in one way or another drawing all of its neighbors and above all Russia. The struggle of Bogdan Khmelnitsky and his supporters took an extremely fierce and protracted nature. The victories alternated with defeats and alternated with negotiations and agreements, concluding that both sides began to prepare for new battles with indestructible persistence. The use of the Crimean Tatars as allies was for Khmelnytsky a troublesome and dangerous affair - the khan's subjects were more likely to engage in looting and looting than they fought. And after the first years of the war, it became clear that the Hetmanate’s resources would not be enough to withstand the still powerful state and military apparatus of the Rzeczpospolita. Rummaging among geopolitical players, Khmelnitsky expectedly turned to the Russian Tsar for help. The long process of negotiations, agreements, secret and explicit agreements that followed, most of which provoked heated discussions at the royal court, led Russia to a long and tense war with Poland. The Russian army, renewed by the reforms of Alexei Mikhailovich, again had to meet face to face with the old adversary, whose banners were dubbed, the armor was dull, but neither his strength, nor his ambition, had been squandered. This army will be led to the war by a new generation of Russian commanders, whose childhood and youth were spent on the ashes of the Troubles, and youth and maturity were challenged by the unsuccessful war of 1632 – 1634. One of these was Alexey Nikitich Trubetskoy.

Road to war


Solntsev F. Armor of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. Figure from the book "The Antiquities of the Russian State"


Prince Trubetskoy belonged to one of the branches of the old and very noble family of Gedyminovych - its founder is considered one of the numerous grandsons of the famous great Lithuanian prince Gediminas - Koribut Olgerdovich, Prince Trubchevsky, Seversky and Bryansk, who took part in the Kulikovo battle. His descendants, the princes Trubchevskys, or Trubetskoy, retained their inheritance until the beginning of the XVI century, when they switched to Moscow service. Alexey Trubetskoy's father was a boyar and served as governor of Vologda. About the childhood of the prince there is not any reliable information, and the first mention of it refers to the 1618 year, as about the stolnik at the court. It was the standard beginning of a career for immigrants from noble families who were striving to succeed in the military or administrative field. However, at first, the prince was not so simple - his elder brother, Yuri, during the Troubles, fought on the side of the Poles, was the stable of False Dmitry II, and to top it all, after emigrating to Lithuania, he converted to Catholicism. The omnipotent at the court of his royal son, Mikhail Fedorovich, Patriarch Filaret did not greatly favor the younger brother of the traitor, apparently doubting his loyalty. Therefore, Trubetskoy, who served at the court for about 10 years, was sent by the governor to far Tobolsk, which then was the administrative center of Siberia.

He returned to the capital only three years later, in 1632, and was again appointed governor, but in Astrakhan. The place was hot and not boring at all. The situation has become aggravated in relations with the Nogai Horde, the Turks were restlessly tossing and turning in Azov. At the beginning of the 40's relations with the Crimean Khanate deteriorate to a large extent, primarily due to the famous Azov seat of the Don Cossacks. The large Turkish army of Hussein Pasha unsuccessfully besieged Azov, while in Moscow they were waiting for a possible raid of the Crimeans and the war with the Ottoman Empire. Trubetskoy is determined on the Tula section of the southern border and is given greater authority. Despite the fact that Mikhail Fedorovich, fearing possible consequences if the Cossacks accepted the offer to take Azov "under his arm", cautiously rejected it, the tension on the southern borders remained. In 1642, Mr. Aleksey Trubetskoy is appointed a big voivod instead of the deceased prince Vorotynsky.

With the accession to the throne of the new sovereign - Alexei Mikhailovich - the position of governor only strengthened. He became an approximate boyar Boris Morozov, known not only for his very extensive land tenure, but primarily because he was the tutor of Alexei Mikhailovich himself. With such support, his career quickly rushes up the hill, and in 1646 the city of Trubetskoy received under his command a regiment of the sovereign's personal guard. Soon he was noticed not only in the military field, but also for diplomatic occupations. As a trustee of the king, he led negotiations with ambassadors of many foreign states: Swedish, Polish, English, and even Persian. He received the envoys of Bogdan Khmelnitsky in 1648 when he turned to Moscow for help. Obviously, Trubetskoy showed himself quite well in these difficult cases, since in 1650 he was granted the rank of a near boyar and the position of head of the Kazan order. However, the period of intense, but still so far peaceful life came to an end - the conflict within the Commonwealth spread, and very soon it became clear that Russia could not avoid participation in it.

New war with the old enemy



Contrary to the opinion of modern Ukrainian “historiography”, according to which all plans, aspirations and even dreams of the Russian tsar were filled only with an exorbitant desire to devour Ukraine together with Khmelnitsky and all Cossacks for a snack, in cases of Little Russia the cautious king was consistent and slow. It is completely obvious that in the event of any active steps aimed at taking the revolting Hetmanate into its citizenship, the war with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth will become inevitable. Despite its relative numbers, the Russian army of that period, with a satisfactory number of cavalry, lacked well-trained infantry, able to fight on equal terms with European mercenaries. The problem to some extent could be solved by the regiments of the foreign system, some of which managed to be formed by the beginning of the war. Abroad, primarily in Holland and Sweden, a large number of military purchases were made — muskets and gunpowder; various specialists were invited to serve. After much hesitation and discussion in October 1653, at the Zemsky Sobor, it was solemnly announced that a hetman of Khmelnitsky with Cossacks, lands and cities was taken under the tsar's citizenship. To avoid the traditional red tape of finding out who is more generic, and not to repeat previous mistakes, Aleksei Mikhailovich banned regionalism by decree of October 23 from 1653.

The first military campaign was expected as early as next year, 1654. For the war with Rzecz Pospolita, three groups of Russian troops were prepared and deployed. Severnaya under the command of V.P. Sheremetyevo numbered about 15 thousand people. The central one, headed by Prince Ya. K. Cherkassky, is 42 thousand people. South, consisting approximately of 20 thousands, commanded by Alexey Trubetskoy. The plan of the war provided for a general offensive of all three armies - in Ukraine, the Russian troops were to provide comprehensive support to the army of Bogdan Khmelnitsky. Seeing the complete seriousness of the situation for himself, the Polish Sejm in the spring of 1654 announced “common cause destruction,” that is, a general mobilization. By order of the king, active preparations for the upcoming war began in the autumn of 1653, with the expectation that by the end of spring the troops would be ready to act. Considering the unfortunate experience of the previous war, when Shein was under the walls of Smolensk without a proper number of guns, the siege artillery from Moscow was the first to march in February 1654, moving along the winter route.

With the onset of spring, the king conducted a review of the army, the governors received orders from him. In the first half of May, Aleksei Trubetskoy with his army was to concentrate his forces in Bryansk, and then begin an offensive deep into Polish territory in the direction of Roslavl. 26 April 1654 the voivode left Moscow and, at the head of his regiments, made his way to Bryansk. Aleksei Mikhailovich himself left the capital together with the rearguard of the Cherkassy troops on May 18.

The Russian army began active combat operations in early June, crossing the Polish and Lithuanian frontiers. Since the main initial goal was Smolensk, Trubetskoy had to cover the Cherkassky army from the south, with which the emperor himself was located. 27 June Roslavl was taken without a fight, the population of the city expressed sincere loyalty. July 12 after fierce resistance was taken Mstislavl, opening the way to the Dnieper. The rapid movement of Trubetskoy to this major water artery confused the maps of Hetman Radziwill, who was trying to prevent Prince Cherkassky, besieging Smolensk. The hetman, whose southern flank was threatened by the Trubetskoy regiments, was forced to retreat.

Voevoda received from Alexei Mikhailovich a new introductory: now his goal was to be Borisov. The king was quite cheerful: the beginning of the campaign seemed to be successful. After taking Borisov from Trubetskoy, it was necessary, developing success, to advance on Minsk and Brest. Obviously, his optimism was based on the conviction that Bogdan Khmelnitsky, encouraged by his successes at the central theater of war, would increase his pressure on the Poles, and then join forces with the Russians. Both armies — the Trubetskoy army and the Khmelnitsky Cossacks — were to unite in the Lutsk area. However, the voivod himself considered for himself the primary task of not moving towards an extremely unhurriedly advancing hetman, who clearly did not have time for the deadlines, but to defeat the Radziwill army, which still posed a significant threat.

12 August voivode Golovchin took, after which he organized a vigorous pursuit of Polish troops. August 14 Radziwill was finally caught up at the village of Shepelevichi in 20 km from Borisov. Trubetskoy utterly defeated the Poles, numerous trophies and prisoners were taken - only the colonels alone were captivated by a 12 man. Radziwill himself, being wounded, could barely walk away from his pursuers. The defeat of the Polish-Lithuanian army had an impact on the entire course of the 1654 campaign of the year — the garrison of Smolensk, seeing that there was nowhere to wait for help, was forced to capitulate in September. Alexey Mikhailovich triumphantly entered the city freed from the enemy.

For Trubetskoy there were favorable conditions for the implementation of the raid deep into Polish territory, but for a start it was necessary to secure its own rear. The city of Shklov on the Dnieper still occupied a strong Polish garrison, there were contingents in other settlements and fortresses. At the end of August, the cavalry units of the Trubetskoy army came to Shklov - the garrison refused the offer of surrender. Then it was naturally decided to take it by storm. The difficulty consisted in the absence of Trubetskoy heavy artillery. On the night of 26 on 27 August, soldiers and archers went to the attack, but were repulsed with significant losses. It was not possible to take Shklov on the move, and the Russians began a systematic siege. Special teams dug trenches and built batteries. Of those guns that were available, they began to fire on the city, besides Trubetskoy ordered his people to conduct aimed firing from a manual weapons. Under such fire pressure, the garrison found it best to capitulate, which was done on August 31.

However, the Trubetskoy soldiers had to fight not only with the enemy. On August 26, the troops of the governor Cherkassky were occupied by Mogilev, and the Allied Cossack detachment under the command of Ivan Zolotarenko began to engage in the systematic destruction of Mogilev County, without losing sight of the attack on even the army train. Since the Russian garrison of Mogilev was sparse, Trubetskoy was ordered to send people to perform the tasks of the “military police”. The soldiers had to protect the peasants from the Cossack outrage, which caused a violent reaction of Zolotarenko, who opposed the difficulties of camp life and poor supply. At this attack, the ataman was told that provisions should be borrowed from the Poles.

Meanwhile, Alexey Trubetskoy continued to clean up the surrounding lands from the Poles - that was his current task. Now it was necessary to take the Dubrovna fortress on the Dnieper, which was an important strategic point. She locked the river way to Mogilyov, Orsha and other cities where Russian garrisons already stood. In the summer Dubrovna was blocked by a small Russian detachment, but he did not have the strength to complete the assault. Now, however, this Polish stronghold had to deal closely with Trubetskoy. For successful mastering of the fortress, heavy siege artillery released after the capture of Smolensk was sent. The garrison tried to carry out attacks, but all of them were stopped by the actions of the Russian cavalry. With the batteries erected, continuous shelling was carried out, and October 12 Dubrovna surrendered. The conditions of surrender were difficult for the Poles: they all went to Smolensk as prisoners, the question of a free exit to Poland was not even raised. The very same Dubrovna 17 October 1654 g. On the orders of the king was set on fire.

The capture of 1654 in November by the Sheremetyev Vitebsk troops summed up the first year of the war, as a result of which Russian troops liberated West Russian and Belarusian lands to the Dnieper, inclusive. There were no longer any Polish garrisons, and the army of Hetman Radziwill was defeated. In many respects, Aleksei Mikhailovich owed his military successes to the activities of Aleksei Trubetskoy - as a result of his efforts the threat to the successful siege of Smolensk in the person of the Lithuanian hetman’s troops was neutralized, and the voivode did much to clear the territories taken under control from the Poles.

A new 1655 year has come, and with it a new campaign. In it, the Russian command planned to develop the success of the first year of the war. However, the opposing side also had considerations on this. When Radziwill, counting on revenge, began to concentrate his troops in the Kaidan area near Minsk, Jan Sapega with a large army approached him. The Poles hoped to strike directly in the winter, when part of the Russian troops, in particular, local nobles and "boyars' children" were dismissed to their homes. Taking advantage of a certain relaxation of the enemy, the Poles seriously hoped for a major success - to return the territories lost last year by strikes. The first impact of the army of the Commonwealth was to undergo the New Bykhov - Cossacks of Ivan Zolotarenko were quartered there. It was planned to knock out the Russians from Vitebsk and develop success. In early January, 1655, the city of Janusz Radziwill forced Berezina, and on January 7, Zolotarenko had already sent urgent dispatches to the king that New Bykhov was besieged by “24 by thousands of Lithuania”. In fact, the hetman had half the people, but they began to cleverly surround the city. Concerned about the activity of the enemy, the king ordered to urgently return all the nobles and other “boyar children” on vacation from the winter apartments back to the active army. Trubetskoy was sent a letter demanding that the situation be brought under control as soon as possible. The voevoda arrived in Bryansk in the second half of February, when recruiting regiments for the winter was already in full swing there. Fortunately for the Russian command, Radziwill, too, did not show the wonders of quickness, and, after trampling under New Bykhov for almost two weeks, spoke at Mogilyov.

In early February, the Polish-Lithuanian army approached the walls of the city, but met with fierce resistance. The garrison that received reinforcements forced the enemy to get bogged down in a bloody and, most importantly, long siege. The defense of Mogilev continued until the beginning of May - 1 on the date of this month Radziwill launched the last fierce assault on the city, which was besieged by the besieged. Turning the camp and destroying Mogilev Posad, the Poles began to retreat to the Berezina. The winter offensive of the Commonwealth was thwarted by the courage of the defenders of Mogilev. Only in Ukraine, under the pressure of a huge army of the crown hetman Potocki, Khmelnitsky was forced to retreat to the Belaya Tserkov. Until mid-spring, the initiative was completely transferred to the Russian army.

In April 1655, the king arrived in Smolensk, where he began to prepare for a new campaign. He spent the whole winter in Vyazma, since a plague of plague raged in Moscow. The offensive, like last year, was supposed to be developed in three directions, and Alexey Trubetskoy again answered for the south. His army was tasked to penetrate deeply into the territory of the enemy - to Slutsk and Brest. However, before it was necessary to repel the Old Bykhov from the Poles, the last strongly fortified city held by the Poles on the Dnieper. The speech of Trubetskoy from Mogilev was delayed by the insufficient amount of gunpowder there. The siege of Old Bykhov lasted a whole month, and it was only until the command came that Trubetskoy was only losing time in a prolonged siege. On July 26, the voivode was ordered to leave the barrier under the Old Bykhov, and with the rest of the forces move to Slutsk. Trubetskoy attacked rather quickly, which could not but alarm the Poles.

2 August 1655, ten kilometers from Slutsk, a detachment of Polish cavalry and German mercenaries tried to stop the Russian army, but was defeated. Governor Slutsk was asked to surrender, but he, relying on a strong garrison and possible assistance, refused. Without spending time on the siege and leaving a barrier under the city, Trubetskoy moved on. 26 August 1655 near the town of Timkovichi, he defeated another large Polish detachment. The cavalry that came upon the enemy began the battle, linking it with battle, then the infantry entered the march, completing the rout. Voivode occupied a number of small Polish towns - now his goal was Brest.

However, a new factor intervened in the highly successful Russian campaign of 1655: Sweden, led by its king Karl X Gustav, entered the war against Rzecz Pospolita. Due to the diplomatic altercations on the part of Alexei Mikhailovich, it was not possible to agree with Charles X on joint actions against the Poles. And now the Swedes were not allies, but actually competitors in the seizure of production. Therefore, when messengers from Trubetskoy arrived at the 20 headquarters in September with a report on the progress achieved, they were told to transfer to the governor an order to stop the offensive against the Poles and return to Mogilev with his army. Competition on the part of the Swedes was for the king more significant threat than the seemingly cracked Poland after so many military failures. An armistice was concluded with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Moscow began to prepare for war with Charles X.

In Livonia and Ukraine

Of the several groups of Russian troops to fight against Sweden, Trubetskoy was commanded under command of the northernmost, intended for operations in Eastern Livonia, Izhora land and Karelia. 12 February 1656 Propulsion Trubetskoy was appointed a large voivod in Novgorod. There were also sent large carts with ammunition and with various materials - in the upcoming campaign the voivode was to act separately from the main forces and solve independent tasks. In May, 1656 Russia declared war on Sweden. While the main forces were engaged in preparing for the siege of Riga, Trubetskoy and Yuri Dolgorukov, who was assigned to him as an aide, approached Yuryev with an army and laid siege to him. While the siege events were on, detachments of cavalry and Cossacks were sent to raids on Livonia with orders to harm and destroy the enemy rear. October 12 Yuriev was finally taken. The Swedes tried to help the besieged city, but the mercenary squad rushing to the rescue was defeated. November 2 Trubetskoy was ordered to arrive at the rate.

The truce with Rzecz Pospolita became increasingly shaky. The controversial situation has developed in Ukraine, where hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky actively negotiated with both the Swedish and the Polish side. But on July 27 1657, he died, and on August 26 a new hetman was elected in Chyhyryn. They became the general clerk Ivan Vyhovsky. The situation has worsened. Not everyone liked such a choice, and messengers from the ataman Yakov Barabash arrived in Moscow from the Sich with a request to send a neighbor to the army and, having convened a council, elect a new hetman. Since Vyhovsky conducted intensive negotiations with the Poles and the Swedes, the signals from Ukraine came more and more alarming, and in the spring of 1658 there actually began a civil war. Vyhovsky, together with the Crimean Tatars invited as accomplices, began fighting against the cities and towns loyal to Moscow. In August, the hetman 1658 entered into open negotiations with the Poles in Gadyach, as a result of which an agreement was signed, according to which he became a vassal of the Polish king and in exchange for this received the title of Russian hetman. Vyhovsky was a consistent supporter of "European integration" and insisted on the creation of a triune state from Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Grand Duchy of Russia. Needless to say that the Poles, who were in such a difficult situation between Russia and Sweden, could promise anything they wanted. Trading with the Poles, however, did not prevent the multi-vector hetman from assuring the Russian ambassador, deacon Vasily Mikhailov, of his most sincere devotion to the tsar.

All this time Trubetskoy was in Moscow and took part in the outbreak of the conflict between Alexei Mikhailovich and Patriarch Nikon. Nevertheless, foreign policy problems were pressed no less thoroughly than domestic problems, and they also needed to be resolved. In the capital, in view of the renewed hostilities with Poland, they were concerned about the disorder in Ukraine, and someone had to restore order there. This “someone” turned out to be Aleksey Trubetskoy. He was ordered to go to the land of cunning and overly flexible hetmans and take the situation under control. Moreover, Aleksei Mikhailovich gave clear instructions first to persuade and only then act by force of arms. To facilitate the mission, Trubetskoy was allocated an army in which, according to various estimates, there were more than 30 thousand soldiers and siege artillery.

Konotop

At the end of January 1659, the Trubetskoy army reached Sevsk, then arrived in Putivl, where it was joined by additional contingents of governor Grigory Romodanovsky and Cossacks Ataman Ivan Bespaly, who remained loyal to Moscow. Here Trubetskoy blunted to negotiations with Vyhovsky, urging him to abandon the alliance with Poland. The tricky hetman squirmed, yulil, dragging out time and simultaneously negotiating assistance with the Crimean Khan Mehmed IV Giray and with his Polish patrons. A whole month passed in useless and unconstructive persuasion, until finally, at the end of March, 1659 of Trubetskoy did not move from words to deeds.

An important fortress Konotop stood on the river Seim, blocking the way deep into the Ukrainian territories. Colonel Gulyanitsky, who was a faithful ally of Vyhovsky, stood there with a strong garrison. 19 April, the Russian army laid siege to Konotop. The siege was conducted rather leisurely - obviously, the voivode expected that the presence of a large army under the walls would have a reassuring effect on recent allies. However, he was wrong, and preparations for the assault began only in June. From the built siege batteries began Konotop shelling. But hetman Vyhovsky, reinforced by the Tatar cavalry who had arrived from the Crimea, came to Konotop to the rescue.

27 June 1659 at dawn the hetman attacked the Russian camp with part of his equestrian forces. In the ensuing battle, both sides suffered casualties, and the attackers soon began to retreat across the Sosnovka River. To chase the retreating forces, which were mistaken for Vyhovsky's main troops, a large detachment of noble cavalry commanded by Semen Pozharsky and Semyon Lvov was otryazhen. Carried away by the chase, Russian horsemen forced Sosnovka, where they were already waiting for fresh Cossack hundreds and numerous Tatars. The recent pursuers were spared from the flanks, and the Sich soon turned into a slaughterhouse. According to various estimates, from 5 to 7 thousands of horsemen were killed. Few managed to escape - the Tatars and the hetman's supporters attempted to break into the camp on their backs, but were repulsed by heavy infantry fire. Despite the loss, the battle of Konotop did not go beyond the painful, but still tactical failure. The main forces of the Russian army, its wagon train and artillery were preserved.

Vyhovsky and the Tatars did not leave, but took up positions near the Russian camp, occasionally making raids upon him. The siege of Konotop in the vicinity of a numerous enemy and the cut supply lines became meaningless and was stopped. Trubetskoy's army was withdrawing in good order - “camps” were set up to protect against enemy cavalry attacks - moving barriers from carts. Under their cover, the infantry opened fire on the attackers, the most arrogant were driven away by the noble cavalry moving towards them. In this order, the Russian army reached the Seim River and crossed it using the same carts for the bridge fortification. Soon she took refuge in Putivl. Vyhovsky did not undertake prosecution. Soon most of the Tatars left him, and the hetman was forced to leave for Belaya Tserkov, where the Poles stood. 1 November 1659, in the presence of Alexey Trubetskoy, who arrived from Putivl, in the same Pereyaslav, the oath of the new hetman Yury Khmelnitsky was taken. This diplomatic success of the governor was noted: 23 February 1660 in Moscow in the Golden Chamber he was granted a velvet coat, an expensive golden cup and a large cash prize.

The next years the voivode spent in Moscow, was the close boyar of the tsar, conducted intensive international negotiations with foreign ambassadors. Being a confidant of the sovereign, in 1672, Alexey Trubetskoy became the godfather of the royal son Peter, the future emperor, who would finally realize the plans of his father and grandfather. The Godfather bestowed his ancestral Trubchev principality upon his godson because he had no posterity.

Prince Alexei Nikitich Trubetskoy, leaving worldly affairs, resumed the Cholnsky Spassky Monastery, where he accepted monasticism and completed his earthly journey under the name of the monk Athanasius in 1680, like many Russian military leaders who lived and fought long before and after.
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  1. Cat
    Cat 14 December 2016 18: 04
    +6
    The next years the voivode spent in Moscow, was the close boyar of the tsar, conducted intensive international negotiations with foreign ambassadors. Being a confidant of the sovereign, in 1672, Alexey Trubetskoy became the godfather of the royal son Peter, the future emperor, who would finally realize the plans of his father and grandfather. The Godfather bestowed his ancestral Trubchev principality upon his godson because he had no posterity.

    So, on the "tooth" of the chair! As he looked into the water.

    Thank you Denis for another open page of our history.
  2. Monarchist
    Monarchist 14 December 2016 18: 11
    +3
    If you think about the biography of Trubetskoy typical for that time: campaigns, battles, diplomatic negotiations and again the war.
    And the Ukrainians and then they built vile things and climbed in Europe
  3. Caretaker
    Caretaker 14 December 2016 21: 16
    +3
    Thanks for the interesting story. Despite the fact that this was the time of the formation and strengthening of the Russian state, little is written about it, although it was under Alexei Mikhailovich that the foundations of the successes of Peter I were laid.

    Interestingly, and who was the godmother of Peter Alekseevich?
    1. Serg koma
      Serg koma 15 December 2016 04: 59
      +1
      Quote: Caretaker
      Interestingly, and who was the godmother of Peter Alekseevich?


      According to the calendar, Peter 1 was supposed to be "Isaac". Then all the Romanovs for this (violation of church canons) prayed for it)))
      Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron: "St. Isaac's Cathedral is the main church in St. Petersburg, dedicated to the name of St. Isaac of Dalmatia, whose MEMORY IS HONORED on May 30, PETER THE GREAT'S BIRTHDAY."

      The heavy atomic missile cruiser "Peter the Great" would now be called "Isaac the Great", and the city on the Neva would be St. Isaacburg (or Izyaburg ???) laughing
      So it can be Trubetskoy, like the godfather, together with the godmother (the godmother of Peter was the sister of Alexei Mikhailovich, Princess Irina) "put his hand" to this NAME, and we do not call WE now the city, etc. by some insane name request ?? wassat
      1. Caretaker
        Caretaker 15 December 2016 19: 08
        +1
        The city is named after St. Peter and not Tsar Peter Alekseevich - this is the official version.

        Those who had the right to choose did not adhere too strictly to the clergy. Remember the numerous Ivanov, Vasiliev, Petrov, Alexandrov, Nikolaev.
  4. Cartalon
    Cartalon 15 December 2016 13: 31
    +1
    Apparently, the governor was sensible, but Konotop is something like Balaclava only bigger, after him the Russians mostly defended