Military Review

Warrior health is one of the foundations of national security

Warrior health is one of the foundations of national securityResearch conducted by scientists on the health status of persons of military age, military personnel, rescuers, persons from special forces involved in anti-terrorist combat operations, revealed a decrease in psychophysiological reserves and a low level of adaptation mechanisms to the operational recovery of occupational health. This is not about painful conditions, but about the functional capabilities of the individual soldier. The decline in the level of professional health of a serviceman, that is, his compensatory, adaptive reactions to the effects of environmental, psychophysical, and socio-psychological factors, have an inadequate effect on the combat characteristics of a warrior. This is reflected in the reduction of motivation for military service, in the reduction of mental resistance to anti-army propaganda and the actualization of their professional capabilities, in public passivity. All this gives rise to apathy, the loss of the main volitional and personal core - its true self-sufficiency.

This gave rise to the practical need for a new strategic orientation of military medicine, psychology, ecology, ergonomics, catastrophe medicine in the form of a shift of the disease-centrist paradigm, in the center of which is the patient, for the health-centric, with the health of a healthy person in the center. The purpose of this orientation is to preserve a healthy soldier, his psycho-physiological endurance and vitality to the conditions of military service and performance of soldier’s duty.


It should be especially emphasized that the time has come when the military doctrines of national security should more effectively include such a component of combat readiness as health. The health of a practically healthy soldier is supported by his goal-setting activity, professionalism in achieving combat results, the preservation of military equipment and his own life. It seems that such a question in the future will lead to the idea of ​​creating medical troops. For health, as a biosocial factor for the longevity of a professional army, is not quite a “logistical function”, but a function of the combat readiness of troops, and therefore the national security of the Fatherland.

For example, military medicine in aviation - this is the development of medical and technical requirements for aircraft and weapon systems, for life support and survival tools, for professional selection, for training equipment, for methods and means of psychophysical training, for psychological support for retraining for new aviation equipment, for the development of a support system flight safety in all areas related to the human factor. Military aerospace and marine medicine ensures human safety in extraterrestrial conditions by participating in the formation of professional abilities, maintaining professional longevity, and military potential for 20–25 years. All this makes up the economy, as 4th and 5th generation aircraft will cost $ 30–40 million each, and training a high-quality pilot will cost $ 10–15 million. If military aviation medicine reduces the scientific level and its strategic potential, then there can be no doubt that combat effectiveness will be lower than calculated, since there will naturally be a gap between the tactical and technical capabilities of aerospace systems and the required level of professionalism and professional health.

For military personnel, psychophysical health realizes the ability to use knowledge, skills, and moral motivations to fulfill military duty — to protect the homeland. At the same time, let me emphasize that the performance of duty as an indicator of the spiritual and moral reliability of a serviceman is not identically simplified reflex performance.

From a socio-psychological point of view, duty, as a spiritual impulse, accomplishes the ascent of a warrior's personality from moral duties to a stable mental state of obligation. In this case, actions and actions are guided not only by the order, but also by the personal motive of the serviceman, permeated with responsibility and gratitude for the opportunity given to him to actively participate in the implementation of the military doctrine. With this judgment I want to highlight the idea that the military doctrine is addressed to the subject of military labor, shaping his mindset, beliefs, determining the highest meaning and his place in solving the tasks set. It is the socially experienced state of personal demand that forms in the self-consciousness of a person the essential interest in the improvement and growth of professionalism as an incentive regulating all military and spiritual activities. The psychological uniqueness of the service process in the army consists in the fact that the fact of submission for a warrior’s personality is not a volition, but volitional activity, organically included in the practical life of a serviceman.

I will dwell further on one of the leading components of the mentality - the spiritual condition of the officers.


Since the concepts of spirit, soul, attitude is different, I will briefly allow you to give explanations, naturally, in relation to dangerous professions.

Spirituality is a sensual mental state that reflects the integrity of the personality's personality, its genetic, cultural code in the realization of its maximum virtuous possibilities. The main difference between this state and the usual one is that the level of the working state is realized in the manner of the goal in achieving the result. The goal as a psychic education is immanently inherent in the personality; it is selected, controlled and corresponding to life.

The spirit is a real experience of the sublime mental state of the soul of the subject of labor (soldier, rescuer, another person of a dangerous profession) in understanding the meaning of his life and profession. Meaning is the highest goal, that is, holiness, that is, that which cannot be changed and cannot be betrayed. The goal is formed by the tasks of labor, and the meaning - by faith! The goal, though dynamic with its motives, is always determined by the specific task of the present or future. Meaning, like thought, is eternal. The spiritual component of the meaning is the truth about what you really imagine, what is good for you. And this is spiritual work on oneself. The humanized sense is the source of the attainment of truth, goodness and freedom. It is the spirit and contributes to overcoming obstacles to the achievement of these beneficial goals.

In my opinion, the geopolitical doctrine of any content in the military field should state in the preamble the following set of wording such as: the army is the face of a state whose conscience, that is, responsibility, in serving the Fatherland, society, a citizen, whose honor is in the welfare of its citizens, whose spirit meets the aspirations of his people. An unshakable legal aspect must be spelled out in military doctrines: the process of reforming the country's Armed Forces within the stipulated time frame must maintain a parity level of military potential, ensuring full-fledged combat training in the entire infrastructure of the troops.

In aviation, especially air defense, where combat missions are likely in peacetime, a reduced air raid on 80 – 90% of the required conditions creates a real threat of loss of flight personnel due to loss of professional skills. In the recent past, another phenomenon emerged in domestic aviation: experienced flight personnel were unable to pass on their flight experience in difficult situations in non-design cases, that is, to increase the psychological and professional readiness of combat personnel. By the way, according to the results of scientific research, in order to maintain the required level of professionalism in flying combat duties of fighter aviation, a general and special 120 – 160 hours flight is required.

But there is also a psychological side. Pilots always have an exceptional motive for flying. This is not only his professional need, but also his vital attitude. Only in flight is formed, maintained, strengthened morale. In the case of interruptions in flights, say, in adverse weather conditions over 2 months, the likelihood of physiological spatial disorientation leading to accidents increases. The vestibular and motor analyzers, muscular sense, sense of time, conjugate actions, decision-making process are especially sensitive to breaks in flights. Breaks in flights over 3 – 4 months are accompanied by subconscious anxiety, and sometimes open fear for the outcome of the flight.

It is necessary to note the psychological moments as the reasons for the decline in the level of fighting efficiency, generated by a low patina. Its essence is as follows: psychological and professional unpreparedness for quality flight performance and the complete lack of the ability to eliminate it make professional life morally flawed. All this is deeply and nervously experienced as a humiliation of personal dignity. Naturally, the motive for flight work is reduced. But there are more significant losses, I would say of a strategic nature. This concerns the redistribution of values, the loss of benchmarks. In particular, the lack of regular flights for five years steadily formed a social negative in the form of aversion, mistrust of the goals and productivity of military reforms. Political maturity, fighting spirit, social aspiration lost their importance in shaping the flight direction. The army elitism as a self-awareness of self-sufficiency has disappeared, the personality of the serviceman was destroyed, as it was decomposed in a depatriotic society.


I gave private examples, but if you summarize all the disposable material, there is reason to formulate a psychological pattern: the lack of adequate support for combat training disarms, demoralizes troop activity, and forms a stable negative attitude towards continuing military service.

I will cite the data of the Institute of Military Medicine, which studied the reactions of the organism and the personality of the involved military pilots to combat operations during counterterrorist operations. Around 50%, after the third combat flight, marked fatigue was noted. After flying in adverse weather conditions (SMU) for actual bombing, more than 20% of crew members were diagnosed with asthenic conditions (sleep disturbance, fatigue, headache, etc.). By the end of the month of participation in combat missions, mental demobilization develops against the background of anxiety in more than half of the crews. In real combat operations, the group of risk of reduced efficiency and mental maladjustment are young pilots (more than 50% - up to 25 years). In subsequent months, the level of adaptability increases to 1,5 – 2 months.

For reference: professional health is the main psychological and biological basis for the formation of professionally important qualities. The most versatile flight abilities are at the age of 29 – 35 years. These data suggest that the lack of full-fledged combat training for more than 3 – 5 years practically makes them insufficiently effective for use in hostilities. This is so little perceived truth that there are combat flights for VKS and in peacetime.

It is worth noting another pernicious consequence of the low level of combat training, especially when counter-terrorism operations are conducted. In the specific case, poor visibility, small-sized landing sites from helicopters at high altitudes, flying in turbulent conditions at low altitudes, in conditions of intense shelling from all types weapons. However, the combat regulations do not provide for flights under extreme conditions dictated by the combat situation. At the same time, the operational situation forced us to send helicopters in conditions below the established minimum of weather, which resulted in at least a flight incident. I dare to think that the inertia of peacetime in the field of combat training was stereotypically transferred to the conditions of real combat activity. We studied in battle, showing heroism and paying with losses.

In the process of conducting combat operations, a special stressful role is played by such a psychological property, as an attitude to the task that a warrior performs. In this case and in this matter not everything was well. This refers to opportunistic coverage of events in the media, shameful sanitary and hygienic life, incomplete understanding of the general armament chiefs of flight work, weakly active support and support from research and testing centers and design bureaus. Sluggish analytical work to summarize the positive and negative experience of the combat work of all flight and support services. Of course, in the end, much was corrected and implemented. In particular, the State Institute of Military Medicine and its Center for Aerospace Medicine managed to develop and test diagnostic methods for assessing the early manifestations of psycho-traumatic reactions and mental exhaustion, as well as appropriate equipment and means of promptly restoring occupational health for successful combat missions lasting up to 30 days.

Additional requirements have been developed for the composition of NAZs, for jobs in the cockpit, and a structure has been created for medical centers for the rehabilitation treatment of combat psycho traumas and post-traumatic disorders in aviation hospitals and sanatoriums. Much attention was paid to the development of new psychophysiological requirements for the selection, examination and psychophysical preparation for military operations, as well as the formation of specialized guidance documents governing the medical and psychological support of aviation operations.


Returning to the topic of military doctrines, apparently, it is necessary to touch upon the question of taking into account the military potential of neighboring states, or members of NATO. In 2001, I was able, as part of the military delegation, to visit a number of research institutions and combat application and training centers for the US Navy and some NASA research centers. I will give a summary of the results of the visit analysis.

Center for the military use of naval aviation. Specialists develop automated systems for monitoring the state of a person in flight, and as a result, they receive data on the tolerance of extreme loads, similar to combat stress. They work out the system of connection of protective equipment with a message to the crew members about their functional state. Objective data is used to standardize combat loads. Microelectronic sensors are mounted in flight equipment. The methodology of medical research is viewed as a new principle of "unified control of armaments through the state of man."

Center for Technical Control Systems fleet (San Diego). The ideology of military doctrine is to dominate any adversary in providing communications and intelligence. The center developed satellite information for all types of aircraft, created satellite communications covering the entire globe for reconnaissance and cartography. Scenarios are being developed for providing information on combat control systems on land, on water, under water and in space for the 110st century. Funded by XNUMX scientific programs.

3440 specialists work in the intelligence and communications center. Of these, 1780 is a research staff. Budget 1 billion 233 million dollars a year!

As a result, the author made the following general conclusions:

- in the USA, the tendency of increasing military potential is maintained due to an increase in information technology, accumulation of a database and knowledge of military content about other states. The command and control of troops is computerized, forecast models of combat scenarios are created with the calculation of forces, assets and mobilization reserves. Features of military doctrine: there is no specific enemy, there are national interests of the United States. A high level of achievement is ensured, taking into account the developing civilization, technical and social culture in the world;

- research in biology, physiology, psychology focused on the subject of hostilities in the geographical and ecological environment of various theaters of operations. There is an intense accumulation of a database of the physical, psychological, and cultural components of the draft age of all the satellite countries of the United States;

- scientific research concerning the means of life support protection, survival of pilots, sailors, marines, paratroopers are universal and constantly improved.

A special place is given to information support for decision-making on board aircraft and ships, to creating means of bringing medical and psychological assistance directly to the combat area with the maximum speed of evacuation.


In conclusion, I will dwell on complex issues related to the development of weapons in aviation, specifically on the 5 generation.

Historically, our parity after the creation of the 4 generation of aircraft with the United States actually became equal. From a psychological point of view, the 4 generation of highly mobile fighter aircraft, helicopters, strategic airline complexes met an educated, motivated, healthy society of aviators. For the first time, when they were created, conditions were provided for tight military-scientific support, including in the field of military ergonomics and psychophysiology. The ideology of interfacing a person with automation has been worked out. We developed a special protective anti-overloading equipment, a profile of training on a centrifuge, complexes of physical exercises. Created ground equipment to predict the pilot's portability of large and long overloads during a high level of maneuvering. They substantiated and implemented the norms of flight loads and health requirements. For the first time, jobs, armament consoles on MiG-29, Su-27 aircraft and their naval modifications met ergonomic requirements.

The overall result: both during the development period and during operation compared with 3 generation aircraft, the number of pilot errors due to accidents and catastrophes decreased by 4 – 5 times, and the number of catastrophes decreased by 6 times. However, it is necessary to note the following important circumstances.

The highly maneuverable aircraft began to “select” health with more and more confidence. One of the reasons rooted in poor physical training of flight personnel, in reducing the educational level among the teaching and teaching staff. As a result, it was necessary to limit the maneuverability of the aircraft, that is, to operate the aircraft not in full its flight performance. Accordingly, flight methodical documents began to resemble the standards of the security service. As a result, the operational and tactical art of the combat use of 4 generation aircraft did not fully take into account their main advantage over the 3 generation - super maneuverability and thrust-to-weight ratio. In many respects, they continued to be guided to a certain extent by the standards of peacetime.

It should be emphasized that it is unacceptable to transfer the success of demonstration flights at an air show to the daily practice of the troops. I say this because for the safe operation of the 5 generation aircraft in the future, much remains to be done. First of all, we need fundamentally new sets of anti-overload suits with special automatics of oxygen breathing under increased pressure. For the security interests of maneuverable flight with high overload, 9 – 12 g, with its increase gradient over 1 – 3 seconds, require the creation of an automatic control system for the level of consciousness, and in case of the threat of its breakdown, automatic horizontal flight. Currently, the process of introducing such systems.

The use of helmet-mounted sighting devices, night-vision devices, target indications mounted on the pilot’s head is not indifferent and even dangerous for the cervical vertebrae, for the brain’s blood circulation, for lateral overloads during engine thrust control. And especially dangerous are the special kind of illusions and disorientations when piloting at high angles of attack and gliding.

According to my ideas, in order to ensure the whole system of health preservation and high human performance during the operation of 5-generation airplanes in the entire LTH range, 5 – 7 will require years of intensive work of specialists with ergonomic and psychophysiological profiles. The parity state of the 5 generation of airplanes with any aviation power is not only a successful war, it is above all a stable reliable world.

In the coming years, the targeted R & D and ROC should be increased by means of medical protection, technical means: training, rescue, life support, the creation of a new generation of Yak-130 training aircraft, new onboard computing weapons control systems.

In recent years, there have been many positive changes in the field of health preservation and in the military security system. First of all, new instrumental methods of diagnosing occupational health levels are adopted and formed in aviation, computer networks for accumulating databases and health knowledge are being created, reformed in hospitals and sanatoriums of the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, automated advisory systems are being tested to control and manage load rationing. The development of nanotechnologies regulating mental endurance and the formation of new functional systems that alter the stereotype of homeostasis, taking into account the specific effects of stimuli on the target organ, began. The principle of forming reserves “from survival to creation” is being introduced, using the properties of physical matter of wave nature and energy fields of Universe space. Science is not in place. It is desirable to strengthen the humanitarian sections of military doctrines, including the introduction of a number of provisions on health as the leading component of combat readiness and combat capability. We really need such legislation on labor, on military service, on rescuers, on activities in extreme conditions that would make it impossible to achieve success at the cost of losing the health of our citizens. This is not a myth, since health preservation is the reproduction of a new Russia.

At the same time, it is necessary to adopt legislation that in ensuring the mental and physical health of the nation there is no alternative to state priorities and responsibility for national policy. A healthy person is not so much defensive, adaptable, closing, as an open system with the won right to choose an independent decision, to permanent spiritual enrichment, to increase the potential of its capabilities.

A truly healthy person not only reflects the world and its conditions, but also creates them himself.

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  1. Banishing liberoids
    Banishing liberoids 10 December 2016 15: 50
    No, well, I’m not going to write any slogans or truths — I’ll put a deserved plus for the author, and I’ll regret that I can’t put two
  2. Baloo
    Baloo 10 December 2016 16: 28
    The health of a warrior begins with professional examinations in a nursery, kindergartens, school, curation of the Ministry of Defense of school sports, children's sports, military-patriotic camps. Swimming, skiing, volleyball, basketball, ballroom dancing should be cultivated en masse in all schools, including rural. Everything else will be taught in the Army.
    Last summer I couldn’t add my to a military-patriotic camp in any Nibul, everywhere for two weeks you need to pay 1-3 months of my earnings along with my pension. There are a lot of sports sections, but you just won’t get too, either too early or too late in age (8 years). Yunarmia organized, but in our city since only 11 years old, why? This is the truth of life.
    1. Andrey Yuryevich
      Andrey Yuryevich 10 December 2016 18: 56
      Quote: Balu
      This is the truth of life.

      I'm afraid my friend, you will be called a "liberal", accused of all sins, declared an accomplice (gozman) and so on ... some of the site visitors seem to have settled in life very well, they have impenetrable rose-colored glasses, and are firmly convinced that that he did not achieve well-being, only the one who drinks, smokes, and ... has sex ...
      1. Baloo
        Baloo 10 December 2016 20: 59
        The health of a warrior begins with professional examinations in a nursery, kindergartens, school, curation of the Ministry of Defense of school sports, children's sports, military-patriotic camps. Swimming, skiing, volleyball, basketball, ballroom dancing need to be cultivated en masse in all schools, including rural ......

        I'm afraid my friend, you will be called a "liberal", accused of all your sins, declared an accomplice (gozman) and so on ..

        Dear Andrei Yurievich, I’m many years old and I am fairly objective towards myself and others, the specifics of the profession requires being realistic, objective, critical and self-critical ..
        I started my medical career as a pediatric surgeon in a clinic and I know for sure that while a child grows up in physical education and sports, much can be corrected, prevented and cured.
        But alas ... In Soviet school childhood, no one took me by the hand, I walked and did what I wanted to do. Now in August they say the record is from September 1, when you come, there are already no seats, only for a fee. And the rest of the truth of life is just that, although compared to previous years, a lot has been done for sports in our city, everything is available, only paid.
    2. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 10 December 2016 21: 03
      Quote: Balu
      ballroom dancing needs to be cultivated en masse in all schools, including rural

      Well, and this, what for?
      1. Baloo
        Baloo 10 December 2016 21: 09
        ballroom dancing needs to be cultivated en masse in all schools, including rural
        Well, and this, what for?

        Coordination of movements, ability to move, endurance training. Who owns the body, that owns emotions, I know for sure, again, cultural cultures. hi
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 10 December 2016 21: 19
          Coordination and the ability, not to move, but to control the body, I liked to study on the horizontal bar. And culture-culture as that did not particularly care. Probably, I’m screwed up from an oak, about culture, if looking at "Swan Lake", I want to sleep (however, as in the planetarium, and in the theater). laughing
          1. Baloo
            Baloo 11 December 2016 13: 51
            A fighter during martial arts, like a boxer, has to make more complex movements than a gymnast on shells hi
  3. basmach
    basmach 10 December 2016 17: 01
    There is an old adage, when young parents come to the doctor and ask: - "Doctor, we have a child, when is it better for us to start raising him? - You are 9 months late" And besides the flight crew, there is also an engineering and technical one, without which there is no plane will not take off at all. But now there are many patriots to serve as we did when we were 90. I settled in a hostel only for 3 years of service, for the first year we rented an apartment, for the second year (there are almost 1 of us) we lived on a flight simulator, 2 meters away from takeoff, 10 months in my laboratory at TEC. And they went on flights, although they were rowdy, but the service was delayed. And now there are many of them. An army alone cannot educate if he has not been brought up physically or morally in society before. And if the law of consumption reigns in society and everything is measured only for money, then it is foolish to expect that having come to the school, even in 300 years the cadet can be altered. Even in my lieutenance at the beginning of 3, almost half of the years left in the first year, and after 5 there were only a few. And in the schools then the training was not like the present.
  4. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 10 December 2016 17: 25
    The author naturally points out that human capabilities are becoming a limiting factor in the operation of fifth-generation aircraft. It remains to "grow" the pilot into the plane, or "evict" him from there, making the control of the plane remote. There is no other way.
    1. cap
      cap 10 December 2016 17: 52
      Quote: Mountain Shooter
      The author naturally points out that human capabilities are becoming a limiting factor in the operation of fifth-generation aircraft. It remains to "grow" the pilot into the plane, or "evict" him from there, making the control of the plane remote. There is no other way.

      I agree with you, and statistics says, although not all, but indicative.
      en% 20k% 20sluzhbe% 20po% 20zdoroviju.jpg
  5. stas
    stas 10 December 2016 20: 17
    Human capabilities, including, and patience are limited.
    Capitalist Russia is not a sufficiently complete motivation for us.
    For our Soviet Motherland - as was indicated on all military banners - more convincingly and more motivated.
      PHANTOM-AS 10 December 2016 20: 44
      Quote: stas
      Human capabilities, including, and patience are limited.
      Capitalist Russia is not a sufficiently complete motivation for us.
      For our Soviet Motherland - as was indicated on all military banners - more convincingly and more motivated.

      Thanks for the comment! soldier There’s nothing to add, everything is clear and understandable. + 100500
  6. Amper
    Amper 10 December 2016 20: 34
    Well, probably, something happened a long time ago .. and is still decaying
    From soldier radio 2016:
    you won’t get to the dentist, you’re alone - we won’t send a car to the district. Parents pulled out - operation 1,5 hours, tooth extraction - 6000 rub, atisepsis.
    to the optometrist ....................... parents pulled out 5600 rub .....
    The glory of the Chubais army - the most persistent survive, the rest - garbage.
  7. sso-xnumx
    sso-xnumx 10 December 2016 20: 35
    With all due respect to the merits of the Major General of the Medical Service, Vladimir Aleksandrovich Ponomarenko, as a colleague, colleague and classmate (graduated from one bursa), I consider some of the provisions of this article to be fairly one-sided. Of course, given the specialty of Vladimir Aleksandrovich, all his suggestions for improving the medical and psychophysiological support of flight-lifting personnel deserve all approval and implementation.
    But here I am, as just a military general practitioner, the problem is somewhat different. Here is a quote from the article
    From a socio-psychological point of view, duty, as a spiritual motivation, carries out the ascent of a warrior’s personality from moral duties to a stable mental state of duty.

    We have a relatively small number of fighter pilots in the RF Armed Forces and it is quite easy for psychophysiologists to cover them. And what to do with the bulk of the rank and file of the army and navy, which will have to engage in battle with the enemy? And during the Great Patriotic War and in other local conflicts, the soldiers and officers of the Soviet Army and Navy knew what they were fighting for! But after the second half of the 90s. when both the physical and mental health of young people was undermined by the surrounding reality, when from all sides liberals shouted "why defend such a homeland?" , "money is what you need, and everything else is a chimera" and for some part of the youth all this "duty and honorable duty" has really become an empty phrase, how can they be motivated now, even with the presence of diseases limiting military service, to volunteer to defend Russia if necessary? ?? In my opinion, "... duty, as a spiritual impulse, carries out the ascent of a warrior's personality from moral obligations to a stable mental state of duty, will appear in a person when he is firmly convinced that he has something to lose. Home, mother, father, his children, when he is firmly convinced that in the event of his death, his family will not be left without a livelihood, will not be thrown out into the street from the state apartment and will receive a decent pension in the event of the loss of a breadwinner, that the children will receive a higher education and be employed. That the country he is defending will not be sold by top officials to any bastards, but will develop and prosper !!!!
  8. Amper
    Amper 10 December 2016 20: 37
    Quote: stas
    Human capabilities, including, and patience are limited.
    Capitalist Russia is not a sufficiently complete motivation for us.
    For our Soviet Motherland - as was indicated on all military banners - more convincingly and more motivated.

    I want to think, but for whom? For their Rublev mansions, for the salary of the miller, for the skeletons of destroyed villages and collective farms, for summer cottages Vova and Dima ....?
    1. serezhasoldatow
      serezhasoldatow 10 December 2016 20: 48
      You shouldn’t be so. Why do you see only the negative. Much remains to be done, but progressive movement is already being felt. It’s easy to collapse, but to build?
      1. stas
        stas 10 December 2016 21: 09
        The market flea market motivates only one thing to take a gun in his hands and topple this system to crap.
        Sweets won't work out of shit.
        Chubais does it only verbally.
        It is a pity that the king is rushing about.
        Capitalism with elements of socialism is like constantly being half-pregnant, and not be born in any way.
      PHANTOM-AS 10 December 2016 20: 49
      Quote: Amper
      I want to think, but for whom? For their Rublev mansions, for the salary of the miller, for the skeletons of destroyed villages and collective farms, for summer cottages Vova and Dima ....?

      And what is there to think for their lards and let them fight, it is clear that soon the "pitchfork" itself will have to be dug out, otherwise the oborzidi are already quite together with their geeks.