Small but very interesting fragments from the book “Dedicated Russia. Our allies are from Boris Godunov to Nicholas II. ” It fairly accurately describes the constant meanness and betrayal that accompanied any contact between the Rus and the European "neighbors". However, the author does not explain why it is all those whom he calls English, Austrians, French, and so on. That was the attitude of the Rus? He did not dare to say what the Russian general, Count Artemy Skull-Spiridovich, wrote about at the beginning of the last century in the book The Hidden Hand. Secret World Government. The author may have understood, but did not dare to write about Zionism, about the Jewish financial mafia, which has done everything possible for centuries to destroy the white population of the planet; constantly fighting everyone, organizing all wars and revolutions, all armed conflicts, terrorist acts and treason. Only Academician Nikolai Levashov dared openly to write about this in his famous book Russia in Curved Mirrors.
Like any state that has a long historyRussia has a vast experience of military and diplomatic alliances. In the harsh struggle for a place under the sun on the political map of the world, our state entered into coalitions, participated in wars, step by step pushing the boundaries of the empire and repelling external aggressors.
But it is worth only looking attentively at the relations of Russia with its partners and colleagues, as step by step, gradually, the picture of incredible and constant betrayal opens! All our allies always cheated on us as soon as possible! Yes, that there - they themselves created these opportunities!
In response to this, Russia, as if with some sort of veil in her eyes, continued to fight and help, save and create, paying for these gifts with the blood of her sons. And so - from year to year, from century to century. In response to our help - again incredible ingratitude and outright betrayal. This vicious circle continues to this day, and there is no end in sight, no edge.
Russia's allies betrayed her always. And there are no exceptions in the rule - all our military and political "friends" behaved this way. Therefore, starting from this page, the word "ally" we will be quoted, because only in this way it will correspond to the truth.
Why are we today talking about the affairs of long past? Indeed, even today our country has “true” friends and partners, and until we understand how they behaved before, we will not be able to appreciate their current cunning.
Recipes for future victories for Russia lie in the understanding of past defeats!
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In February, 1799, Pavel I appointed Field Marshal Suvorov Commander-in-Chief of the Russian troops sent to Italy. Paul went to meet the requests of the "allies", although he himself was in a cool relationship with the famous commander. We must pay tribute to the emperor - he managed to step on his own pride and make the only right decision. It is in this campaign that Suvorov will show his best qualities, and, no doubt, will save the honor of the Russian army. While our seventy-year-old hero leaves his estate Konchanskoe and goes to the troops, we will tell about him in more detail. I swear, he deserved it!
Alexander Suvorov, who bore titles: Count Rymniki, His Highness Prince Italian, Count of the Russian and Roman Empire, Generalissimo of Russian ground and sea forces, Field Marshal of the Austrian and Sardinian troops, Sardinian Kingdom Grand and Prince of the Royal Blood was born 13 November 1729 in Moscow.
For his more than 50 summer military service, he was awarded the highest Russian and foreign orders: St. Andrew the First-Called Apostle, St. George 1 degree. St. Vladimir 1 degree. St. Alexander Nevsky, St. Anna 1 degree. St. John of Jerusalem big cross, Austrian Maria Theresa of 1 class, Prussian Black Eagle, Red Eagle and For Dignity, Sardinian Annunciation and St. Mauritius and Lazarus, Bavarian St. Hubert and Golden Lion, French Kamelsky Virgin Mary and St. Lazar, Polish White Eagle and St. Stanislav.
This enumeration simply enthralls, and in fact all these awards he received for real victories! Born into a nobleman’s family (his father was a general of the Russian army), Suvorov was one of the most educated military figures of the 18 century; he knew mathematics, philosophy, history, spoke German, French, Italian, Polish, Turkish, as well as some Arabic, Persian and Finnish; perfectly knew the fortification.
K. Lebezhko. Suvorov teaches soldiers
The culmination of his brilliant military career were the Italian and Swiss campaigns. Due to the direct betrayal of our "allies", Suvorov was forced to simply work wonders. Having taken 4 on April 1799, the command of the allied Russian-Austrian forces in Italy (86 thousand) Suvorov went west. Part of the forces, he blocked the city of Mantua, and himself with 43 thousand people. moved towards the French army.
15 April, Russian-Austrian troops approached the Adda River, on the opposite bank of which the army of General Moreau was stationed (28 thousand people). Crossing the water barrier in front of an experienced strong opponent is one of the most difficult tasks for any commander. Suvorov experience was not to occupy.
Early in the morning, a detachment under the command of General Bagration struck a distracting blow to the left flank of the French. Under cover of this maneuver, the next day, the main forces of the Allied army forced the river in the central direction. The French fought desperately, but having lost 7,5 thousand people, were forced to retreat. Despite the fact that he was advancing, Suvorov’s losses amounted to just 2,5 thousand people. A truly brilliant victory!
Rejecting the siege of a large fortress of Mantua, on which the Austrians insisted, Suvorov invaded Piedmont and captured Milan and Turin. Meanwhile, another French army in the south of Italy (35 thousand people) hastily moved north to help the defeated Moreau. General MacDonald, an ethnic Scotsman, commanded these troops, and Napoleon later said: “You can only trust him until he hears the first sounds of bagpipes.” But, as we know, the Russian national instrument is by no means the bagpipes, and therefore it was just right for fighting Suvorov.
The attitude of our commander to his soldiers is widely known. For his care, they answered him with love. The word "ally" was also not an empty sound for Suvorov. When MacDonald approached, unexpectedly attacked the Austrian detachment of General Ott, Suvorov immediately rushed to help. In the summer heat, Russian soldiers had to flee (!) To keep up with the battlefield.
Overcoming more than 60 km in 38 hours, Suvorov with 30 thousands of his soldiers arrived in time. Advanced Russian units immediately joined the battle and pushed the troops of MacDonald, who did not expect such a rapid approach of the Russian army. The next day, Suvorov, despite the fatigue of the troops with a difficult transition, was the first to launch an attack by the superior forces of the French. By the end of the day, which was held in stubborn fights, the French were pushed aside to the river Trebbia. In some places on the banks of the river, the battle continued until 11 hours of the night, turning into hand-to-hand combat.
The next day, in the morning of 8 June 1799, MacDonald decided to seize the initiative. Taking advantage of numerical superiority, the French began to push the Russian regiments. The most critical moment of the battle has come. Suvorov did not react to the statements of his generals about the impossibility of restraining the French. At the most critical moment, the 70-year-old commander himself jumped on his horse and, in one shirt, rode to the position to cheer up his miracle heroes. Inspired by the appearance of Suvorov in their ranks, the soldiers launched a counterattack. The French could not stand it and retreated to their original positions.
By the night the battle subsided. Meanwhile, Suvorov was informed that he was already in the rear of the equestrian patrols of the Moreau army, which was in a hurry to help MacDonald. Before the Suvorov army threatened encirclement. Then the field marshal decided to attack MacDonald the next morning in order to inflict a final defeat on him and prevent him from joining the Moreau army. But the troops of MacDonald, who lost half of the entire army (16 thousand people) could not continue the battle. Wounded MacDonald, not believing in her success, gave the order to retreat. Allies lost 6 thousand people. - the ratio of losses is again in favor of the Russian commander.
The genius and perseverance of Suvorov, the courage of the soldiers grant success to the Russian arms. There comes a final break in the course of the entire campaign. MacDonald, with the remnants of the troops, locks himself in Genoa, which the English Admiral Nelson is blocking from the sea. The royal Neapolitan army with the support of the Russian detachment under the command of the captain 2-rank G. G. Belly takes Naples. The war seemed to be won. Suvorov proposes to finish off the French in the area of Genoa and begin the invasion of France and thereby triumphantly end the campaign.
But the Austrian leadership had other plans. At first, it offered to seize the remaining fortresses in Italy, in which French garrisons were settled. The Russian commander did not hide his indignation: “Everywhere, an ignorant gofkrygsrat, a timid office, an ineradicable habit of being beaten ... The local conquests are not by their rules, as they are used to losing everything to the Gates of Vienna ...” - the famous commander wrote.
The situation in France is reminiscent of panic. The fruits of Napoleon's campaign 1796, are lost in two months. The smell of a military catastrophe and, as always happens in such cases, power begins to slip away from the hands of the weak in order to fall at the feet of the strong. The collective authority of the French Republic - Directory begins to reduce its composition. The number of directors is reduced from five to three. However, it becomes clear to everyone that this does not change anything and only one determined person can stop the impending catastrophe. It remained only to find him.
Of the available heroes-generals, Xnum-year-old Joubert, a participant in the Napoleonic Italian campaign, is most suited for the role of savior of the Fatherland. However, General Barthelemy-Catherine Joubert is not as popular in the army and the people as necessary. Military victory can give him the missing glory. On July 27 he is appointed commander-in-chief and, using the respite courtesy of the Austrians, re-forms the army.
Meanwhile, Suvorov, occupies the whole of northern Italy, except besieged Genoa. The French are in a hurry. General Joubert, at the head of the 38-thousandth army moved forward. Reaching the town of Novi, the French general saw on the plain an 65-thousandth army of allies. The story left us about this joke of Suvorov: "Young Joubert came to learn - we will give him a lesson!". Realizing that power is not on his side, the French commander took a strong natural position in the foothills.
Suvorov realized that he would not be able to lure Joubert to the plain. Then the Russian commander decided to attack himself: 4 August 1799, the Russians went to storm the fortified French positions. At the very beginning of the fight, General Joubert received a mortal wound. He will be buried in Paris with great honors, but he was not destined to rule France! Replaced the slain, General Moreau decided to stand, hoping for the courage of his soldiers and the strength of his positions.
The hard fight lasted seven hours, and its outcome remained unclear. Indeed, the French soldiers on this day showed miracles of courage, beating off blow by blow. It was a terrible heat, and both armies simply fell from exhaustion, having exhausted all reserves. But the Russians were stronger. At six o'clock in the evening Moreau gave the order to retreat, but soon the retreat turned into a flight. By eight o'clock the battle ended with the full thunder of the French. The loss of the allied army amounted to 6,5 thou. The French lost 11 thousand people. (Of these, about 5 thousand prisoners).
Due to the great fatigue of the soldiers and the coming night, the Allies did not pursue the French troops, who managed to retreat to Genoa. The final defeat of Moreau remained only a matter of time, and this opened up the Allies almost free path to southern France. In the north of Italy, after arriving in English-Russian the fleet Chichagov and Popham squadrons intensified active operations. A joint English-Russian landing landed. However, he does not receive the necessary support and the offensive loses pace.
The protagonist of all the Napoleonic wars, Napoleon himself at that time was in Egypt. General Bonaparte was still at the very beginning of his fantastic career, but his instincts quite rightly told him where the main danger came for France. England can be forced to stop hostile actions only by inflicting a powerful blow on her. Napoleon is engaged in searching for a land route to India, having gone to distant Egypt. This is well understood by the British, who provided maximum support to the Mamelukes who owned Egypt. The British fleet in the battle of Aboukir smashes the French squadron and cuts off Bonaparte’s army back.
Learning about the unfavorable development of military operations and realizing that he will not save France from faraway Egypt, Napoleon transfers the command of the army to General Kleber, sits on a ship and hastily sails home. Fortunately, you can seize the moment when the English fleet blocks Genoa and a small ship can slip through the battle formations of British ships.
At the end of September, Russian troops are seeking new victories: the Russian army occupies Rome, and the squadron under the command of Admiral Ushakov occupies the Ionian Islands. The French havetily retreated from Holland, in the Mediterranean all strategic points are lost, their garrisons in Italy begin to surrender. Again, France is on the verge of doom. And her savior is near! October 9 "wizard" Bonaparte arrives in France and begins his triumphal journey to the capital. He is the last of the generals who did not know defeat, the last hope of France. A week later he arrives in Paris. Later, Suvorov was very sad that he did not have to fight with Napoleon himself, but History so judged.
The Russian generalissimo intended after a short rest to move the Russian troops to France, to go through it with battles and to seize the revolutionary Paris. However, Britain and Austria do not like the increased influence of Russia, the "allies" are beginning to fear that in case of success Italy will remain with us. While the Russian troops smashed the Kazan kingdom, this did not really disturb Europe. But when Peter crushed Sweden and seized the coast of the northern seas, and declared his empire empires, Europe began to worry.
When Catherine in a series of Turkish wars grabbed off huge territories, provided access to the southern seas, where shipyards for military ships began to be built in a hurry, they began to fear us in European courtyards. And then there's the brilliant troops of Suvorov, who have nothing to oppose, in the very heart of Europe - in Italy! Of course, Russian troops have never gone so far. According to V.O. Klyuchevskogo, Suvorov's Italian campaign "Russia's most brilliant way out on the European stage."
But the Russians turned out to be on this “scene” obviously superfluous. With the help of the Suvorov miracle warriors, Austria repulsed Northern Italy from France, and then, having ceased to need Russians, decided to get rid of them. Words about allied duty, about simple decency, never played any role for our "allies". By the end of the Italian campaign, the Austrian command had already reached the point that it was not only to dispute, but also to cancel the orders of Suvorov, to whom all the allied forces were subordinated. Now the commander was obliged to report to Vienna on each of his decisions, and only after approval by the Austrian Military Council, he was given the opportunity to act.
Russian regiments stood at the southern borders of the French Republic, it was a unique opportunity to end the Napoleonic wars not in 1814 year, but fifteen years earlier! And who knows how much blood and suffering Europe could have avoided, accept the allies of the Suvorov version of the campaign. But at that moment, the main enemy of our "allies" was no longer France, but the Russian army of Field Marshal Suvorov.
So we come close to answering the question in the title of this chapter. Why did Suvorov go to the Alps? Because our "allies" England and Austria decided to send the Russian army to certain death, creating all the conditions so that not a single Russian soldier would return from this campaign!
Contrary to the strategic plan for a further offensive on Grenoble-Lyon-Paris, the Austrian government achieved the transfer of troops from Paul I for the liberation of Switzerland.
“They drove me to Switzerland to destroy it there,” wrote Suvorov, who understood perfectly well what was behind such an unexpected turn. And - the truth. The study of the alpine adventures of Suvorov clearly convinces that the "allies" did everything in their power to kill the Russian army. And only the genius of Suvorov managed to overcome all the machinations of our "friends."
After the amendments made by the Austrian command, the following plan of action was adopted: the Austrian army of the Archduke Charles is being transferred from Switzerland to the Rhine, besieging Mainz, occupying Belgium and communicating with the English-Russian corps in Holland. Troops under the command of Suvorov are being transferred from Italy to Switzerland. The Russian corps of General A. Rimsky-Korsakov and the corps of French émigrés serving in the Russian army, commanded by Prince L.-J. De Conde, are sent there, after which all these forces under the command of Suvorov invade France.
Surprisingly, Paul I agreed to this plan, apparently he still had a bad idea of who he was dealing with. However, having agreed to it, the Russian emperor nevertheless demanded that before the arrival of Suvorov, Switzerland be cleared of French troops by Austrian forces. Naturally, they promised him this and naturally, they did not.
Switzerland at that time was far from its current well-being and tranquility. As an independent state, it has received international recognition since 1643. In 1798, French troops entered the country, singing the “Marseillaise” written by Rouget de Lille. After a quick occupation, the formation of the Helvetic Republic, one of the puppet artificial formations, which, as a sanitary cordon, was surrounded by revolutionary France, was proclaimed. Very quickly, the arbitrariness and predation of the agents of the republic caused outrage of the Swiss; the aristocracy had the upper hand in the country, and the Swiss became the most cruel enemies of France.
There was no point in freeing Switzerland under these conditions. The key to her release lay next to the keys to Paris, and the defeat of the revolutionary armies of France meant the automatic fall of all its satellites. So it will happen later, after the defeat of Napoleon. In 1815, the Congress of Vienna recognized the independence and eternal neutrality of Switzerland, giving this sympathetic country that kind of well-being and satiety under which we know it today.
For the Swiss campaign, Suvorov developed a plan, as always, decisive and swift. The Russian commander chose the shortest and most difficult path in order to crush the main grouping of the enemy. To achieve in the shortest possible time a victorious conclusion of the Swiss campaign with decisive actions of all forces from various directions - this is the essence of Suvorov’s strategic plan. For all troops operating in three directions, routes were established and, most importantly, the timing of the attack.
And we can be sure that if it were not for the treachery of the Austrians, the French army would have been defeated again. It is not the fault of Alexander Vasilyevich that the events unfolded differently. The whole Swiss campaign is one brilliant Suvorov improvisation. These are seventeen days, consisting of a continuous series of large and small battles, large and small feats of Russian soldiers.
For speed of movement with him, Suvorov took only 25 mountain guns, field artillery and carts were sent in another way. After five days more than 140 km, 4 September 1799, Russian troops arrived in the city of Tavern. While still in his headquarters, Suvorov instructed the Austrian commissariat to prepare and concentrate before the army of pack animals, food and fodder.
As you already guessed, Suvorov was waiting for a “union” surprise - there was nothing on the spot! Five consecutive, precious days were spent collecting the missing ammunition. As a result, Suvorov’s strategic plan was thwarted. Five days seem a short time, but we must remember that the whole Swiss campaign took only seventeen days ...
On September 10, the Russian troops that never fought in the mountains (!) Approached the impregnable Saint Gothard occupied by the French detachment of 8,5 thousand. 13 September Suvorov main force attacked the pass. Two attacks were repulsed, but during the third attack, General Bagration's detachment moved to the rear of the French positions. By noon, after a hard battle, Suvorov rose to St. Gothard. On September 14, the French tried to detain the Russian troops at the Urzern-Lough tunnel, punched in the mountains, about 65 meters in length, with a diameter of about 3s.
Immediately after the exit from it, the road, hanging by a huge cornice over the precipice, abruptly descended to the "Devil's Bridge". (This is where the monument to Suvorov miraculous warriors stands today.) This bridge, thrown over a deep gorge, connected with a thin thread the north of Italy and the southern borders of the German lands. A devil's stone hung over the gorge from the opposite side, from which both the exit from the tunnel and the bridge itself were clearly seen and shot through. By the time Suvorov approached, the French had only partially destroyed the bridge. The Russians, having dismantled the wooden structure that was standing nearby, connected the logs and quickly restored the bridge, rushed to the opposite bank. Unable to withstand the onslaught, the French retreated.
15 September, frozen and hungry troops of Suvorov, arrived in the town of Altdorf. There they were waiting for a new surprise. It turned out that there is no further road here! It was not destroyed by the French, it was not destroyed by a collapse - it never existed; the Austrian command simply forgot to inform the Russians about it! Just forgot!
What could be meander to this direct betrayal? The Russian army fights its way to the place where there is no further road! And across Lake Lucerne, it was also not to be crossed, since all the ships were already captured by the enemy. (The Austrian army is gone!).
Suvorov never climbed into his pocket for a word, however with what words at that moment he was covering his “allies”, we can only guess! Further our commander decided to move through the Rostock ridge and the Muoten valley. Even with modern mountaineering equipment, the path of the Suvorov troops causes difficulties, and what to say about frozen soldiers, who, besides all their ammunition, have to drag horses, cannons and wounded comrades! The Russian warriors carried everything - they covered the heavy 18-km to the Muoten valley in two days. But, having gone down into it, the Russians found themselves on the edge of the abyss ...
The fact is that, according to a previously approved plan, Suvorov made his way through the mountains to meet the fresh troops from Russia. But first, the corps under the command of General Rimsky-Korsakov, who was going to join up with Suvorov, was sent to join up with the units of the Archduke Charles. It was the Austrians of the unit who had to secure the Russian troops until they were completely united from sudden strikes.
Not only did the Austrians not clear, despite the promises to Paul I, the country was from the French, so the Austrian command also began to withdraw the army of the archduke from Switzerland, without warning the Russian command. The Austrian commander, following the secret, treacherous decision of the Vienna Cabinet, took down the 36 of thousands of his troops and with them went to the Middle Rhine.
The withdrawal of the Austrian troops had fatal consequences for the entire Swiss campaign. The corps of General Rimsky-Korsakov, approaching Zurich, the place of the appointed meeting, instead of the “allies” was met by superior French forces. As a result, despite the desperate resistance, in a two-day battle was utterly defeated.
The news of the death of the soldiers of Rimsky-Korsakov and received Suvorov, descending into the Muoten valley. But this trouble is not exhausted. Here Suvorov received the last gift of the "allies". The complete withdrawal of the Austrian detachments from Switzerland, not only led to the defeat of the Russian corps, but also the town of Schwyz, the goal of the Suvorov crossing, was now occupied by the French.
Summarize. As a result of a whole chain of betrayals, Suvorov’s troops were surrounded without food and with a limited amount of ammunition! All plans were discarded, it was already just about saving the army. At the military council, it was decided to break through to the town of Glaris. In the hardest battles with Massena's troops, who were pressing on all sides, the Russian troops managed to get through there. There were no Austrian troops in Glaris either; they had already moved away from there.
Then, in order to save the troops, Suvorov decided to retreat to Ilanz. After the most difficult transition through the Ringenkopf range, the Russian troops reached the town of Ilanz, and from there 27 of September - the area of Chur, and then retreated to Germany for winter apartments.
The treacherous actions of the Austrian command led to the fact that the loss of Russian troops amounted to about one-third of the cash composition. Before the performance, Suvorov had 21 thousand people, but he brought up to 15 thousand people to Ilanz. But even in such a hopeless situation, he managed to bring 1400 prisoners to the French.
Pavel I highly appreciated the actions of Suvorov: “Winning enemies of the Fatherland everywhere and throughout your life, you lacked one thing - to overcome nature itself, but now you have gained the upper hand over it”. He was granted the highest military rank - Generalissimo. There was another decree, according to which, even in the presence of the king, the troops had to “give him all military honors, like those given to His Imperial Majesty”.
After receiving news of the treacherous behavior of the Austrians, Paul I was enraged. “These Germans,” he said, “can take everything down, move it, and carry it down.” A storm is raging on the political horizon of Europe. Offended and offended, Pavel orders Suvorov to immediately return with the army to Russia, terminates the alliance with Austria, having recalled his ambassador from Vienna. In the same year, our ambassador from London was recalled for completely similar reasons - the treacherous attitude of the British to the auxiliary Russian corps, acting against the French in Holland (the Russian corps, which was under British command, literally melted away from hunger and disease).
Alas, the gravity of the campaign and the years have done their work - Generalissimo Suvorov died on arrival in St. Petersburg 6 in May 1800, and not having time to enjoy the well-deserved awards ...
The second coalition broke up. After the actual withdrawal of Russia from the war, neither the Austrians nor the British without the Russian troops could oppose the genius of Napoleon. But if the troops of the Vienna monarchy tried to stop Napoleon by force, then the British simply preferred to sit on their islands, trusting to fight and die to others.
Shortly after he returned from the Egyptian campaign, Napoleon made a coup d'etat and declared himself the first consul. Then he unexpectedly invaded Italy and defeated the Austrians in a battle near the village of Marengo. The Luneville Peace Treaty was signed with Austria, under which France gained Belgium, the left bank of the Rhine, and control of the whole of Northern Italy, where the puppet Italian Republic was created.
When no one wanted to die for British interests, never fighting themselves without extreme need, the islanders concluded the Amiens peace between France and England in March 1802.
Bonaparte was well aware that Russia's participation or non-participation in the war against France played a decisive role in the distribution of forces. "France can only have an ally Russia" - that was his conclusion from past events. And he actively begins to seek an alliance with Paul I. Bonaparte was ready to pay any price for the sympathy of the Russian tsar.
The Russian emperor, whose resentment and irritation on his perfidious "allies" were so great, gradually began to come to similar thoughts. Paul I was able to learn from his mistakes. Now he clearly saw that Russia was at war with France for interests absolutely alien to her, and, not least, she absolutely did not get anything for it! The logical conclusion of this reasoning was the thought of the need for a union between Russia and France.
18 July 1800, the French government offered to return home to all Russian prisoners of the total number around 6000 without any conditions and without any conditions. Moreover, the Russian warriors were supposed to arrive home, dressed in a new specially-made uniform, with new weapons, with their banners and with all military honors!
It was difficult to come up with a more spectacular gesture. Also, through diplomatic channels, Paul I was informed that France is ready to transfer Malta under the jurisdiction of Russia, and from the English, who are currently besieging it, Napoleon’s troops will defend it before transferring it to the “rightful owner.”
After long hesitations, Paul I decided to extend the hand of France, which had cut off his head to his king. Therefore, the monarch in exile, Louis XVIII, whose court in exile was in the territory of Russia, was asked to leave its borders. General Sprengporten, known for his pro-French sentiments, was sent from St. Petersburg to France with a special mission. He was received with the greatest honor. Slowly the contours of the new union began to emerge.
Russia made a sharp turn and began to be friends with yesterday's enemy, against yesterday's friends. Of course, England was attempting to keep Paul I from such a radical step. However, as always, the British wanted everything without giving anything in return. Capturing Malta and violating the rights of the Order of Malta, instead of giving this island to the Russian emperor, the British offered him to capture ... Corsica, which Napoleon was born with.
That was the last straw. Paul I had no more doubts. His hatred of the British was now so great that he easily inclined to Bonaparte’s idea of a joint campaign in India, which was then a British colony. According to Napoleon’s plan, the 35-thousandth Russian corps was to come out of Astrakhan, cross the Caspian Sea and land in the Persian city of Astrabad. The same size of the French Corps from the Rhine Army Moreau was to descend to the mouth of the Danube, to cross to Taganrog, and then move through Tsaritsyn to Astrabad. Next was supposed to be a joint trip to India.
Russia begins full-scale preparations for a clash with the British. An embargo was imposed on the ships of Britain, their cargo was confiscated, the crews were arrested and sent to the internal Russian provinces. And on January 12, 1801, Pavel I sent an order to the ataman of Don Orlov troops to march! The 41 regiment of the Don Cossacks, the 500 Kalmyks and the 2 companies of horse artillery began to move towards the Indus and Ganges valleys.
The appearance in India of a soldier of the two best European armies could have unpredictable consequences. The real alliance of France and Russia threatens to undermine the global hegemony of Great Britain. The answer follows lightning speed. The British is hastily preparing a conspiracy, now this is the only way to stop the Russian emperor. The main English weapon is used - gold. The British envoy to Russia, Lord Whitworth, coordinates and organizes a coup.
The goal is to remove the emperor from the Russian throne in any way that really threatens the English interests. The coup is preparing in a terrible hurry - the British embassy mission has already been ordered to get out of Russia! Lord Whitworth himself was taken out of the Russian capital under the protection of the police and forced to wait a long time for sending his passport at the border. But the deed was done.
Russian crowned heads, who dared to encroach on the world hegemony of Great Britain, do not live long. On the night of March 11, the conspirators broke into the chambers of Emperor Paul I demanding his renunciation. When the emperor tried to protest and even hit one of them, one of the rebels began to choke him with his scarf, and the other hit him on the temple with a massive snuffbox. It was announced to the people that Paul I died from an apoplexy.
Tsarevich Alexander, who became Emperor Alexander I in one night, did not dare, after his accession, touch the father’s murderers with a finger: neither Palen, nor Bennigsen, nor Zubov, nor Talyzin. The “foreign” origin of the conspiracy against Paul I is also indicated by the fact that his successor immediately upon ascending the throne immediately stops the Cossacks moving to India right on the march!
The Murder of Paul I. Illustration for the novel by KS Badigin
Russia's policy, which sharply curtailed under Paul I in the direction of Napoleon, was also abruptly returned to the usual pro-English course. On the same days, a bomb exploded in Paris near Bonaparte’s motorcade. Napoleon was not hurt by the attempt. “They missed me in Paris, but they hit me in Petersburg,” said Napoleon about the murder of Pavel.
The respite before the new round of struggle ended. The British immediately began to collect a new anti-French coalition, and Napoleon began to prepare for the landing on the British Isles.
A new era began in Russia - the era of Alexander I, who betrayed his own father. Such a beginning did not promise anything good for the Russian state. After all, behind the backs of the new Russian emperor dark shadows of the Englishmen were looming ...