Military Review

From the destruction of the KGB need to learn a few important lessons.

From the destruction of the KGB need to learn a few important lessons.Exactly 25 years ago, the law “On the reorganization of state security agencies” was passed, which legally eliminated the remnants of the USSR KGB. But two questions still remain - how did the destruction of the supposedly all-powerful structure become possible in general, and why did the committee “oversleep” the disintegration of the country whose security it was intended to protect?

The Council of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, which adopted the law “On the reorganization of state security organs”, was itself illegitimate - it was not mentioned in the Constitution of the USSR as an authority. However, in an atmosphere of general chaos, nobody paid attention to this anymore. According to Article 113 of the Constitution, only both chambers of the Supreme Council could abolish the KGB. And the Supreme Soviet right up until the collapse of the Union did not withdraw the mention of the KGB from the USSR Law of 16.05.1991 “On State Security Bodies”.

Disassemble for parts

It is now clear that the main blow to the capacity of the central KGB office was dealt long before December 1991. The point of no return is 5 of May 1991, when Boris Yeltsin, Mikhail Gorbachev and then-chairman of the KGB of the USSR Vladimir Kryuchkov informally agreed to create an independent KGB of the RSFSR. The RSFSR was the only subject of the Union that did not have a republican administration of the KGB — from 1965, its local bodies directly subordinated to the central office. The next day, the declaration was made public, according to which the KGB of the RSFSR was included in the structure of the KGB of the USSR as a union-republican, and not as a body of central subordination. And the law “On State Security Bodies”, already mentioned above, legally enshrines the subordination of the Union KGB to the legislative branch. That is, management and control over state security organs passed from the government to the Supreme Soviets of the republics, and in the RSFSR specifically to Yeltsin. At this point, the notorious 6-i article about the “leading and guiding role of the party” was already canceled and the KGB was departized quite successfully.

Initially, the KGB staff of the RSFSR consisted of 14 people who were huddled in a couple of rooms in the White House and had no contact with local authorities. At the same time, the agreement on 5 in May specifically stipulated that the Office for Moscow and the region remains under federal control. He headed the republican KGB Viktor Ivanenko - an unremarkable 44-year-old opera from Tyumen, who worked at that time as deputy head of the inspectorate department of the KGB of the USSR. In August, he will head up the operations groups for the arrest of Vladimir Kryuchkov and Boris Pugo, and before that he led the defense of the White House from the office of Gennady Burbulis. The transition to the service of Yeltsin, career employees who had no prospects in the Allied departments, the normal phenomenon of that time. An example of this is Andrei Kozyrev, who flew up to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the RSFSR from a post in the administration of the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs for international organizations.

The further life and fate of Ivanenko is rather revealing. In November 1991, Yeltsin renamed the RSFSR KGB as the RSFSR Federal Security Agency, to stylistically disown the KGB abbreviation itself. Major General Ivanenko headed the new structure already at the rank of minister, but after three months he was dismissed “on staff reductions” - after being at a meeting of the Constitutional Court of the RSFSR opposed the merger of the AMF and the Ministry of Internal Affairs . Then Ivanenko moved to Gazprom, is considered the creator of his security service, but flourished in his native Tyumen region, having worked all 90s as vice president, first vice president and deputy chairman of the YUKOS company. His official powers have not been fully clarified, the versions vary from the management of the security service to lobbying in government agencies. But after the disclosure of the Yukos structure, it turned out that Ivanenko’s assets are approximately equal to 110 million dollars and that he became the richest KGB native, which earned him the nickname “General and Businessman” by analogy with the character of Emir Kusturica’s “Black Cat, White Cat” movie - “patriot and a businessman. " In 2008, he had to testify at the trial of Nevzlin, but in the case of Pichugin, the de facto head of the Yukos security service convicted for contract killings, Ivanenko was not questioned, although he was the direct leader of the convict.

Since May 1991, the systematic destruction of the structure of the Allied KGB began, and after the August putsch this turned into a beating. First, 8-e Head Office (government communications and cryptography) and 16 administration (electronic intelligence and its cryptography) were removed from the committee - they were combined into the Government Communications Committee. In August-September, almost all units of the KGB troops, including special forces and closed sabotage units of foreign intelligence, were transferred to the Ministry of Defense, which led to their actual disbandment and leakage of unique personnel. In September, the 9 General Directorate (“nine”, protection of state leaders) was transformed into an independent protection department under the president of the USSR (in fact, Gorbachev was no longer obeyed, but the continuity of the names was observed). At about the same time, the 4 department of management “Z” (“protection of the constitutional system”), which was occupied by religious (but not sectarian) organizations, was abolished. The Directorate for the Protection of the Constitutional System, the former 5 (ideological administration), was abolished entirely, which the then head of the USSR KGB, Bakatin, declared the main victory of democratic reforms. September 9 banned the use of operational and technical means to obtain information that is not within the competence of state security agencies. Finally, 22 of October was abolished by the decision of the State Council (a situational, “revolutionary” authority that did not exist in the Constitution), and the Central Intelligence Service of the USSR, the Interrepublican Security Service and the State Border Protection Committee were created on its basis. maintain the appearance of continuity. The law from 3 December became the cherry on the winners cake, and the last signature.

Even on September 5, the state security bodies in the majority of the subjects of the RSFSR were transferred to the RSFSR KGB (Chechnya, of course, sagged). At the beginning of November, the 7 control (operative search, outdoor), the 12 division (interception), the Lefortovo detention facility and the technical services were officially transferred to the same place. Actually, already at this office it was possible to close, since the central allied apparatus lost the technical ability to carry out not only counterintelligence work, but the fight against corruption, catching maniacs and the organized crime confrontation. It only remained to protect the corn and the remnants of the archives.

The motives for action by Yeltsin and his entourage (primarily Gennady Burbulis, who conducted the whole process) were clear - he consistently reassigned the state security structures to himself, starting with the 14 man and ending with the defeat of the central apparatus. There are no complaints about Gorbachev at all, because he didn’t actually manage anything at that time and only one person remained faithful to him - his personal bodyguard, Colonel Dmitry Fonarev, who now heads the National Association of Bodyguards of Russia (NAST). But the motives of behavior of Vladimir Kryuchkov and many other senior officers of the KGB of the USSR who voluntarily went to the above described organizational and ideological guillotine are really interesting.

Time of Troubles

By the spring of 1991, almost all pro-Moscow governments in Eastern Europe were over. In the central apparatus of the KGB, they kept a close eye on what was happening west of Brest, letting the situation inside the country take their course. Meanwhile, in Moscow for more than a year large-scale meetings and processions are held, to which up to a million people spontaneously gather. These meetings are poorly organized, virtually out of control, and paralyze the entire city center. From sin away, the center is simply closed for transport and given to the crowd upon request. The technical organization - transport, loudspeakers, stands - is assumed by the Moscow City Council, dominated by liberals. And it should be borne in mind that the city was then built differently than it is now: Manezhnaya Square was an open space with two-way traffic along Alexander Garden - and millions of people freely moved along it. Angry, hungry and demanding change.

The KGB has actually withdrawn from what is happening. Head of the KGB office in Moscow and the region, Vitaly Prilukov, did not control the situation. Most of the personnel, including intelligence, were immersed in internal problems that had begun since the moment of the departization. These problems split off the First Chief Directorate (foreign intelligence) from the main body of the KGB, since intelligence pointedly supported the abolition of party control, which was a natural reaction to the lack of professionalism and unprincipled party leadership in this particular area. Intelligence officers massively quit the party or resorted to tricks to get out of the control of the system. For example, the author of these lines, moving from the International Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU and not being a member of the party, simply “lost” the Komsomol ticket, which was perceived by the personnel department and the Komsomol organization itself with understanding. And to touch a person who, from April 1991, was “on field work” in a hot spot - South Ossetia, with whom there was not even a connection, and no avalanches blocked the only route in the spring, no one had a hand up.

The so-called democratic street would sooner or later suggest its own system of organizing state security, which would most likely be controlled from the US embassy. On the square, some leaders would emerge from nowhere, who would proactively come to Yeltsin (most likely, through the mediation of the Moscow City Council and the Americans) and impose themselves on him as an alternative system of state security. Oleg Kalugin, who was already in operational development on suspicion of espionage in favor of the CIA, could have been a candidate for the post of the head. Ultimately, this would have led to the forcible destruction of the KGB of the USSR to the ground, right up to lustration and physical persecution of employees, regardless of their rank, rank, and specialization of the activity. A “pocket” structure would be created on the ruins, and American advisers and consultants would lead it, as happened in Eastern Europe and the Baltic states.

The most radical, East German version was also considered seriously. And he envisioned storming the KGB buildings and organizing the looting of archives, which would mean the death of the new Russian state in the womb. The events of 1956 of the year in Hungary were mentioned as a “role model”, where the insurgent people first attacked the State Security building, hung up - in the literal sense of the word - protection and took out the archives. By the way, the lining of the lower floors of the complex of buildings on Lubyanka with a granite stone was made exactly after Hungary-56.

At the same time, many officers fully supported both perestroika and Yeltsin personally. There was no confrontation between the KGB and the people, which the liberal media like to “remember”. Another thing is that some of the employees were demoralized by a three-year ideological attack by the media, and even the deeply ideological communists, who had faithfully believed in this doctrine, were in a state close to prostration. Some, especially from the older generation, were scared to watch. And despite the fact that the republican KGB has already ceased cooperation with the center, at best distancing itself from what is happening, and at worst, as in Georgia, going over to the side of local nationalists. Somehow he resisted only the Lithuanian KGB, but only at the expense of the charisma of his then leadership. And at some point, Generals Eismundas and Marcinkus had to organize a special operation to export the archive from Vilnius by train.

Kryuchkov and parts of his entourage (Ageev, Ponomarev, Grushko) seemed to be a reasonable solution to the organizational and personnel compromise with Yeltsin. The 5 agreement of May 1991 of the year was to ensure that the leadership of the RSFSR, which had gained strength, would create its state security service not on the basis of a “democratic street”, but from the old cadres of the USSR KGB, ideologically prepared to work with Yeltsin and Burbulis (in the case of the latter it was extremely difficult) . But Kryuchkov, it seems, no longer understood that the situation had gotten out of control, so that the deeply thought-out intrigues and schemes to which he had been accustomed in earlier times no longer work. The transfer of authority to the new KGB of the RSFSR turned into a rout of the central apparatus, but at least without violence, lustration, “prohibitions on the profession” and other delights of Eastern Europe. Perhaps this can be considered an achievement.

Frames solve a lot

In any case, the destruction of the central apparatus led to an intellectual catastrophe. People who gave their whole life to the union state were thrown into the street, if they did not declare their commitment to new ideals, which were not fully articulated. A number of senior officers, who worked only in the Allied structures and did not come under national jurisdiction, despite their experience and training, simply had no means of subsistence.

At the same time, odious characters, connected, for example, with ideological repression in the Soviet period, perfectly got accustomed in 90-s. First of all, we are talking about the eternal chief of the 5 General Directorate (fighting “anti-Soviet”), General Philip Bobkov. All the 90s, he headed the so-called analytical department (in fact, the security service) of the Vladimir Gusinsky Group JSC, one of the most odious oligarchic and media structures of the time. Surprisingly, he regularly made a huge number of mistakes (for example, he hired the author of these lines), but continued to work in this position even after Gusinsky fled abroad. It was under Bobkov in the "Most" formed a pleiad of the current "opinion leaders" of the liberal persuasion. And the same Bobkov publicly supported the reduction of the residency of Russian intelligence in several regions of the world, although no one asked his opinion on this issue - he had absolutely nothing to do with it.

The case of Bobkov is a special case of the KGB samopiara that still exists today. The degradation of those systems that were responsible for the situation inside the country did not even begin in the 1987 year, when the abolition of prior censorship brought all dogs to the government. Even now it is customary to idealize both the KGB itself as a phenomenon and individual employees of the older generation. In fact, many of them (including those who torpedo society with memoirs and “expert opinions”) are themselves to blame for the destruction of both the infrastructure of the KGB and the state as a whole. The controls from 2 to 6, since 70, have been affected by numerous human diseases. The selection of employees "on the questionnaire", multiplied by various forms of "Soviet political correctness" (national cadres, "Komsomol recruitment", "villagers"), led to a gradual decrease in the professional level. Special attention should be paid to the so-called KGB schools, which began to be formed in the 70's. The most famous of them — in Minsk, Kiev, Vilnius, Tbilisi, Leningrad, Novosibirsk, and Lvov — trained staff to work according to a national quota or Komsomol voucher. Not everything, of course, is so scary, there are a lot of excellent professionals and nice people, these schools have graduated, but many others received a set of specific skills then used mainly for personal purposes, and the quality of their training left much to be desired. This, however, is not about foreign intelligence - there were some difficulties there, but it almost didn’t get to the accelerated courses for people almost from the street.

As a result, a whole system was formed that rejected novelty, innovative thinking and independence of evaluation. Meshala and the militarization of the KGB - people from the army, with all due respect to them, are less prone to critical thinking. Civilian specialists are often more principled in upholding their point of view than personnel officers, in whom ordinance was originally incorporated. There was also a cult of command. That is, giving orders and developing plans was considered more important than making sure they were correct. And convulsive attempts in the Gorbachev era to create certain “analytical departments” led only to the emergence of senior generals in leadership positions, more inclined to search for universal conspiracies than to objective processing of incoming data.

Heroes of resistance

The traditional question of how it so happened that the giant structure that covered the whole of the USSR and everything that was supposedly controlling, overcame the disintegration of the state is not quite properly formulated. In reality, the KGB of the USSR sample 80-s did not control himself. The collapse began with the extinction of part of the national branches, with the polarization of opinions within the organization itself, with the presentation to the public of internal ideological discussions, and in the future it all grew like a snowball. Honor, careerism and a general decline in the intellectual level led to the inability to adequately evaluate the information received, and it came in huge quantities. In Lithuania, for example, nationalist sentiments were partly supported by the local party Central Committee, which unsuccessfully tried to lead them. The KGB could not go against the views of the party leadership, which dismissed operational reports, referring to Moscow and “perestroika”. And in the Caucasian republics, the levers of governance were generally lost, partly due to the pressure of party power.

The role of the KGB of the USSR in stories and in the events of 1988 – 1991 - partly a matter of faith. People who believe that this organization was an absolute evil can not be persuaded, but this is not necessary. For people who identify their contemporaries with the peasant call of the times of Yezhov, in principle, it is difficult to explain something. Even attempts to separate the activities of foreign intelligence from the odious events of the 5 th Andropov Central Board face rejection of the abbreviation itself.

Perhaps the main lesson of the events of twenty-five years ago does not concern the general role of state security bodies in the structure of power, but their intellectual and organizational niche in this system. The role of the KGB of the USSR at the end of 80-x - the beginning of 90-s was reduced to functions of supporting the authority of the government, which were not characteristic of state security, against the background of ideological changes in society. But the KGB itself (both the central apparatus and the republican organs) was torn from internal contradictions, so it would be naive to demand saving ideas from a structure that was decomposed simultaneously with the entire system of state power. Even the image of the KGB was decomposed under a massive media attack, although it still works to some extent. Inside the state security system, which, in theory, was supposed to absorb the best, there simply were not found the intellectual forces that could provide decent resistance to the policy of decay and decomposition.

And this is the main lesson. The system of state security bodies cannot be massive, it cannot be based on a “questionnaire” selection of personnel. It may not be perfect, but to strive for this ideal is necessary. And everyone who participated in the struggle for a single state — whether in the field, on the steps of the KGB building on Lukishki, on Lubyanka Square, on the parquet floors of the complex of government buildings from Rybny Lane and upstairs — is not worth mentioning the evil word. The inevitable happened. But it could be much worse.

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  1. Butters
    Butters 6 December 2016 05: 20
    What was the point of the KGB if they could not fulfill their main task at the turn of the 80's and 90's - to save the USSR from collapse
    1. Same lech
      Same lech 6 December 2016 06: 36
      What was the point of the KGB if they could not fulfill their main task at the turn of the 80's and 90's - to save the USSR from collapse

      Well, first, let's decide that the KGB is just a tool in the hands of the CPSU to consider the fate of this organization in isolation from the collapse of the CPSU.
      It’s another matter that top-class specialists from the KGB were thrown out into the street in one piece and they had to survive as well as the whole nation, doing whatever they did not protect their homeland.
      By the way, the Americans in IRAQ made the same gross mistake by throwing the military from the Ba'ath Party onto the street ... it cost them a lot.
      The conclusion is ... war is war ... revolutions come and go, and people on guard of the state should do their own thing regardless of political tears ... this should be the law enshrined in the constitution.
      1. Butters
        Butters 6 December 2016 07: 01
        If specialists (KGB officers in this case) cannot cope with their task, they are thrown out into the street. The system will not be worse from this.

        As an example, I can cite the case when the commander of the US occupation forces in Japan, Douglas MacArthur, dispersed all the Japanese police, which formally obeyed him, but were completely corrupt and incapable. All policemen were recruited again, but corruption began again. And MacArthur fired everyone again. And since then, worthy law enforcement agencies in Japan, and not like in Russia, where billions of rubles are found at the colonel of the Ministry of Internal Affairs during a search.
        1. Tatyana
          Tatyana 6 December 2016 07: 21
          A very interesting informational article, but, in my opinion, it misses a lot of the main thing
          First, Gorbachev, as an agent of influence, acted not alone, but under the control of another US agent, Alexander Yakovlev. Secondly, Kryuchkov was important in the structure of the KGB, as a limited personality, very satisfied with Gorbachev himself, the burning intrigues of the party functionary.
          Gorbachev did not just support Kryuchkov’s nomination to head the KGB of the USSR — he chose him for his loyal mental limitation to his patron (Gorbachev). It was Kryuchkov who could not believe for a long time that Gorbachev was a traitor, a foreign intelligence agent. Kryuchkov, confiding to Gorbachev the important KGB operational information on the state of affairs in the USSR, which, in essence, “shone through” the entire service and work of the KGB for the CIA. For Kryuchkov, even not trusting - with a delay to Gorbachev - continued to inform him in order to get advice from him. It’s just that Kryuchkov was not able to take responsible, initiative, duty-bound decisions on himself. Those. in terms of personnel, Kryuchkov, in terms of his professional abilities, was out of place for the head of the KGB of the USSR.
        2. Samurai3X
          Samurai3X 6 December 2016 09: 56
          Poorly looking for stealing Japanese police.
        3. Serg65
          Serg65 6 December 2016 11: 06
          I can cite another case as an example. Semyon Vasilyevich Stefanik Chairman of the Lviv Regional Executive Committee of Workers' Deputies, member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine. Semen Vasilyevich taking advantage of his position actively promoted Bandera to the power and party structures of the Ukrainian SSR. The KGB knew about this but couldn’t do anything! hi
      2. siberalt
        siberalt 6 December 2016 11: 39
        If the KGB was dispersed, then a coup d'etat must be recognized, and Felix should be returned to its rightful place.
        At that time, everything fell: the prosecutor's office, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the army and the navy.
    2. Finches
      Finches 6 December 2016 06: 53
      Boriska would have stuck a lead seal between the ears and everything would have been openwork, but since the KGB leadership sold out to the West even earlier than Boris Nikolaevich and Mikhail Sergeyevich, the end was a bit predictable ... An amazing historical analogy, the tsarist secret police sold the same the first of the state-forming offices and merged the king with the Empire for two times ...!
    3. Donhapa
      Donhapa 6 December 2016 07: 48
      Quote: Butters
      What was the point of the KGB if they could not fulfill their main task at the turn of the 80's and 90's - to save the USSR from collapse

      The molesters and thieves who got into state structures, including security agencies, helped to ruin the country, at the same time enriching themselves ...
      1. vladimirZ
        vladimirZ 6 December 2016 11: 15
        The KGB, as a structure of security and state preservation, did not fulfill its mission.
        We must proceed from this, considering the collapse of the USSR and the subsequent reform of the KGB.
        Could the KGB save the USSR in those conditions? It could have been if the KGB leadership had made public the facts of the betrayal of the leadership of the USSR led by Gorbachev, Yakovlev and Shevarnadze.
        Such a case was presented to the leadership of the KGB (Kryuchkov) at the 19th party conference of the CPSU in 1988, when the question of distrust arose in Gorbachev, as the leader of the party and state, leading the country to destruction. Kryuchkov then did not take advantage of this chance, and the 19th Party Conference made a decision "on the absence of an alternative to Gorbachev" during the "perestroika" period. Then the treacherous slogan “they don’t change horses in the ferry” began to spread, and others like it, in relation to the top officials of the state who were pursuing a treacherous policy.
        The leaders of the KGB of the USSR are guilty of the collapse of the KGB and the USSR.
        What lessons are needed from this story?
        It is impossible to lock state security on one leading person, on one state security body. The state security system should work, consisting not only of the state’s law enforcement agencies, but also the state’s state structure itself, which ensures this security.
        Is this ensured in today's Russia? No not secured. The state system of Russia is confined to one supervisor who is not controlled and subordinated by anyone or anything. And this has unpredictable consequences for the state itself.
        1. bastard
          bastard 6 December 2016 20: 34
          Quote: vladimirZ
          at the 19th party conference of the CPSU in 1988, when the question of distrust arose in Gorbachev, as the leader of the party and state, leading the country to destruction. Kryuchkov then did not take advantage of this chance, and the 19th Party Conference made a decision "on the absence of an alternative to Gorbachev" during the "perestroika" period. Then the treacherous slogan “they don’t change horses in the ferry” began to spread, and others like it, in relation to the top officials of the state pursuing a treacherous policy.

          Duc and schyas the same bleat in the media, and politics is the same treacherous. The destruction of the country and denationalization continues in the most sophisticated ways.
        2. Starover_Z
          Starover_Z 7 December 2016 02: 38
          Quote: vladimirZ
          the treacherous slogan "do not change horses in the ferry"

          And lame donkeys in the mountains will surely be thrown off the cliff!
    4. Dart2027
      Dart2027 6 December 2016 13: 49
      The KGB was an instrument in the hands of the party. Namely, the then party elite was a traitor.
  2. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 6 December 2016 05: 33
    Read the article
    . Impression of some kind of bacchanalia and obscurantism.
    The impression is that the country escaped some terrible events.
    Author ++++++++
  3. 210ox
    210ox 6 December 2016 05: 33
    What lesson? At the slightest attempt to drag the country apart, even the thought of inflicting damage on the state-action according to the law of wartime. Death to spies!
    1. Donhapa
      Donhapa 6 December 2016 07: 55
      Quote: 210ox
      What lesson? At the slightest attempt to drag the country apart, even the thought of inflicting damage on the state-action according to the law of wartime. Death to spies!

      Quote: Semenov
      They destroyed the most combat-ready structure with their own hands, according to the leadership of the CPSU. I hope this does not happen again.

      Quote: inkass_98
      The main answer to the question "how to destroy something stable" is always the same - from within. This has always been, and will be so, if the defense system does not work, does not create immunity within the structure.
      You might think that things like that don't happen in the FSB right now. All these majors, who received "crusts" thanks to the dads and their connections, stuck to the bread places, do not contribute to the strengthening of statehood, or respect for the state security structures.

      Do we have an article in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation on the responsibility of senior officials for the collapse of the state or for actions or inaction that contribute or lead to the threat of the collapse of the country?
      Perhaps there is no such article?
  4. Semenov
    Semenov 6 December 2016 06: 55
    They destroyed the most combat-ready structure with their own hands, according to the leadership of the CPSU. I hope this does not happen again.
    1. Donhapa
      Donhapa 12 December 2016 21: 33
      Quote: Semenov
      They destroyed the most combat-ready structure with their own hands, according to the leadership of the CPSU. I hope this does not happen again.

      Hope for God ...
      Need control over the authorities by the people
  5. inkass_98
    inkass_98 6 December 2016 07: 00
    The main answer to the question "how to destroy something stable" is always the same - from within. This has always been, and will be so, if the defense system does not work, does not create immunity within the structure.
    You might think that things like that don't happen in the FSB right now. All these majors, who received "crusts" thanks to the dads and their connections, stuck to the bread places, do not contribute to the strengthening of statehood, or respect for the state security structures.
  6. sergeyzzz
    sergeyzzz 6 December 2016 07: 12
    Wow, but I was in ignorance that they were destroyed. The sign was replaced and detached by units along with the separated outskirts, all of this can not be called targeted destruction of the structure.
  7. rotmistr60
    rotmistr60 6 December 2016 07: 22
    The article is good and informative, especially for those who know about the KGB by hearsay and the "liberal" press. And for those who have experienced it all in their own skin, of course, it reads with bitterness.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 6 December 2016 08: 32
      Any person who worries about their country should experience such a feeling of bitterness. The most important state structure was destroyed in the most difficult time, qualified personnel were lost. Apparently, the personnel have not yet been restored. Especially because people, narrow specialists of the most important structure were simply thrown out into the street, slandered. For what? At the request of the curators !!!!!!
      What can I say to this? They did even much worse with the same specialists during the unification of Germany. And ours did not help them. The hunchback and the drunkard did not notice the letters with requests for help and therefore the people died. But they all cooperated with the USSR on duty. service.
  8. Semirek
    Semirek 6 December 2016 07: 37
    Everywhere. Where the tracks are carpet. There are quiet people tenacious. That branches weave laurels. That loop will be tied for the occasion. hi
  9. Altona
    Altona 6 December 2016 08: 21
    Quote: Tatiana
    First, Gorbachev, as an agent of influence, acted not alone, but under the control of another US agent, Alexander Yakovlev. Secondly, Kryuchkov was important in the structure of the KGB, as a limited personality, very satisfied with Gorbachev himself, the burning intrigues of the party functionary.

    The KGB is rotten by itself. The USSR began to conduct extensive economic activities for which it was required to create all kinds of commercial offices abroad for foreign trade and banking. The right people and, of course, the KGB officers were arranged there. Free money and bourgeois nishtyaks at that time, huge (just the ability to buy imported consumer goods) will corrupt anyone against the background of the modest life of the rest of the people. The CPSU itself began to rush about in search of a general line, because it pushed all specialists to the sidelines for uncomfortable positions. The principle "if it didn't work out" drove the party into all kinds of dead ends. Middle managers began to look for informal economic activities seeing the collapse of the planned system. There are many reasons for the collapse of the USSR and the KGB.
  10. Old26
    Old26 6 December 2016 08: 36
    The author - pluses, not even a plus for the article.
    As for the fact that the KGB did not fulfill its main function, it was unlikely that anyone could have suggested then that the president and his close circle would be the source, initiator of the collapse of the country.
    Maybe Kryuchkov did not shine with intelligence, but to accuse him of reporting many things to Gorbachev, saying “asking for advice” is also probably not entirely correct. He was simply obliged to report to the president ...
  11. zoolu300
    zoolu300 6 December 2016 09: 22
    The "office" was not an "order of the sword-bearers", "the office was only a usual lever of the executive power of the USSR and therefore fell victim to the general tendencies of the end of 1980, like the Army, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, etc.
    1. user3970
      user3970 6 December 2016 11: 26
      Let's remember how the GRU Colonel Poteev was recruited ... He, as an active employee, had a daughter studying abroad. Allegedly, the wife of the incumbent colonel had left for her on a date. Special services of the West, recognizing (apparently from the daughter's conversations) who her dad serves. Dad was offered a choice: either his daughter will find drugs, or work on them. What the dad chose (whose father is the Hero of the Soviet Union) has no doubt. Now, think, how many government officials and the presidential administration can hold officials on the hook? Recall how the son of Ivanov, Adam, and Zheleznyak died. Their name is Legion.
      1. Dart2027
        Dart2027 6 December 2016 21: 54
        Actually, maybe it wasn't about the daughter. I don't know if this is true, but I happened to read that there is an unspoken agreement in the intelligence service about the relatives of the intelligence officers - everyone has children and no one wants his daughter to "commit suicide with a shot in the back of the head", because a month before that his daughter one of the scouts on the other side "went missing".
  12. Bashibuzuk
    Bashibuzuk 6 December 2016 09: 58
    Yes, that's why the "office" collapsed, that it was too much organized.
    Even from this essay it can be seen that the states were inflated to impossibility. For what? For mass? Well, of course, there were many dissatisfied with their position.
    Daddies dragged their sons through, sons (as we now say - "majors") did not want to "catch mice". Do they want to now? To ride on steep cars, hang out, go to the Alps - and the whole thrill.
    Elevators, elevators ... these very "social" elevators, which all ears buzzed with. Only as a drive for this elevator - daddy. Or mama. Not ability.
    Yes, and now the same thing.
    Russia, the RSFSR stumbled upon the "Ukrainian reversal" back in 1991. It was then that those who still sit there crept into power. But since we do not like Bandera's people, we had nothing to propagandize - they only spat on everything. What they could reach. And so - everything is the same, the same decommunization, de-Sovietization.
    Only - only we begin to come to our senses.
    And elevators - as was not, never will be. Sadness.
  13. thinker
    thinker 6 December 2016 10: 23
    Time of Troubles

    "What was, it was. And - there is nothing ..."
  14. ruskih
    ruskih 6 December 2016 10: 24
    The author is undoubtedly +++++. The article mentions "an ideological attack by the media." It was not even an attack, it was "SOMETHING" that lasted for many years, indeed, many of the older generation could not survive this.
    And still I want to add, return Felix to the old place.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 6 December 2016 20: 09
      Probably we can say that now, every day more and more similarly there is a similar ATTACK of the media on the entire Soviet past, on Stalin, on the achievements of socialism, even on various aspects of the life of the people during the war ...... Many of the older generation are gone. Only the state itself is being destroyed and now. Under the pretext of boards, monuments, adoption ....... As if there is a goal, to the bottom, to destroy what was not destroyed then.
      1. ruskih
        ruskih 6 December 2016 21: 09
        Dmitry, I also get the impression that they want to replace a lot of concepts. So far, those who remember are alive, and after a certain time this may be possible. Even now, if you closely monitor an event, you can see how the desired opinion is created through the media, sometimes diametrically opposed to the original. The state has no ideology, purpose. Ah, what can I say ..... Sorry.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 6 December 2016 23: 20
          Good evening, Elena. It's not even that those who remember are alive .... After all, a whole mechanism works to deceive them. After all, older people ----- basically they vote.
          When I first read the article ------ there was a feeling that then quite a bit was left until the complete collapse of the state and the civil war
          Now the same goal.
  15. Dekabrist
    Dekabrist 6 December 2016 10: 38
    A fatal blow to the KGB was dealt 30 years before the collapse of the Union Khrushchev. He created all conditions so that the party-state nomenclature of the USSR could violate all existing laws with impunity, act in personal selfish interests and not bear any responsibility for this. How did this happen? In 1960, the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs was abolished. All its organs were subordinate to local authorities, thus becoming one of the departments of the Soviets of the appropriate level. Ministries remained at the level of the Republics, and received the names of the Ministry of Public Order Protection - MOOP. And the regional administration became known as the Public Order Protection Directorate of such and such an executive committee, that is, it was one of the departments of the executive committee. The same thing happened at the level of cities and districts - instead of departments of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, departments of the PLO of city executive committees and district executive committees appeared.

    The heads of these departments were directly subordinate to the heads of executive committees. In addition, after the abolition of political departments in the bodies, all employees of the bodies were registered with the party in local party bodies. So now the heads of the PLO departments were obliged to report on the work done to their immediate superiors in the executive committees and party bodies, at the location, all their questions began to be decided by the executive committees, they could be removed from their posts at the request of the executive committees. Thus, they became completely dependent on the local party-Soviet bodies, which began to appoint their proteges as heads of the MOOP bodies, to interfere in their activities, forbidding to conduct prompt investigative measures against “the right people” and government officials.

    In addition, a large reduction was made in the KGB of the USSR, a number of its units were liquidated. At the same time, instructions were sent to the KGB and MOOP bodies, according to which it was impossible to conduct operational investigative measures against the leaders and employees of the party-Soviet bodies, and the materials received in respect of them were not subject to sale and should be destroyed. In addition, a practice arose and began to develop when workers' statements about the actions of any official were sent for permission to him, and it was also forbidden to parse anonymous messages.

    Thus, with these actions Khrushchev brought the party state nomenclature out of the control of the law, and created the conditions for its impunity.
    1. Tambov Wolf
      Tambov Wolf 6 December 2016 11: 53
      You quite accurately determined in your commentary the beginning of the collapse of the power organs. From this bastard began the decomposition of the entire ruling elite of the country, the shooting of workers in Novocherkassk, etc. The Russian proverb about fish is always out of place, even now.
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    1. Kaiten
      Kaiten 6 December 2016 19: 49
      Quote: rudolff
      Changeling tanks destroyed the Union, they now rule Russia.

      You are there more accurately with such statements, according to our information, soon kind uncles with a cold heart and a warm head will make suggestions for such proposals.
      1. The comment was deleted.
        1. The comment was deleted.
  17. Old warrior
    Old warrior 6 December 2016 11: 25
    Since the nominees of the party nomenclature began to lead the KGB, there were too many traitors in it ...
  18. midshipman
    midshipman 6 December 2016 12: 03
    I remember this time with bitterness. The country lost everything: people (population), industry, army, national dignity, history, friends, education, health care, etc. Everything happened as in the "time of troubles". Only there were Poles, and here are their traitors. True, even then it was not without traitors. Why did I call them by that name? Yes, because my father in 1941 laid down his head on the Leningrad front not for this. Thank you, E. Krutikov. I have the honor.
  19. trantor
    trantor 6 December 2016 13: 30
    There are no complaints at all to Gorbachev due to the fact that he was already in fact at that time managed nothing

    So this is the main complaint laughing
    Recently I read somewhere. In Mexico, a little later than the marked time, there was a "perestroika", a whole general was rebuilding something there. It didn't work out, now he is hiding abroad. Wanted on a criminal article: "Professional incompetence" (!!!) - wild Latinos, right? But ours writes books, looks people in the eyes, and no one has ever polished his "penny".
    NB And if you try to introduce such an article with us? It's scary to even think about where all these "effective managers" are kept.
    1. midshipman
      midshipman 6 December 2016 14: 02
      Moreover, the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called was brought and presented. I have the honor.
  20. BAI
    BAI 6 December 2016 14: 26
    In fact, everything should change over time, and the special services too. But the question in the psychological questionnaire "Do you feel the desire to satisfy the sexual need in an unnatural way?" attended from 1982 (first saw) to 2003 (last saw). I don't know what happened before 1982 and after 2003.
  21. Selevc
    Selevc 6 December 2016 15: 10
    why did the committee “oversleep” the collapse of the country whose security it was called to protect?

    Therefore, the once strong state machine built by Stalin and the KGB, this was the key mechanism of this machine by the end of the 80s turned into a swamp !!! Back in the early 80s, an American journalist who visited the USSR called the communists dead in the brilliant armor of the revolution. Simply put - everything is rotten and rotten. Rotten to the extent that the country's leadership overslept the punitive operation of the CIA to eliminate their own country !!!
    The so-called Perestroika under the leadership of the explicit spy of the West Gorbachev is nothing more than an undercover operation - Perestroika is a cover for the destruction of the USSR and the entire eastern bloc of states (this is sometimes directly or indirectly mentioned by Western politicians). There was not a single serious reason for destroying the USSR — the people didn’t want this, the economy collapsed, the standard of living fell many times, the hot spots from it increased many times over — there was one reason that the enemies of the USSR needed it and no one else !!! . After the death of Stalin, there was no longer a strong leader of his level who could carry out serious reforms in the country in the 70s and 80s - the country rolled down the track as it turned out to the abyss. Politicians, officials and apparatchiks existed in the system itself without changing it fundamentally, and the system deteriorated from year to year. And by the beginning of the 80s, at the helm of the country were the seniors with one foot standing in the grave - they simply physically died out as a generation by the end of the 80s, leaving behind no generation of successors ... By the beginning of the 90s, the old generation of front-line officers it disappeared and the new one didn’t come into being - the authorities simply lay under their feet and cunning farcers (Chubais and Gaidars) quickly realized this.

    The post-Stalinist USSR developed all the same with an eye to the West - Western life was officially condemned, but from the back door everyone wanted to taste a little Western "rotten stuff" - in the form of jeans, records, tape recorders and any other show-off ... And as you know, the forbidden fruit is sweet doubly !!! The KGB tried to fight this - but what is the point of fighting the pernicious influence of the West if it still does BETTER ??? Maybe all the same, you can fight against the dominance of imports only by creating your own goods of higher quality and nothing else?

    It is simply amazing to understand now that in the post-war years, the destroyed and hungry country of the USSR appears to be advancing on the world stage !!! This offensive rush lasted from about the late 40s to the mid 70s. The West was retreating - Cuba, Vietnam, Chile - but what about Chile? Portugal with red carnations, France with red banners, Germany and Italy with red brigades - this is a picture from the 60s !!! That's when the West really was afraid of Russians !!! The second half of the 70s and the beginning of the 80s - the scales on the world stage are vacillating and in the mid-80s the West is already coming - and is coming right up to the present day !!!
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 6 December 2016 23: 26
      The country has come in such a way that can not be compared with any other times. Eastern Europe, CMEA ...
  22. marline
    marline 7 December 2016 11: 02
    A very worthy article, in general explaining the events taking place then in the country and without kookies. Thanks to the author.
  23. iouris
    iouris 7 December 2016 13: 00
    What are the lessons, who will "endure" them? Everything has already been passed: after 1917, a huge country was effectively ruled by the organs of the Cheka and died with them on the same day.
  24. Normal ok
    Normal ok 7 December 2016 13: 55
    The collapse of the Union is a systemic problem, but liquidation ?? (actually reorganization) KGB, only one puzzle in the big picture.
  25. cannabis
    cannabis 8 December 2016 19: 19
    "You will accept death by your horse." Tsar Nicholas was wiped off the throne, Lenin was locked in Gorki, Stalin was poisoned, Khrushchev was first kissed passionately, then wiped off, Brezhnev was made a drug addict, Gorbachev was wiped off the steering wheel. Molotov recalled that Stalin told him: "Someone in the country is acting on my behalf." Interesting - Who is making decisions now?
  26. Baloo
    Baloo 11 September 2017 13: 47
    Interesting article. At that time, much was incomprehensible, causing rejection and indignation. Especially publications and a news report on the trains being driven by the young men in leather jackets for siding with subsequent looting, on warehouses littered with foodstuffs and consumer goods with empty store shelves, footage in the news of hangars with consumer goods on closed top-secret facilities. You will come to the emergency room on duty to you a pair of gloves, 5 films and 10 bandages and spin as you want. It is a shame to recall how patients and their relatives were driven for bandages, plaster and film to the nearest pharmacy around the clock. And this is in the regional center, but what was on the periphery?
    I take off my hat and bow deeply to the Chekists, who did not flinch before the spite of the day, did not change the oath before poverty, and lifted the country from its knees.
    Thanks to the author and thanks to all the shtirlitsy and shoulder straps that did not hand over the country to bandits and traitors. hi drinks good