Military Review

Chemical fears (part of 2)

32
Chemical fears (part of 2)

Layout of a chemical cluster warhead of a tactical missile


In the second half of the 20 century, chemical weapon became a cheap alternative to nuclear for third world countries, where various kinds of authoritarian regimes came to power. Chemical weapons on the battlefield are of value only in the event of their massive use. Cluster aerial bombs are best suited for this. aviation instruments, multiple launch rocket systems, large masses of barrel artillery. A special threat is the warheads of ballistic missiles equipped with toxic substances when used in large cities. In this case, the number of victims among the civilian population can go up to thousands.



The threat of using against the civilian population least protected from warfare, non-selectivity, excessive suffering caused by chemical weapons, and the end of the Cold War all led to the conclusion of the International Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons in 1993, which entered into force on April 29 1997 of the year. But the main reason for abandoning chemical arsenals in the United States and Russia was that the chemical weapons created for the “big war” became too troublesome and costly, with no obvious advantages over conventional weapons. Specially prepared storages and specialists were required, the containers with mustard and lewisite, refueled during the Second World War, corroded and were unsafe, the military was put under a lot of pressure in the form of negative public opinion, and as a result it became too burdensome for the military to contain. In addition, in modern conditions, when the risk of global war has fallen to a minimum, nuclear weapons as a means of deterring a potential enemy have become more than enough.


Preparation for the disposal of 250 kg chemical aerial bombs


As is known, the largest volumes of CWA were in Russia (40 thousand tons of toxic substances) and the USA (28 572 tons of toxic substances). Most of the (32 200 tons) of warheads accumulated in the USSR were FOW: sarin, soman, an analogue of VX, and the remainder consisted of skin-abscess poisons: mustard gas, lewisite, and their mixtures. In the USSR, neuroparalytic poisonous substances were loaded into ammunition corps ready for use. The mustard and lewisite were almost completely stored in tanks, the entire 2% of lewisite was in ammunition. Around 40% of the mustard-lewisite mixtures in the USSR was stored in ammunition. In the US, more than 60% DOM (mustard and mixtures based on it, VX, sarin) were in tanks, the rest in the loaded ammunition. To date, the parties have practically completed the destruction of their chemical arsenals, which was confirmed by mutual inspections of the enterprises where recycling was carried out and the storage sites of the DOM.



The Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, which entered into force on April 29 1997, was joined by 188 countries. Eight states remained outside the Convention, two of which - Israel and Myanmar - signed the Convention, but did not ratify it. Six more countries - Angola, Egypt, North Korea, Somalia, Syria, South Sudan did not sign. To date, North Korea has the largest reserves of toxic substances, which, of course, is of concern to neighbors.

Among the world community there is a well-founded fear of chemical weapons and their complete rejection as a barbaric means of armed struggle. The presence of chemical weapons in the Syrian Arab Republic almost became a pretext for the West to unleash aggression against this country. In Syria, the presence of chemical arsenals and means of delivery was considered as a kind of insurance against an attack by Israel with nuclear weapons. In the 2012 year, the Syrian military had about 1300 tons of combat agents, as well as more than 1200 not equipped with bombs, missiles and shells. In the past, accusations of the leadership of Iraq in the presence of weapons of mass destruction have become the formal pretext for attacking this state of Western countries under the leadership of the United States.

With the mediation of Russia 13 September 2013, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad signed an act of abandoning chemical weapons, their full utilization and subsequent ratification by Syria of the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons in full. 23 June 2014 of the year, it was announced that the last consignment of BOV was removed from the SAR territory for subsequent destruction. 4 January 2016, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons announced the complete destruction of chemical weapons in Syria.

It would seem that the topic of Syrian toxic agents should be closed, but materials about the alleged use of poison gas by the Syrian government forces have been repeatedly published in the Western media. Indeed, international experts have repeatedly recorded the facts of the use of neuroparalytic BOV in Syria. In this case, the expense of the victims went to dozens of people. Western countries, as always, were quick to blame all the sins on the regular Syrian army, but detailed studies in the places where poisonous substances were used showed that sarin was filled with hand-made shells with a poisonous substance. In addition, during the laboratory examination of fragments of ammunition filled with sarin, it turned out that this substance was low-purity and contained a large number of extraneous chemical compounds, which clearly indicates the non-industrial, artisanal nature of production. In July 2013, information appeared about the discovery of several underground laboratories in Iraq, where Islamists carried out work on the creation of toxic substances. With high probability, it can be assumed that sarin-equipped home-made rockets hit Syria from neighboring Iraq. In this regard, it is worth recalling that the Turkish secret services detained Syrian militants in the summer of 2013, who were trying to transfer containers with sarin across the Turkish-Syrian border, and about phones with video recordings found on the killed Islamists, in which terrorists test toxic substances on rabbits.

Syrian representatives have repeatedly shown video footage, which recorded captured from terrorists illegal laboratories for the production of CEL. Apparently, the provocations of the militants with sarin failed, and the accusation of using chemical weapons by government forces against the “peaceful population” failed. However, attempts to use poisonous substances are not abandoned by terrorists. In this regard, Syria serves as a kind of ground for them. Making sarin and equipping them with ammunition requires technological and laboratory equipment of a fairly high level. In addition, unauthorized sarin leak is fraught with very serious consequences for the "laboratory technicians" themselves. In this regard, if you believe the Russian media, the militants have recently used chemical munitions filled with chlorine, mustard gas and white phosphorus. If the first two substances, although with certain restrictions, which will be discussed below, can really be considered poisonous, then how white phosphorus got into this company is completely incomprehensible. However, the case is most likely in the ignorance of journalists who take to cover the problems of chemical weapons and in the ongoing information and psychological war.

Perhaps for the average person who does not understand the difference between yperite and white phosphorus, everything is the same, but for people who have an understanding of weapons of mass destruction or at least knowledge of the chemistry school course, the inclusion of phosphorus as a fighting poison is ridiculous. White phosphorus is really poisonous and, when burned, produces smoke, which when combined with water turns into a strong acid, but it is impossible to poison a significant amount of people with phosphorus or its combustion products in a short time. Asphyxiating smoke is only a minor damaging factor. However, anyone who has visited artillery firing or in a zone of full-scale hostilities will confirm that powder smoke and TNT as well do not add health either.

The damaging effect of phosphorus ammunition is based on the tendency of white phosphorus to ignite itself in the open air, its combustion temperature, depending on the additional components of the incendiary projectile, is 900-1200 ° С, and it is impossible to extinguish it with water. There are several types of phosphorus ammunition: bombs, artillery shells, rocket launchers for the MLRS, mortar mines, hand grenades. Some of them are intended for the installation of a smoke screen, since phosphorus gives off thick white smoke when burned. So, for example, white phosphorus is used in the smoke cloud grenade launcher “Tucha”, which is installed on domestic armored vehicles, but nobody considers it a chemical weapon. The Soviet army was armed with incendiary air bombs, as well as projectiles and mines, in which white phosphorus was a flaming element.


The moment of the explosion of a phosphate grenade


White phosphorus was used on a noticeable scale during the First World War, then all the warring parties actively used phosphorus bombs, mines and shells during the Second World War. So, for example, in the USSR, a solution of white phosphorus in carbon disulfide (self-igniting liquid KS) equipped glass bottles and ampoules used against German tanks. In the postwar period, incendiary phosphorus munitions were available in the armies of all militarily developed countries and were repeatedly used as a powerful incendiary in combat operations. The first attempt to limit the use of phosphorus munitions was made in 1977 as part of the Additional Protocols to the 1949 Geneva Convention for the Protection of Victims of War. These documents prohibit the use of ammunition with white phosphorus if civilians are therefore in danger. However, the United States and Israel did not sign them. When used against military targets located “inside or in the vicinity of populated areas”, weapons containing white phosphorus are prohibited under international agreements (Protocol III to the Geneva Convention of 2006 on specific types of conventional weapons). It is in this context that the use by the Syrian armed opposition of phosphorus shells and mines in settlements should be considered.

Unlike white phosphorus, chlorine is indeed recognized as a choking chemical agent. Under normal conditions, this greenish-yellow gas is heavier than air, as a result of which it spreads along the ground and can accumulate in the folds of the ground and basements. However, to achieve a significant combat effect with chlorine, the use of this gas must be carried out on a large scale. During the First World Chlorine was mainly used by the gas balloon method. Equipping them with artillery shells and mines was considered ineffective, since a simultaneous volley of hundreds of large-caliber guns was required to create the necessary concentration of gas in the area. For what the terrorists fill them with shells, it is not clear, because there are no hundreds of heavy artillery barrels at their disposal, concentrated in a narrow sector of the front. With a single use of projectiles, mines and missiles, the equipment of their conventional explosives gives a much greater striking effect. In addition, due to its chemical activity, chlorine destroys the metal walls of the projectiles loaded with them in artisanal conditions, which leads to leakage and limits the shelf life of such ammunition.

Mustard gas is much more dangerous than chlorine in comparison with chlorine. For a long time, mustard gas, also known as “mustard gas”, was considered the “king” of chemical warfare agents. At temperature 20 ° С, mustard gas is a liquid. Due to the fact that the evaporation of mustard gas under normal conditions is very slow, it is able to maintain its damaging effect for several days, permanently infecting the area. Mustard gas is chemically stable and can be stored in metal containers for a long period of time, and it is also cheap to produce.

Mustard gas is called a blistering substance, since the main lesions occur when exposed to the skin. But this substance acts slowly: if a drop of mustard gas is removed from the skin no later than 3-4 minutes and the place is treated with a neutralizing compound, then there may not be a lesion. In case of lesions with mustard, pains - itching and redness - do not appear immediately, but after 3-8 hours, blisters appear on the second day. The damaging effect of mustard gas is highly dependent on the temperature at which it is used. In hot weather, poisoning with mustard gas is much faster than in cold. This is explained by the fact that with an increase in temperature, the rate of evaporation of mustard gas rapidly increases, besides, sweaty skin is more susceptible to the damaging effects of its vapors than is dry. With a strong degree of damage, blisters form on the skin, and later on, deep and long-term ulcers appear on the spot. Ulcers can heal from several weeks to several months. In addition to the skin, mustard gas can have a toxic effect by inhaling its vapors. Large concentrations of mustard gas in the air can cause general body poisoning, nausea, vomiting, fever, cardiac abnormalities, changes in blood composition, loss of consciousness and death. But the mortality rate for poisoning with mustard gas in combat conditions is small (a few percent). In this regard, many experts in the field of CEL attribute mustard gas to "crippling" toxic substances: a significant part of the victims from the effects of this poison for the rest of their lives were disabled.

Compared with the nerve agents, mustard gas is fairly easy to obtain in several ways and does not require complex laboratory and technological equipment. Manufacturing components are available and inexpensive. For the first time mustard gas was obtained 1822 year. In the newest stories Russia recorded cases of production of mustard gas at home. It is quite predictable that the Syrian "barmalei" showed great interest in this CWA. However, the militants do not have the necessary means for the proper application of mustard gas. Mustard compared to fowl to achieve combat effectiveness requires more massive use. Poured aviation instruments are best suited for spraying mustard gas. In this case, infection of large areas is possible. When equipment with mustardite artillery shells, mines and missiles to achieve the same effect is required to make an indecently large number of shots.



It is clear that the Islamists have no aircraft and a large number of artillery systems and significant stocks of mustard gas. Projectiles with this substance can be used in urban conditions to displace the enemy from their positions, because to be in the source of infection, even if it is a slowly acting poisonous substance, is deadly dangerous. But in any case, the use of single-charge amber mustard, which we observed during the battles for Aleppo, cannot be of any use militarily. On the contrary, the use of combat poisons within the city limits takes those who apply them beyond the rules of warfare and turns them into war criminals. It is hard to say whether the “fighters of the armed opposition” understand this. Practice shows that extremists and militant religious fanatics are capable of taking any step to achieve their goals.

Under current conditions, chemical weapons available to the armed Syrian opposition, due to their small size and the impossibility of competent use, cannot influence the course of hostilities. However, toxic substances as sabotage and terrorist weapons are of great interest to various terrorist groups and extremist organizations. Particularly dangerous are poisonous substances in the event of a chemical attack in a large metropolis with a high concentration of population.



We can recall the sarin attack in the Tokyo subway 20 in March 1995 of the year, carried out by members of the Aum Shinrikyo sect. Then, quietly placing liter bags of liquid sarin on the floor of the carriages, they pierced them as they left the carriage. 13 people were fatally poisoned; more than 5500 people suffered. Poisoning caused sarin fumes, but if the terrorists were able to spray it - the number of victims would be immeasurably greater.

At the same time, despite the accession of the majority of states to the Convention on the Prohibition and Elimination of Chemical Weapons, research in this area has not ceased. Beyond the agreement, there were many groups of substances that are not formally BWA, but have similar properties. At present, “law enforcement structures” widely use irritants, which are tear and irritant substances, to combat mass protests. At certain concentrations, irritants sprayed in the form of an aerosol or smoke cause intolerable irritation of the respiratory organs and eyes, as well as skin of the whole body. This group of substances was not included in the chemical weapons by its definition given in the text of the chemical convention 1993 of the year. The convention only calls on its participants not to use chemicals of this group during combat operations. However, the newest irritants, due to their high efficiency, may well be used as functional analogues of poisonous substances of asphyxiation. In the case of the use of tear and irritating gases in combination with emetics - substances that cause uncontrolled vomiting - the enemy soldiers will not be able to use gas masks.

Narcotic analgesics, morphine and fentanyl derivatives, are the closest to the neuroparalytic toxic substances by the nature of the lesion from non-banned drugs. In low concentrations, they cause an immobilizing effect. At higher dosages, the most active of the narcotic analgesics, according to their level of action, achieve the effect of neuroparalytic substances, and, if necessary, are fully capable of replacing non-conventional CWA.

The case of using narcotic analgesics, involving the seizure of 26 hostages by October 2002 on October 2 in Dubrovka in Moscow, also known as “Nord-Ost”, received wide response. In the course of a special operation on the official application of the FSB, at Dubrovka, “special-prescription based on fentanyl derivatives” was applied. Specialists from the laboratory of scientific and technological foundations of security in Salisbury (UK) believe that the aerosol consisted of two analgesics - carfentanil and remifentanil. Although the operation ended with the destruction of all the terrorists, and the explosion was avoided, out of the hostages taken by 916, according to official data, 130 people died as a result of the gas.

It is safe to say that, despite the declared abandonment of chemical weapons, toxic substances have been used, are being used and will be used as weapons. However, from the means of destruction on the battlefield, they turned into a tool for “appeasing” the protesting masses and an instrument for carrying out covert operations.

Based on:
http://www.hab.kp.ru/daily/26243.3/3124150/
http://pro-tank.ru/tanki-v-bou/posobie-for-tankist/119-glava-6-voenno-himitheskoe-delo/423-1-boevie-himicheskie-veshestva
N.S. Antonov. CHEMICAL WEAPON ON THE TURN OF THE TWO CENTURIES
Author:
Articles from this series:
Nuclear fears, imaginary and real. Part 1
Nuclear fears, imaginary and real. Part 2
Non-lethal warfare agents
"The Bane of the Century" or the discovery of Dr. Schrader
Chemical weapon. Liquidation or improvement?
32 comments
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  1. igordok
    igordok 7 December 2016 16: 07
    +7
    Thanks for the series of articles. Will it be anymore?
    Defoliants do not seem to belong to BWA, but many people died and especially suffered from them. Although in combat, especially against partisans, it is applicable. I mean the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam.
    1. Bongo
      7 December 2016 16: 34
      +6
      Quote: igordok
      Thanks for the series of articles. Will it be anymore?

      Igor, this two-part series was planned as one publication, but due to the fact that it turned out to be very voluminous, the site administration split it into two parts. The motive for writing this article was hysteria in our media and numerous amateurish "hurray-patriotic" statements on the use of military agents in Syria.
      Quote: igordok
      Defoliants do not seem to belong to BWA, but many people died and especially suffered from them. Although in combat, especially against partisans, it is applicable. I mean the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam.

      The agent Orange defoliant does not belong to OWL, although of course the dioxin contained in it is the strongest poison and indeed a lot of people have suffered from it. This topic requires serious research and access to archives. Unfortunately, I do not have such an opportunity and time to process such a large amount of information. request "Writing", for me, is nothing more than entertainment, in my free time from the main activity. hi
      1. igordok
        igordok 7 December 2016 18: 05
        +4
        Quote: Bongo
        Igor, this two-part series was planned as one publication, but due to the fact that it turned out to be very voluminous, the site administration split it into two parts.

        Nevertheless thank you.
        The concept of poison is very conditional. Seemingly harmless substances in large quantities cause death. And poisons in meager amounts sometimes serve as medicine.
        1. zyablik.olga
          zyablik.olga 7 December 2016 18: 11
          +4
          Quote: igordok
          The concept of poison is very conditional. Seemingly harmless substances in large quantities cause death. And poisons in meager amounts sometimes serve as medicine.

          In the first part of the article, there are indicators of the toxicity of chemical weapons, and I can’t dare to call these chemicals "harmless substances". belay The same dioxin in any dose is poison.
        2. Bongo
          7 December 2016 18: 23
          +4
          Quote: igordok
          The concept of poison is very conditional.

          Here it is necessary to understand what substances are specifically in question.
          Quote: zyablik.olga
          The same dioxin in any dose is poison.

          Olya is entitled to 100%. yes
          Quote: igordok
          And poisons in scanty amounts sometimes serve as a medicine.
          Sometimes, for example, the same nitrogen mustard was tried to be used as a chemotherapy drug in the treatment of oncology.
          1. mirag2
            mirag2 8 December 2016 01: 53
            +1
            Probably missed ... There was no talk about "VX" vex yet?
            1. Bongo
              8 December 2016 03: 38
              +3
              Quote: mirag2
              Probably missed ... There was no talk about "VX" vex yet?

              In the first part. hi
      2. romandostalo
        romandostalo 8 December 2016 03: 43
        +2
        Here on the controversial horseradish-tv they showed the consequences of the effect of Orange, the shots were completely inedible, how many freak children were born there, horror. And the Shtatniks used it in order to destroy the jungle, by the way, they had a lot of people themselves, and thank you very much for the article!
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 7 December 2016 16: 34
    +5
    It is safe to say that, despite the declared abandonment of chemical weapons, toxic substances have been used, are being used and will be used as weapons. However, from the means of destruction on the battlefield, they turned into a tool for “appeasing” the protesting masses and an instrument for carrying out covert operations.

    Thank! Sergei. It became forgotten that once taught. By the way, today in the media there was in Aleppo a school found a laboratory for the production of biologically active substances using the artisanal method.
    1. Bongo
      7 December 2016 16: 40
      +4
      Quote: Amurets
      Thank! Sergei. It became forgotten that once taught.

      Hello! And I still remember ... hollowed out.
      Quote: Amurets
      By the way, today in the media there was in Aleppo a school found a laboratory for the production of biologically active substances using the artisanal method.

      By and large, the mustard which they are trying to make there is useless.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 7 December 2016 16: 50
        +4
        Yes. Agree with you. Today I came across an article by Yuferev on VO, somehow, in a hoot, we recall German chemical weapons, but after all, anything can happen and it seems to me that Europe will not find it. His and your articles have something in common.
        https://topwar.ru/33440-podvodnoe-kladbische-himi
        cheskogo-oruzhiya-otravlyaet-baltiyskoe-more.html
        1. Bongo
          7 December 2016 16: 56
          +4
          Quote: Amurets
          Today I came across an article by Yuferev on VO, somehow, in a hoot, we recall German chemical weapons, but anything can happen and it seems to me that Europe will not find it. His and your articles have something in common.

          In my opinion, this is generally an insoluble problem. Is that to try places of mass flooding of chemical ammunition pour concrete. Raising them is crazy ... wassat
          1. Amurets
            Amurets 7 December 2016 17: 17
            +4
            Quote: Bongo
            In my opinion, this is generally an insoluble problem.

            Here I am about the same. What about concrete? Also a problem, how the container will behave, I can’t even predict? There are rusted barrels. You understand steel, you know about intercrystalline rust, it could well hit this container. It looks like a whole barrel, but with a finger you poke it is rotten.
            1. Bongo
              7 December 2016 17: 44
              +4
              Quote: Amurets
              It looks like a whole barrel, but with a finger you poke it is rotten.

              During this time, through corrosion could even hit artillery shells that have lain in salt water for so many years. The barrels in any case rotted. Critical corrosion was observed even on barrels of mustard gas stored in covered warehouses. There is information that mustard must gradually decompose in salt water, but not as fast as we would like. In addition, there is OM based on arsenic and FOV.
  3. Old26
    Old26 7 December 2016 20: 19
    +4
    Sergei! In the first part, I mentioned Fedorov’s book Chemical Weapons - War with Own People. Some comrades on various sites immediately after the release accused him of almost betraying Russia. Come on, to hell with them. But for me, the most interesting thing was in his description of the places of storage of chemical weapons in the pre-war period. How much nastiness was stored, and sometimes buried in burial grounds on the territory in which Moscow is now. Horror ...
    As for WW1, the book DE-LAZARI ALEXANDER NIKOLAEVICH “CHEMICAL WEAPONS ON THE FRONTS OF THE WORLD WAR 1914-1918_ CAMPAIGN 1917” was interesting
    What struck me was, in general, a meager effect. They always hammered on us that XO in the fields of the first world claimed almost millions of lives. In reality, in three weeks (from 14 July to 4 August inclusive), the British lost 14 726 people (including 500 dead). surely much more would have died from conventional shells
    1. Bongo
      8 December 2016 03: 42
      +3
      Quote: Old26
      What struck me was, in general, a meager effect. They always hammered on us that XO in the fields of the first world claimed almost millions of lives. In reality, in three weeks (from 14 July to 4 August inclusive), the British lost 14 726 people (including 500 dead). surely much more would have died from conventional shells

      Well, this is when using mustard gas, excluding chlorine attacks. As already mentioned, mustard gas is a “crippling” agent. A significant part of the victims became disabled, others were incapacitated for significant periods. The effect was that. that the Allied offensive was thwarted, there was no possibility at positions exposed to mustard gas contamination.
  4. Zloy
    Zloy 7 December 2016 20: 28
    +5
    Reagent orange was a 1: 1 mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). It was used, as a rule, in the form of ethers, butyl and isopropyl. By itself, it is quite toxic. There were cases in research laboratories in the development of synthesis - explosions with a large number of victims, for a long time then suffering from Yushchenko's disease. To manufacture this substance, tetrachlorobenzene and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol are heated at a temperature of about 140 ° C, mixed with chloroacetic acid, in resulting in the formation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. If the temperature rises sharply in the last stage of the reaction, poisonous dioxins are formed. In general, in many reactions of polychlorinated phenols, going with significant heating, condensation products are formed - dioxins.The simplest variant is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, The lethal dose for these substances reaches 10-6 g per 1 kg of live weight , which is significantly (by several orders of magnitude) less than the same value for some chemical warfare agents, for example, for soman, sarin and herd (about 10-3 g / kg), which is typical, to such fierce inhumanity as the use of such substances on living people even Hitler did not think of it, the country that brings the light of "democracy" to the world has reached this point. Nothing in human history has been more fierce than the ruling class of the states, using the most brutal methods of killing civilians, including nuclear and chemical weapons. By the way, this "miracle" of science was industrially produced by such transnational corporations as DuPont, Monsanto and Dow Chemical, the owners of which rank themselves among the arbiters of the fate of people on earth. It was not for nothing that the Church of Satan arose in this country ...
  5. Zloy
    Zloy 7 December 2016 20: 30
    +3
    By the way, I highly do not recommend getting mustard gas at home. There have been cases of severe poisoning. The action of the poison does not appear immediately - after about 6 hours. There is no antidote.
  6. Zloy
    Zloy 7 December 2016 20: 35
    +3
    The reagent orange -2,4,5 trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and a mixture with 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid are themselves poisons themselves, but during synthesis (the interaction of trichlorophenol with chloroacetic acid), dioxins are formed as by-products at high temperatures. The lethal dose for of these substances reaches 10-6 g per 1 kg of live weight, which is significantly (several orders of magnitude) less than the same value for some chemical warfare agents, for example, soman, sarin and herd (about 10-3 g / kg)
    1. psiho117
      psiho117 7 December 2016 23: 16
      +1
      I understand this is from Wikipedia? Xs where did they get these numbers.
      Semi-lethal dose of sarin in contact with skin - 24 mg / kg,
      herd - 50 mg / kg, VX - 100 mcg / kg.

      Dioxins: in contact with skin, have an irritating effect after 0,3 mcg / kg;
      the half-lethal dose is, on average, 70 mcg / kg when ingested (for a monkey), so the numbers are quite comparable, and there is no difference "by several orders of magnitude".
      1. Bongo
        8 December 2016 03: 58
        +4
        Quote: psiho117
        I understand this is from Wikipedia? Xs where did they get these numbers.

        Wikipedia is not the most reliable source of information. Here are more reliable numbers.

        Dioxins are of course very toxic, but are not suitable for use as BWAs. FOV in this regard is much preferable, the publication says this.
  7. Dekabrist
    Dekabrist 7 December 2016 22: 00
    +4
    Does the author plan to illuminate modern methods of protection against all those misfortunes that he described? And then I vividly remembered my OZK and classes on protection against WMD.
    1. Bongo
      8 December 2016 03: 51
      +3
      Quote: Dekabrist
      Does the author plan to illuminate modern methods of protection against all those misfortunes that he described? And then I vividly remembered my OZK and classes on protection against WMD.

      No plans, do not exact. The topic of protection against weapons of mass destruction is very extensive, but even this publication about BOV by the standards of the site was read by very few. I’m afraid that the majority of readers are not interested.
      1. romandostalo
        romandostalo 8 December 2016 04: 35
        +3
        And you do not worry, those who are not interested here and do not go, they are in the neighboring sections, shame, give!
        1. Bongo
          8 December 2016 05: 00
          +3
          Quote: romandostalo
          And you do not worry, those who are not interested here and do not go, they are in the neighboring sections, shame, give!

          So I especially do not worry. But the topic of protection against WMD is indeed interesting to a narrow circle. Moreover, it can be found in textbooks on civil defense.
          I began to write after I was tired of reading the comments of "hurray-patriots". Not only did most of them not serve in the armed forces, judging by the statements, but also the technical literacy is near zero. There is not enough time for everything and therefore I prefer to write about what will be interesting to many.
          1. engineer74
            engineer74 8 December 2016 06: 31
            +4
            Thank you, very informative article! good
          2. Dekabrist
            Dekabrist 8 December 2016 09: 55
            +6
            Yes, the site is gradually coming under the control of hamsters and military data. Here you are right. Or to process a large amount of material and an article will be read by a person twenty to thirty, or to quote the next revelation of a Ukrainian politician - and hamsters with twigs in gardens.
  8. mr.redpartizan
    mr.redpartizan 9 December 2016 00: 43
    0
    Why does the article say nothing about nerve gases created in the framework of the Novichok program in the USSR in the 80s? These CWA are about ten times more toxic than VX gas, but production has not begun. There is almost no information on them on the network. Not a word about the favorite weapon of the special services - ricin. And so the article is informative, many thanks to the author good
    1. Bongo
      9 December 2016 02: 49
      +2
      Quote: mr.redpartizan
      Why does the article say nothing about nerve gases created in the framework of the Novichok program in the USSR in the 80s?

      Because the speech in the publication was about the substances adopted for service. If we describe all the groups of poisons for which research was conducted, then this is the volume for a full-fledged book. How many people at VO are interested in? In addition, there is practically no open information regarding the Novichok program.
      Quote: mr.redpartizan
      Not a word about the favorite weapon of the special services - ricin.

      Ricin is not a BWA; it is not suitable for use in the field. In addition, although it is affordable, it is not the most effective poison for covert operations.
      Quote: mr.redpartizan
      And so the article is informative, many thanks to the author

      Thank you for your kind words! The purpose of this publication was not even a description of OWL, but the debunking of some myths concerning it. hi
  9. alatanas
    alatanas 13 December 2016 11: 00
    +1
    Good article. The so-called psychotropic substances must be added to the BOV, which are not literally poisonous, but their action deprives the enemy personnel of the ability to conduct military operations.
    1. Bongo
      13 December 2016 13: 30
      +1
      Quote: alatanas
      The so-called psychotropic substances should be added to the BOV, which are not literally poisonous, but their action deprives the enemy personnel of the ability to conduct military operations.

      The substance known under the designation BZ just belongs to this group.
  10. Ice
    Ice 21 December 2016 01: 48
    0
    Why didn’t the Germans use BOV?
    I read somewhere that supposedly the British threatened to apply in return if the Germans used against the USSR ...