Military Review

Turkestan shooter

Customs officer Vereshchagin - fiction or were there such people in life? Historical The search led to discoveries.

"White Sun of the Desert" has become a legend of the national cinema. The images of Comrade Sukhov, Petrukhi, Said, even Abdullah turned out to be truly memorable. But even against this background, Pavel Artemyevich Vereshchagin, the former head of customs, stands out. About his pre-revolutionary life is said sparingly, but it is already clear that the man held everyone in his fist, it was based on state power in the whole district. Vereshchagin is not afraid to go alone against a gang of armed thugs ...

Turkestan shooterIn 1875, there was a plot in Kokand against Khan Khudoyar. The heir to the throne, Seid Nasr-Eddin (Nassir-Edin) overthrew his father. He was supported by anti-Russian representatives of the Muslim clergy and a number of high-ranking officials. Under the Seid subordination was the garrison of Andijan (five thousand people), the division of a high-ranking dignitary Abdurakhman, another four thousand sabers joined him. Osh, Namangan and Asaka joined the rebellion. Soon the khan was betrayed by his brother (the ruler of Margelan) and another son - Mohammed Alim-Bek, the commander of the infantry squad. Khudoyar attempted to fight, but the army threw him, only a few hundred people remained.

Khudoyar fled and was saved by a miracle: on the way he met a group of Cossacks Skobelev and Weiner, who were engaged in reconnaissance. The Khan convoy and the Russians went together, and Weiner sent a messenger to Lieutenant Colonel Nolde, the district chief in Khojent (now Tajikistan). Somehow, the rebels learned that reinforcements were in a hurry to help the Cossacks and stopped the persecution.

Khudoyar was expelled, but this did not calm down. Kokandy people got into the habit of attacking Russian forts. Unfortunately, they know little about the heroes of that era. It is the duty of the historian to tell at least examples of courage that must not be forgotten.

At the station Murza-Rabat served as warden Stepan Yakovlev, shooter stock. The station was a tiny fort with a "garrison" of a single person. Yakovlev was aware of the approach of the Kokands, and he had enough time to leave his post. But the elder decided to fight back the enemy. He filled the entrance with carts and firewood, climbed the tower himself, taking everything with him weapon - two rifles and one rifle. When the gang of Kokand approached the gate, Yakovlev made three shots.

The enemy retired, but after waiting a bit, he rushed to the fort from different sides. While Yakovlev was reloading his guns, the Kokands broke through the gates. Stepan quickly descended from the tower, went to the bayonet, and again threw the enemy. The night was spent in constant shelling of the entrance, so that Yakovlev could not overwhelm the breach. In the morning, the attackers changed tactics: they made sheaves of dry clover, set them on fire and began to throw them over the walls. The "garrison" took refuge in the station house, and then the enemies, destroying the roof, threw the burning clover inside. The headman rushed to the breakthrough in the hope of getting to the next building, put several people down, but died heroically, a little short of his goal - a simple soldier of a great empire. Kokands took his head with them.

In tsarist Russia, the memory of the hero is preserved. At the place of his death, a plate appeared with the words: “The indefinitely holiday 3 of the Turkestan rifle battalion of arrows, Stepan Yakovlev. He was killed by a band of Kokands, defending the Murza-Rabat post office 6 in August 1875. To the valiant Turkestan warrior for the memory of donations of passing. 1877.

The stove did not last long, it was destroyed by unknown enemies of Russia. And yet, on the twentieth anniversary of the feat, Yakovlev was erected with a granite monument from officers and riflemen of the 3 of the Turkestan Rifle Battalion.

Deeds commit and generals, and soldiers. Unfortunately, the names of big people usually get into textbooks, while others are gradually forgotten. This is an obvious disadvantage of our education system. In Soviet times, they talked a lot about Matrosov, Kosmodemyansk, Panfilov, but suppressed pre-revolutionary heroes. It is time to correct the shortcoming - to return to our memory all worthy people, regardless of the era in which they lived.

On the day of the death of Stepan Yakovlev, the Kokands raided Khujand, killing several coachmen and headmen, capturing 18 prisoners (most civilians). Turkestan Governor-General Konstantin Kaufman responded in his uncompromising manner: he ordered the troops to prepare for action.

Mikhail Skobelev, appointed to command the cavalry, took the rocket launchers with him, and they were useful in the first encounter with the enemy's cavalry. Under the Mahram, the Kokands tried to cover our right flank, but rocket fire turned them into an irregular flight. Skobelev led the cavalry forward with the aim of going back to the enemy's rear and cutting off his ways to withdraw. But nothing came of this, the Kokand retreated so quickly that it was not possible to overtake them.

Seeing that the original plan failed, Skobelev personally rushed to the enemy and cut himself in the thick of the battle along with the simple Cossacks. Despite the overwhelming numerical superiority, the Kokands became confused, threw two guns and ran without thinking about an organized retreat. But having received reinforcements, while Skobelev had only three hundred, including missilemen, they came to their senses. Before them stood a small Russian detachment, and they decided on a counterstrike. This fight could be the last for Skobelev, but the situation was again saved by the rocket men. The battery commander got close to the enemy at a distance of a shot and fired 15 rockets. That was enough to break the counterattack.

The victory of the Russians was complete, Mahram fell, the 60-thousandth army of Kokand collapsed, and its leader Abdurakhman ran among the first. Now the path of Kaufman lay right on Kokand. Khan tried his best to make amends, sent gifts and ambassadors to the governor-general with apologies. The Russian general did not accept the offerings and said that he would speak not with the ambassadors, but personally with the khan. Locals greeted our army with fruits, merchants came from Kokand with a treat for the soldiers, and the Khan hastily freed the previously captured Russian subjects.

In captivity, the soldiers of Kaufman found Dr. Petrov's infant daughter. The child saw his father cut off his head, and she herself was always afraid of reprisal. Upon learning of this, Tsar Alexander II ordered all the children of Petrov (there were three of them) to be taken on from the budget.

Without much interference, our army advanced to Kokand, and at the beginning of September 1875, Skobelev, with Cossacks, artillery and rocket men, entered the city. A little later, Kaufman occupied the capital, but the war continued: Margelan was still to be taken, where Abdurahman was hiding with the remnants of the troops. But he, as soon as we came out to Margelan, fled again, this time towards the mountains, to the Ming-Tube tract. Catch the bastard had Skobelev.

The Russian commander whipped around the territories still remaining in the hands of the rebels. The troops loyal to Abdurakhman were demoralized and the masses left their leader. As a result, only a handful of minions remained with him. And although it was not possible to catch Abdurahman, his army ceased to exist. It seemed that the enemy would not rise again, and Skobelev stopped the persecution.

The outcome of Kaufman’s campaign was a peace treaty with Kokand, according to which Namangan feudalism retreated to Russia, but then Abdurakhman appeared in Andijan, gathering 70 thousands of supporters. The war broke out with a new force. How not to remember the saying about the unshelled forest, which always grows again?

This time, Kaufman instructed Skobelev to reconnoiter the fortifications of Andijan, and entrusted the command of the assault to General Trotsky. Throughout the city, the rebels staged debris and barricades, our squad was shelled from behind every stone and corner ... It became clear that Abdurakhman did not even think about giving a general battle, but relied on exhausting street battles. Then Trotsky ordered the city to be set on fire and subjected to artillery shelling. Then he considered his task accomplished, and the rebels punished.

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  1. siberalt
    siberalt 10 December 2016 07: 18
    Look how! Russian missile troops of the 19th century. Why not? Here, recently, Nazarbayev complained that the Russian tsar stole almost all of the uranium in Kazakhstan, dug up his whole country, and left only one dust to his people. laughing
    1. inkass_98
      inkass_98 10 December 2016 08: 33
      "Rocket troops" in the Russian army of the XIX century is by no means a myth, take an interest in General Zasyadko and his works.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 10 December 2016 08: 52
        Quote: inkass_98
        "Rocket troops" in the Russian army of the XIX century is by no means a myth, take an interest in General Zasyadko and his works

        I want to add Konstantinov.
        “Konstantin Ivanovich Konstantinov (1818-1871) - Russian scientist and inventor in the field of artillery, rocket technology, instrumentation and automation, lieutenant general, artilleryman.
        On March 5, 1850, by Highest Decree, Colonel Konstantinov was appointed commander of the St. Petersburg Rocket Plant, Russia's first industrial enterprise for the production of military missiles. One of the activities of Konstantinov was the improvement of production, first of all, the improvement of the technology of manufacturing combat missiles. In the years 1853-1855, a rocket institution under the leadership of Konstantinov manufactured several thousand combat missiles for the needs of the Crimean War using his technology, for which he was declared "royal favor".
      2. captain
        captain 10 December 2016 09: 00
        Thanks to the author for the article, Russia was and will be independent of the political system. Thanks to our ancestors for their courage and the wealth that Russia acquired through their military labors. It is a pity that the leaders of the Communist Party such as Gorbochev, Kravchuk Yeltsin and others destroyed such a unique state. The CPSU is not glory.
        1. Monarchist
          Monarchist 10 December 2016 20: 08
          Captain, celekom and completely agree: "that the leaders of the KPS S such as Gorbachev, Kravchuk Yeltsin and others destroyed such a unique state." suggest: -Add the SS. Man: "I served Hitler in the SS, and now I want to be with Khrushchev and Brezhnev in the CP."
          1. Caretaker
            Caretaker 10 December 2016 20: 41
            Quote: Monarchist
            В 1964 a man squeaks a statement: I ask you to accept me into the glorious ranks of the Leninist CP .., prompts: -Add SS. A man: "I served Hitler in the SS, and now I want to be in the CP with Khrushchev and Brezhnev"

            Monarchists - are distinguished by ignorance and lack of intelligence.
            Brezhnev was Secretary General of the CPSU Central Committee with 1966 to 1982.

            Z.Y. Before you write - think about it, but how about Dybenko in the Caspian - in a puddle.
        2. Caretaker
          Caretaker 10 December 2016 20: 34

          Quote: captain
          ... like Gorbochev ...

          I also do not respect this leader, but why make grammatical mistakes.
          Correctly spelled - GorbAchev.
          1. peta locksmith
            peta locksmith 12 December 2016 00: 48
            spelled correctly - humpback - let it be all as in Europe
      3. Zymran
        Zymran 10 December 2016 09: 25
        I was surprised to learn at one time that the British, the first of the Europeans to use rockets, borrowed them from some Indian principality, after they had been robbed of them notably.
      4. your1970
        your1970 10 December 2016 09: 29

        Rocket platoon Semirechensky Cossack troops, about 1891 g.

        Konstantinov’s machines, though Finns used improvised rockets in 40-ies(and what will happen to them, machines, just - 90 (!!!!) years from the day of invention) for throwing leaflets

        A snack
        Firing ranges of the Konstantinov system missiles created by him in 1850 – 1853 years were quite significant for that time. So, a 4-inch rocket, equipped with 10 pound (4,1 kg) grenades, had a maximum firing range 4150 m, and a 4-inch incendiary rocket - 4260 m. The firing ranges of combat missiles far exceeded the firing ranges of artillery pieces of the corresponding calibers. For example, a quarter-pound mountain unicorn arr. 1838 had a maximum firing range of only 1810 meters.

        Konstantinov's rockets by its weight and size characteristics differed little from foreign analogues, but surpassed them in accuracy. So, comparative tests American (Gel systems) and Russian missiles spent in the summer 1850 yearsshowed that lateral deviation Russian missiles were no more than 30 steps (21 m) (!!!!!!!!), While the American rockets had a lateral deviation of up to 240 steps (171 m).

        Z.Y. so there’s no need to ulce about Russia's missile weapons — everything was quite worthy for its time ...
        1. nezvaniy_gost
          nezvaniy_gost 24 March 2017 18: 11
          the uniform of the soldiers is not like
    2. Zymran
      Zymran 10 December 2016 09: 27
      There was no talk about uranium, but what Nazer said could be read in any Soviet history textbook of the Kazakh SSR.
      About rockets have already answered.
    3. ARIKE
      ARIKE 10 December 2016 10: 39
      Read the work of P.I. Kachura "The Rocketeers of the Russian Empire" is a very detailed work, much will become clear.
  2. Victor N
    Victor N 10 December 2016 08: 36
    Glory and memory to the shooter Stepan Yakovlev! Raise a glass for a glorious hero and other glorious warriors!
    Klimov Ivan Alekseevich - commander of the 13th separate border battalion, December 1923, Termez region: with 16 fighters went to pursue (!) A gang of basmachi of 200 sabers, caught up, defeated, he died. Eternal glory!
    Does anyone know where his grave is? Report [email protected]
    1. your1970
      your1970 10 December 2016 09: 17
      troops, to be more exact, the armed formations of Central Asia did not differ, apparently, neither in the 19th, nor in the 20th century
      1. Monarchist
        Monarchist 10 December 2016 20: 15
        Svoy1970. These are exactly Kokand or Khiva warriors were mediocre. Discipline, courage, or any ideology do not ask
    2. peta locksmith
      peta locksmith 12 December 2016 01: 06
      unfortunately, I don’t know about Klimov, but according to his grandfather, he fought in civilian life at Budenny - as he said - he drove the Bukhara emir in the sand - they also buried in the sand, solemnly on the main square of settlements, sometimes in a Christian cemetery, if such It was...
      Klimov, commander, Hero, maybe there is information about him in the State Archive of the Russian Federation? or in Termez?

      Bright memory to our ancestors who fought for their homeland!
      1. Victor N
        Victor N 15 December 2016 12: 42
        I found on the Internet, the information is correct. For the first time I heard about Klimsk Komesk at a training in Termez, in the local software there was an outpost named after Komesk Klimov. At first I didn’t pay attention, it was later thought over when he himself drove the Afghans in the sands - we, too, had no one to hope in maintaining order. But to go in pursuit with such a balance of power - this is not reckless reckless .... This is .... In a word, a bow to the WARRIOR!
        We always raise a glass with friends "For the squadron commander Klimov"!
  3. Mamka pula
    Mamka pula 10 December 2016 14: 03
    Very interesting
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 10 December 2016 17: 33
    This is what the artillery officer from the Russian avant-garde M.A. Mikhailov: "On August 15, the whole detachment set out from Pskent to Khojent. There were no hostile gangs anywhere, but traces of their recent stay here remained: along the road, carts with clamps and station property abandoned by the drivers were visible; Uralskaya station was burned, as well as the next two stations. : Dzhan-Bulak and Murza-Rabat. At the latter, the disfigured and decapitated corpse of the headman of this station, an indefinite-leave private of the 1st rifle battalion, Yakovlev, was found; he probably defended himself from the Kokand people for a long time, since all the walls of the station, inside and outside, were beaten bullets, all property looted. The body of Yakovlev, a few days before the arrival of the detachment, was found near the station by the train of Colonel Garnovsky and buried. Now it was again found dug and hacked. This atrocity of the Kokand people terribly embittered the Cossacks, who opened the grave of the martyr. "
    1. Caretaker
      Caretaker 10 December 2016 20: 56
      Eternal glory to the Heroes!
      Yakovlev put a lot of bandits, since they had dug up the grave.
      This atrocity of the Kokandans terribly embittered the Cossacks, who renewed the grave of the martyr

      Probably, the Kokandans later regretted it, or maybe not, it was their custom.
      1. Unclean
        Unclean 3 February 2017 11: 49
        That is their whole point. Everything is said at the end of the article what to do with them .... Then Trotsky ordered the city to be set on fire and subjected to artillery shelling. After which he considered his task accomplished, and the rebels punished. The city burned down, and there it doesn’t matter how much and who is left.
  5. Monarchist
    Monarchist 10 December 2016 20: 35
    How much we still do not know about the glorious feats of our ancestors. More precisely, we forgot that the Russian Wars from the time of Batu have been known for their steadfastness, for example, Evpatiy Kolovrat.
    Thanks to the author for his story and wish: to talk more about the forgotten exploits of our ancestors.
  6. stas
    stas 31 January 2017 23: 40
    Thanks to the author, good article.
    There is something to be proud of.
  7. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 14 May 2017 14: 38
    Thanks for the article, I did not know about this feat. And the missile forces of the Russian Empire in the first half of the 19 century were some of the best in the world, not inferior to the British, French and German, and far superior to the American.
  8. Molot1979
    Molot1979 24 August 2017 11: 46
    And so the empire was created. It was only then that the defeated were attracted to the imperial elite, they were given privileges, and they developed the conquered areas. And the war itself was fierce. How many civilians died there in a burning city? And as long as necessary, so much died, nobody cared. So they kicked out the desire to rebel and commit atrocities.