Military Review

Civil Awards: Northwest Army

50
There is an opinion that a historian or just a person who makes a judgment on a difficult historical question should refrain from extreme assessments. This is considered to be quite fair in relation to wars. Touching the bloody mess of the past must then imagine himself as such Abadon, a pale demon-murderer, about whom Bulgakov Woland says that "he is extremely impartial and equally sympathizes with both parties to the battle."


In reality, however, very few people succeed. And how is it even possible for a person to remain insensitive to what interests him vividly? Partiality here is completely natural and normal, as is normal and natural love for one's homeland, and not a tendency to look at the bare facts of her barely perplexed stories.

The author found it necessary to speak about it now, because in the future he intends to touch on the topic of an extremely delicate - the beginning of the Civil War in Russia. XX century. And, let the conversation, as usual, go about military awards, the author will not succeed in avoiding evaluative judgments about politics and individual personalities.

Let's start with the White movement, specifically with the awards of the North-Western Army.

After the October Revolution 1917, the Bolsheviks, who came to power in Petrograd, began a vigorous campaign to destroy the remnants of the former imperial statehood. In particular, the Chapter of the Russian orders was liquidated one of the first decrees of the new government (from 16 December 1917), the rewarding with crosses and medals sacred by many generations of officers and soldiers was stopped, and the “orders and other insignia” themselves were abolished.

The reaction of the Russian officers is not difficult to understand. Although it was impossible to organize an armed demonstration in the capital in the atmosphere of the post-October terror. Therefore, the future leaders of the counter-revolution and ordinary White Guards, who managed to avoid arrest or get out of the dungeon among the general confusion, rushed to the outskirts of the crumbling Russian state.

The path of one of them, General of the Tsarist Army Nikolai Yudenich, in the winter of 1919, lay in Helsingfors, on the territory of Finland, after the Bolshevik coup in the metropolis, which declared itself an independent republic, and soon even a kingdom. By that time the fratricidal war had already ended here, bringing victory to the White Finns.

The general who had made his way into the new monarchy received a rather cold reception. The Finns even earlier allowed themselves to host the organization of the Russian Committee, which now declared Yudenich a national leader with dictatorial powers, but did not want, like other states that recently appeared in the Baltic, to take too active part in the return of the old order in Russia, not without reason that so they dig up the grave of unexpectedly found sovereignty.

Nevertheless, Yudenich, using among his absolute authority earned by victories over the Turks in 1915 – 1916 as commander of the Caucasian army, tried to turn the tide. He led tense negotiations with the Finnish regent Karl Mannerheim, traveled to Stockholm to ask for support from his former allies on the Entente, disguised imperial aspirations with deliberately anti-Bolshevik rhetoric, wrote in the Russian-language Helsinki newspaper Severnaya Zhizn: . The guard has no political program. It is not monarchical, and not republican. As a military organization, she is not interested in political party issues. Her only program is down with the Bolsheviks. ”

But all the efforts to legally form a new Russian army in Finland went to pieces: both the Finns and the Western allies were far more profitable than another Russia, wild and barbaric, long withdrawn from the geopolitical game of bloody civil strife and terror against their own people. Then Admiral Alexander Kolchak, who was called the Supreme Ruler of Russia, in the beginning. On June 1919, by telegram, informed Yudenich of his appointment as "the commander-in-chief of all Russian land, naval armed forces against the Bolsheviks on the North-Western Front."

Civil Awards: Northwest Army


Taking command and inspecting front-line units, Yudenich briefly returned to Helsingfors in his last attempt to persuade the Finns to give him a helping hand from the Karelian Isthmus, without which the attack on Petrograd seemed almost hopeless. When that failed, at the end of June, the commander-in-chief arrived in Revel, where he was closely engaged in preparing a bold operation, which, carried out in the past, and against some Turks, could well bring him the first degree of the Order of Saint George (three white enamel the cross of the general already had).
The reason that prevented Yudenich from becoming the fifth in the series of full St. George Cavaliers in the entire history of the order’s existence was not in him, but in those who executed, or rather, did not carry out his orders. What was the notorious North-Western Army?

Its backbone consisted of the Pskov Corps (the name was changed several times) of a very small number, formed in October 1918 in the German-controlled territories of the Baltic and North-Western Russian regions occupied by the German army as a result of the offensive and the separate Brest peace. This compound was almost half made up of volunteer officers, former prisoners of war and a certain number of “red” deserters and mobilized local residents. Cavalry-General Fedor Keller, a staunch monarchist, known for his harshness in suppressing the rebellious Poles, was to lead the corps, for which they more than once attempted to kill his life. In the First World War he served as commander of the 3 of the cavalry corps.

But on the way from the south of Russia, Keller was forced to stay in Kiev, overlaid by the Petliurists, whom he tried to fight back, promising, moreover, “in two months to raise the Imperial standard over the holy Kremlin.” Keller’s monarchist and statist views quickly turned the hetman Pavel Skoropadsky’s nationalist Kiev government against him. The general was removed from the city’s recently given leadership of the city’s defense, and on December 14 1918, Kiev was taken by Petlura’s scum. Gathering three dozen officers and cadets, Keller with a swift attack knocked out the invaders, advancing along the Khreshchatyk, from Dumskaya Square, renamed by nationalists of another era to Maydan Nezalezhnosti, but then seeing the futility of further struggle, he withdrew his detachment to the Mikhailovsky Monastery, where he offered all former to remove his epaulettes and hide, while he himself, with two loyal officers, waited for the inevitable fate.

When the golden-headed head of Kiev suddenly poured a violent rampart,
Count Keller, the knight of Russian glory, did not seek escape in flight.

He rejected all the offers, did not take off any hats or shoulder straps:
"I went to battle a hundred times and saw death," he replied.

Well, could he remove the victorious cross, that he should always be on it,
To part with the cap of the reserve, given to him by the King? ..

Murderers of a gang of savagery broke into a peaceful monastery.
He came out to meet them boldly, an epic Russian hero.

They calmed down, subdued bastards. Their burned and tormented bright eyes,
They are ashamed, and they are no longer happy to execute the sentence.

Accompanied by the villains left the graph last shelter.
With him - the noble Panteleev and the faithful captain Ivanov.

Around night reigned mute. Covered in white veil,
A horse over the precipice, heaving, stood Khmelnitsky, as if alive.

Visually to the motherland of the beloved, at the time of the rampant dark forces,
He is about the One - Indivisible in contrast to them spoke.

Before this gang of prisoners, creating an Orthodox cross,
Count Keller rose to his height gigantic, giving his life for the King.

So as not to meet him in his eyes, by chance, even in the night,
Cowardly of all having finished behind, executioners fled from the bodies.

Morning shimmered. The trail is bloody alel on snow silver ...
Thus died the knight of Russian glory with the last thought of the Tsar.


The author of this artistically unpretentious, although factually correct text, Peter Shabelsky-Bork in March 1922, arranged a shooting at the Berlin Philharmonic Society, trying to finish off a lecture by Pavel Milyukov; nine people were injured, but the leader of the cadets was not injured. But at the same time he was killed, even by another "shooter", another well-known cadet, Vladimir Nabokov, the father of the famous writer, who tried to snatch weapon from the hands of the future author of "The Knight of Glory". Coming out of a German prison under an amnesty in 1927, Shabelsky-Bork began poems with a sample of which we had just read, then became fascinated by Nazism, received a pension from the Nazis who came to power in Germany and, like other small Hitler henchmen, safely emigrated after the war in Germany Argentina.

But back to our story. Long before Yudenich led the North-Western army, in the beginning. November 1918, German aid to Russian volunteers ceased due to the revolutionary events unfolding in Germany itself and its withdrawal from the war. The Germans hurriedly left the areas occupied by them, where the Bolshevik detachments immediately rushed. The few white forces, abandoned to the mercy of fate, tried to keep Pskov behind them, but were knocked out by the red and fled to Estonia in a panic, subsequently taking part in its defense.
13 May 1919 reformed the five-thousandth Northern Corps launched an unexpected offensive near Narva, broke through the defenses of the Soviet Army 7 and quickly advanced further, bypassing Yamburg, which fell on May 17. A week later, the whites regained Pskov, went to the approaches to Luga, Ropsha, Gatchina. Impressed by the initial success of the corps, its then commander, General Alexander Rodzianko, established an 10 July order to cross the 13-th May 1919 cross - “a gilded white enamel cross with identical sides (39 mm), along both sides of which there is an inscription in Golden Slavonic script: "13 MAY 1919 ″." The award was worn on a round rosette of national colors on the left side of the chest.



Soon, however, the forces of the White Guards were exhausted. Meanwhile, the Red Army pulled up reserves and, in the course of the ensuing counterattack, took both Pskov and Yamburg back.

Now the Western Allies considered it timely to strengthen Yudenich’s army. Back in July, they supported the Russian commander-in-chief in the intention to transfer to the Petrograd direction the Pavel Bermont-Avalov pro-German Western Volunteer Army, located in Courland. True, this brave adventurer had completely different goals in the Baltic states. Only part of his troops crossed the sea to Yudenich, while the rest, up to fifty thousand, whose absence soon affected the main front, unsuccessfully stormed Riga, so the English the fleet instead of supporting Yudenich, I had to take part in its defense on the side of the Latvians.

Bermont, a scoundrel who squandered the forces imprudently entrusted to him, nevertheless managed to establish an award - the cross of the Western Volunteer Army. Here is its description: "The Maltese cross of white metal, covered with black matte varnish or black enamel, size 51 mm, worn on the left side of the chest on the screw. This cross was called the Order and had two degrees. The military were awarded a cross with swords, and civilians without swords. ” The cross of the I degree “was worn on the neck on a black ribbon with a border: on the one hand Russian national colors (white-blue-red), and on the other - Germanic (black-white-red). When worn around the neck - the German colors are at the top, the same when wearing the second degree on the chest with a bow. " Cross II degree, smaller, worn with a bow on the chest.



German volunteer units that were part of the Bermontov army had their own award badge, the Baltic Landwehr cross was “a black iron rectangular cross, on which a smaller, smaller gilt cross was laid, having gilded lilies at its four ends”.



While the former enemies, Russians and Germans, were treading in front of impregnable Riga, the North-Western army, only part of which had normal equipment and full armament, which did not reach even twenty thousand, on October 10 launched a decisive offensive. At first, it developed extremely successfully, and Petrograd, which was dying of hunger, remained, as they say, within reach. The troops reigned extraordinary rise.

Although higher-ranking commanders, division commanders and “atamans”, such as the punitive Pole, the future General of the Polish Army Stanislav Bulak-Balakhovich, who terrorized the Russian population with his flying squad, during the years of post-revolutionary division in the country, they no longer considered discipline and subordination. They wanted to assign each person the honor of liberating North Palmyra from the Bolsheviks and therefore ignored the orders of the commander-in-chief on the ground, having no idea about the general situation at the front.

On the contrary, having recovered from the initial shock, the Reds restored order in their rear with great measures. Communists and Komsomol members were mobilized, thousands of women were forced to build street barricades. October 17 to the workers and the Red Army appealed with appeal Vladimir Lenin.

“Comrades! The decisive moment has come. The tsarist generals once again received supplies and military supplies from the capitalists of England, France, and America. Once again with the gangs of landowner sons they are trying to take Red Peter. The enemy attacked in the midst of negotiations with Estonia about peace, attacked our Red Army soldiers who believed in these negotiations. This traitorous nature of the attack explains, in part, the quick success of the enemy. Taken Krasnoe Selo, Gatchina, Vyritsa. Two railways to Petersburg were cut. The enemy seeks to cut the third, Nikolaevskaya, and the fourth, Vologda, in order to take Peter by hunger. ”

Five days later, in a letter to Leon Trotsky, the Bolshevik leader used a more natural rhetoric:

“To finish with Yudenich (to finish off exactly - to finish) to us is devilishly important. If the offensive is launched, is it possible to mobilize thousands more St. Petersburg workers 20 plus thousands of bourgeois 10, put their machine guns behind them, shoot a few hundred and achieve a real mass pressure on Yudenich? ”

And to achieve such pressure soon succeeded. By concentrating much more superior forces against whites, partly even abstracting from the struggle in the south with Anton Denikin, the Red Army defeated the White Guards, who for some time resisted with the courage of despair, in stubborn battles.

General Yudenich wrote in those days to the Estonian commander-in-chief:

“The red forces are stubbornly attacking and in places squeezing parts of the army entrusted to me, especially from Gdov. The troops are extremely tired of continuous battles. In the extremely narrow space between the front and the Estonian border - in the immediate rear of the troops all the transports, reserve, prisoners, refugees gathered, which to the utmost constrains the maneuvering of the troops, the slightest failure can create panic in the rear and lead to a catastrophe and the death of the whole army. It is necessary to transfer all the rears to the left bank of the Narova not later than tomorrow. I foresee the possibility and even the inevitability of a further withdrawal of the army, which may cause conflict if the border of Estonia is crossed. In order to avoid the inevitable death of the army, I ask you not to refuse immediately to take under your command the army entrusted to me and assign it a sector in common with the troops entrusted to you. I ask you to report my request to the Estonian government on accepting the North-Western army under the auspices of Estonia. For negotiations, commanding General Rodzianko. "

Last year’s story repeated: whites, demoralized by defeat, retreated everywhere and tried to hide outside Estonia. However, the political situation has changed: the Estonian government now wanted a speedy peace with the Bolsheviks, and this time the volunteers were not waiting here for rest and re-formation, but internment, hunger and typhoid, which claimed the lives of several thousand soldiers.

The same situation reigned in those days throughout the Baltics. Here is a characteristic excerpt from the Secret Report of the North-Western Front on the Situation of Russians in Estonia:

“Russians began to be killed right on the street, locked up in prisons and concentration camps, and generally oppressed in every possible way by any means. Refugees from the Petrograd province, the number of which was more than 10 000, were treated worse than cattle. They were forced for days to lie on the bitter cold on the railroad sleepers. A lot of children and women died. ”

January 22 1920, the Northwest Army officially ceased to exist.

In memory of her, there was a sign of the veteran North-Westerners Association, which in a reduced form repeated the chevron, which participants of the unsuccessful march wore on their sleeves, “a gilded triangular shield — a chevron of national colors, in the red field of which there is a white cross. On the sides of the cross are golden letters “S. Z. ", and at the top of the same gold date:" 1919 ". The size of the 2 mark on 2 cm.



The veterans of the 5 th "Livonian" division, so named after their first commander, the Most High Prince Colonel Anatoly Leven, wanted to have their own memorial sign - "a gilded cross of white enamel, with two golden swords turned down. In the middle of the cross there is a shield, forms of stamp, national colors: white-blue-red, on it is the golden letter “L” and the memorable date “1919”. The shield is crowned with a gold crown. The size of the 2 mark on 2 cm.

“The Old Man” Bulak-Balakhovich also subsequently established for his squad a special “Cross of the Brave” - “white metal, form of St. George, covered with white enamel, size 35 on 35 mm. In the center of the cross there is a stamped round medallion of oxidized silver, on which a dead head is depicted above a crossed sword and torch. ” As you can see, the taste of the Polish "father" was absent just as fear and conscience.
Author:
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  1. timyr
    timyr 4 December 2016 07: 01
    +5
    Yeah, that’s not worth helping the Balts in the war against the Reds. The only honest man to be regretted in this whole company, who until the end kept the oath of Count Keller.
    1. baudolino
      baudolino 4 December 2016 10: 05
      +3
      There were many honest ones. But in troubled times, organizing something is a very difficult task.
    2. Caretaker
      Caretaker 4 December 2016 12: 41
      +2
      Yeah, that’s not worth helping the Balts in the war against the Reds ...

      Finns were not worth the help either.
      And it was not worth helping the Poles and the Japanese.
      Collaborate with the Nazis in WWII, too, was not worth it ...
  2. V.ic
    V.ic 4 December 2016 07: 44
    +3
    Nikolai Nikolaevich caught up with fear! The Bashkir units, which had surrendered to the red, were urgently transferred to Petrograd against the whites. "The demon of revolution" Trotsky, with a firm hand, put things in order in St. Petersburg, correcting the mistakes of the deserted Grishka Zinoviev. In the conditions of the overwhelming superiority of the "Reds", who, moreover, made peace with the "Estonian Republic", they did not leave Yudenich, in spite of all his talents, no chance of success. Read Kuprin's "Dome of St. Isaac of Dalmatia".
  3. igordok
    igordok 4 December 2016 08: 08
    +8
    There are so many words of praise about "white and fluffy" Yudenich. And Bulak-Balakhovich is mentioned only twice.
    I've already told you. When in the pioneer age they were patronizing the elderly, I remember the words of one granny. "The Germans (in 1941-1944) were angels in comparison with Bulak-Balakhovich."
    The film "Angle of Fall" shows that time.

    A week later, White regained Pskov,

    They didn’t return, but captured him in the back. Not whites, but Estonians. Pskov, Estonians handed over to Bulak-Balakhovich, but Pechory and Izborsk were left to themselves until 1944.
    1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
      ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 4 December 2016 11: 51
      +1
      You do not like the commander of the cavalry regiment of the Red Army Bulak-Balakhovich .... And he arrested General Yudenich in 1920.
      1. igordok
        igordok 4 December 2016 14: 30
        +2
        Quote: ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
        You do not like the commander of the cavalry regiment of the Red Army Bulak-Balakhovich .... And he arrested General Yudenich in 1920.

        He was the commander of the red cavalry in 1917, after serving in the imperial army. And at the time of the arrest of Yudenich, he went to the Poles betraying both the whites and the Estonians. Traitors, especially professional traitors - no one likes.
      2. Ham
        Ham 5 December 2016 12: 57
        +1
        I advise you to read "Retribution" by Ardamatsky, everything is written about Bulak-Balakhovich
    2. Hapfri
      Hapfri 4 December 2016 22: 49
      0
      The Germans (1941-1944) were angels in comparison with Bulak-Balakhovich. "

      Did the granny love the SS men from punitive battalions?
  4. Ham
    Ham 4 December 2016 08: 08
    +14
    Yudenich is the same executioner of the Russian, working people as Denikin and Kolchak ... I don’t understand why the authors when they write about Civil are always pushing for the numerical superiority of the Reds - in conditions when mass transitions from side to side are a common phenomenon, the numerical superiority does not matter a lot technically whites have always been better prepared
    1. captain
      captain 4 December 2016 10: 05
      +5
      Dear Ham,
      Quote: Ham
      Yudenich is the same executioner of the Russian, working people as Denikin and Kolchak ... I don’t understand why the authors when they write about Civil are always pushing for the numerical superiority of the Reds - in conditions when mass transitions from side to side are a common phenomenon, the numerical superiority does not matter a lot technically whites have always been better prepared

      As for the "executioner of the Russian" people, I think you got excited. Red Marshal Tukhachevsky gassed the Tambov peasants, he was, of course, your guardian for the peasants. And in 1962, during the suppression of the workers' protests, 68 people in Novocherkassk were clearly not killed by Yudenich. I can cite many more examples of the "kindness" of the communist government towards the peoples inhabiting the USSR. And regarding the numerical superiority, there is such a publication; "Civil War in the USSR". The title is, of course, a little silly, but it was published under Soviet rule, in 1986, like, find it if you wish. There are many interesting facts about the size of the Red and White armies. The numerical superiority in the Civil War has always been of great importance in any civil war, including in the United States. The preponderance reflects the opinion of the people, the people at that moment were on the side of the Reds. It was in 1991 that the people did not support the communists, apparently they saw the light or were tired of promises.
      1. avt
        avt 4 December 2016 10: 34
        +7
        Quote: captain
        The numerical superiority in the Civil War has always been of great importance in any civil war, including in the United States. The preponderance reflects the opinion of the people, the people at that moment were on the side of the Reds.

        good No professional military education in a civil war will give an advantage, it will only delay the time of defeat and add blood if your ideas are not mastered by the masses. The most striking example is Kolchak and what arose behind him in the rear, and even in such an extended territory with narrow arteries - communications, and almost one railway, a partisan movement.
      2. Cat
        Cat 4 December 2016 11: 40
        +1
        Again begins white, red. Yes, there will never be "white and fluffy in the civil war", sorry for the tautology. Everyone dipped their hands in blood, I repeat once again EVERYONE who stood on different sides of the barricades. And someone managed to fight for the whites and the red, and even the green. The most striking example of the Knight of the Order of the Red Star Ataman Makhno!
      3. Ham
        Ham 4 December 2016 12: 44
        +8
        Tukhachevsky "hounded" not the peasants but the bandits ... and in general if we compare the Tambov mutiny (and it was precisely the mutiny), for example, with the Siberian uprising against Kolchak, then in general Tukhachevsky turns out white and fluffy ... since the number of dead "peaceful peasants" (I almost wrote "onizhedey";)) there is no comparison with the real genocide that was launched by white generals and chieftains like Semyonov, Dutov, Krasnov ...
        and your brilliant propaganda passage about "68 people killed in Novocherkassk" in general, what has to do with the Civil is not clear
        and the people in 91 were deceived just such throats like you, the people already understood everything about the Kolchaks and Tukhachevskys
        1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
          ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 4 December 2016 13: 45
          +1
          Quote: Ham
          if we compare the Tambov rebellion (and this was just a rebellion) for example with the Siberian uprising against Kolchak
          The West Siberian (Ishim) Uprising of 1921-22 - the largest anti-Bolshevik armed uprising of peasants, Cossacks, part of the workers and urban intelligentsia in Russia in the early 20s. Flared up at the end of January 1921 in the north-eastern region of Ishimsky district of the Tyumen province, the uprising in a few weeks swept most of the volosts of Ishimsky, Yalutorovsky, Tobolsky, Tyumen, Berezovsky and Surgut districts of the Tyumen province, Tarsky, Tyukalinsky, Petropavlovsky and Kokchetavsky districts of Om Kurgan district of Chelyabinsk province, the eastern regions of Kamyshlovsky and Shadrinsky districts of Yekaterinburg province. In the spring of 1921, insurgent units operated on a vast territory from Obdorsk (now Salekhard) in the north to Karkaralinsk in the south, from Tugulym station in the west to Surgut in the east.
          In February 1921, the rebels managed to cut both lines of the Trans-Siberian Railway for three weeks, thereby terminating relations between Siberia and the rest of Russia. At different times, they seized Petropavlovsk, Tobolsk, Kokchetav, Berezov, Surgut and Karkaralinsk, Obdorsk. Researchers determine the number of rebels against the communist regime from thirty to one hundred and fifty thousand. Http: //www.encyclopaedia-russia.ru/article.
          php? id = 177
          1. Ham
            Ham 4 December 2016 14: 24
            +5
            again, who rebelled against the regime? simple peasants and workers? bye! "uprising" was a Cossack and not a "people's" .... rich Cossack women and Siberian kulaks did all they could to help the generals and chieftains to poison the working people
            essentially the same as in Tambov: fists and prosperous Cossack rebelled against the People’s power
            it was a class war - the war of the poor against the rich, that’s all ... there were many such rebellions (those who had something to lose under the new government) ...
            and a bunch of renegades always started them in order to preserve their personal benefits and privileges;)
            and the numbers correspond to the Tambov rebellion! look at how many people participated in the Siberian uprising (and there were other areas of guerrilla warfare, for example, Kovpak was the red partisan on Ukran, or the partisan movement in the Far Eastern Front, which the White could not suppress even with the help of Japanese punishers)) - this is really REBELLION and really PEOPLE ...
            and Antonovschina and the Ishim rebellion were precisely the rebellions of a handful of renegades who were temporarily able (often by direct threats) to win over part of the population ...
            that is why these and all other revolts were suppressed and the Siberian uprising washed away the "supreme ruler" and gave the whole of Siberia into the hands of Soviet Power
            1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
              ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 4 December 2016 15: 13
              +1
              One hundred and fifty thousand rebels is a bunch of renegades ?! And why do not Cossacks like the fact that they earned their labor and rebelled against the destruction of Russia ?! We know, we know sovets heroes ...Nestor Kalandarishvilia red partisan sent to prison by bloody tsarism for robbing and killing on the high road.Yakov Tryapitsyn-the commander of the red partisans who almost completely destroyed the city of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur.Smolyak V.G. In the wake of the Lower Amur tragedy. - Khabarovsk, 2009 Most of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur turned out to be burned by the Reds. After receiving the order, the partisans destroyed all public buildings and almost all residential buildings. Of the approximately 4000 houses in the city, no more than 100 survived.
              1. Ham
                Ham 4 December 2016 15: 54
                +2
                but Mr. Antonov (the leader of the Tambov rebellion) who was engaged in robberies and "expropriations", he is of course an angel only in his pants ...
                how many of those 150000 were there actually? even you name the numbers from 30000 to 150000 (what a rich field for all sorts of shenanigans and manipulations!) and the latter is clearly overestimated ... i.e. if we take the average, there will be somewhere 50000 active participants in the rebellion! on such a vast territory 50? it's even less than a bunch! It is very easy to capture cities when no one bothers you (how is this different from ordinary banditry, can you tell me?) but as soon as one combat-ready division of the Red Army came there, then the rebels (suddenly!) turned out to be much less than at the beginning (most of them just fled to their homes) and the "asset" was swept away to China and Mongolia, from where they harmed their country for a very long time
                the gangster gang is the finale of many "fighters" against Soviet power, read "Quiet Don" everything is written there ...
                1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
                  ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 4 December 2016 16: 09
                  +1
                  And 30000 is according to the most truthful data! Naturally, they don’t explain how the rebels managed to seize the vast territory. And your incomprehensibility towards A. Antonov, the socialist-revolutionary, the head of the sovetsky militia of the Kirsanovsky district, the best friend of the Bolsheviks is incomprehensible. He was fighting against the Russian Empire for socialism and the Sovietskaya Power !!!
                  1. Ham
                    Ham 4 December 2016 16: 43
                    +2
                    those. Antonov was an ordinary renegade who betrayed everyone and everything ... a true Social Revolutionary, a follower of Azef))) they themselves gave him a description, but for some reason you are pouring crocodile tears over Antonovism ...
                    Now I want to ask you, do you have at least one person in your pantheon who is not soiled over the ears in blood and betrayal?
                    1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
                      ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 4 December 2016 17: 36
                      +1
                      Where do I have tears for Antonov ?! It’s so-so-so: to fight against Russia together, and then a bullet in the back of the head, like Shchors, Mironov, Dumenko, Antonov ... Is it not your Sovetskaya power that gave them positions and orders ?! You are right about this: advisers are renegades. Your whole gang of revolutionaries is scorpions in a bank.Not all traitors are communists, but all communists are traitors.
                      1. Was mammoth
                        Was mammoth 4 December 2016 18: 01
                        +2
                        Quote: ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
                        . Not all traitors are communists, but all communists are traitors.

                        Quote: ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
                        It's so-so-so: to fight against Russia together

                        "Meli, Emelya!"
                        Or, anti-sovetski?
                        " A cross of the first degree “was worn around the neck on a black ribbon with a border: on the one hand, Russian national colors (white-blue-red), and on the other - Germanic (black-white-red). "
                        belay
                      2. Ham
                        Ham 4 December 2016 18: 03
                        +1
                        yeah ... declare the Socialist Revolutionaries Antonov and Mironov as communists in the spirit of stupid anti-Soviet ...
                        I look at you in political movements do not really understand? but you decide to judge serious things;)
        2. Hapfri
          Hapfri 4 December 2016 22: 52
          +2
          Tukhachevsky "hounded" not peasants but bandits

          Rather, he commanded the bandits
    2. SMS
      SMS 10 March 2017 14: 59
      0
      The executioners of the Russian people Lenin with Trotsky and Dzerzhinsky .... They came to power by organizing their October Maidan with the money of American bankers and the German General Staff. And Yudenich N.N. one of the best Russian commanders of the First World War! He conducted brilliant operations on the Caucasian front, which proves his rewarding with military orders of St. George II, III and IV degrees.
  5. Caretaker
    Caretaker 4 December 2016 11: 26
    +6
    Author: Maxim LAVRENTYEV
    ... What was the notorious Northwest Army?

    Its backbone consisted of the Pskov corps (the name changed repeatedly) of very small numbers, formed in October 1918 in the German-controlled territories of the Baltic and northwestern Russian regions, occupied by the German army as a result of the offensive and a separate Brest peace ... This formation was almost half composed of volunteer officers, former prisoners of war and a certain number of "red" deserters and mobilized local residents.

    But modern supporters of the "white movement" are still repeating the mantras about the "sealed carriage"!
    As a result of the joint offensive of Yudenich and Estonian divisions, Russia lost Pechora, Ivangorod.
    In 1941. they returned again, in the same composition. According to the recollections of local residents in the west, south-west of the Leningrad region, the Estonian punishers (1941-1944) were "worse than the Germans"
    Shabelsky-Bork took up poetry, the example of which we just got acquainted with, then became fascinated by Nazism, received a pension from the Nazis who came to power in Germany, and, like other small Nazi henchmen, successfully emigrated after the war to Argentina.

    Are grant-eaters really going to hang a plaque for him?
    Or are they supposed to hang Yudenich?
    1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
      ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 4 December 2016 12: 05
      +2
      Quote: Caretaker
      As a result of the joint offensive of Yudenich and Estonian divisions, Russia lost Pechora, Ivangorod.

      Russia was destroyed in 1917. The Communists signed on February 2, 1920 the Tartu Treaty with Estonia, giving Izborsk, Pechora, Ivangorod to the Chukhites ...
      1. Caretaker
        Caretaker 4 December 2016 12: 10
        +3
        Alexey Vladimirovich, as usual, you have a mess with dates.
        First, Yudenich helped the Estonians to seize these areas, and then Russia was forced to sign the St. George Treaty.
        1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
          ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 4 December 2016 14: 56
          +1
          Quote: Caretaker
          Yudenich first helped Estonians capture the listed areas

          Uhhh ...?! Infantry General Yudenich - Commander of the North-Western Front of the Russian Army of the Government of the Russian State. How could he capture something from himself? !!! Yudenich’s task is to free Russia from the communist dictatorship that occupied the country.
          1. Caretaker
            Caretaker 4 December 2016 15: 33
            +2
            Alexey Vladimirovich
            ... The task of Yudenich is to free Russia from the communist dictatorship that occupied the country ...

            Partially the puppet government of the north-west fulfilled its task. He transferred part of Russia to the greedy paws of Estonia.
            But following your logic, the Bolsheviks are to blame for this!
            1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
              ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 4 December 2016 15: 39
              +1
              Quote: Caretaker
              He transferred part of Russia to the greedy paws of Estonia.
              Let me see the agreement, where Yudenich transfers part of Russia to the Estonian paws? Here he is !!! Oh ... COUNCIL OF PEOPLE'S COMMISSARS OF THE RUSSIAN SOCIALIST FEDERATIVE SOVIET REPUBLIC - Member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the Soviets of Workers, Peasants of the Red Army and Cossack Deputies Adolf Abramovich Ioffe and Member of the Board of the People's Commissariat of Public Relations
              1. Caretaker
                Caretaker 4 December 2016 18: 00
                +3
                Quote: ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
                Let me see the agreement, where Yudenich transfers part of Russia to the Estonian paws? Here he is !!! Oh...

                Not Oh, but Plush.
                Firstly, agreements are concluded between the subjects, and the northwestern puppet government was the object. What agreements with Yudenich were simply taken away.
                Secondly, you cited as evidence not a contract, but "authority", a mandate, in other words. Good thing not a train ticket.
                1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
                  ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 4 December 2016 18: 29
                  +1
                  Quote: Caretaker
                  Secondly, you cited as evidence not a contract, but "authority", a mandate, in other words

                  Ay-ah, do not believe the mandate from the Council of People’s Commissars ... if you were caught in the Cheka, you would immediately know what Soviet power is ... with a bullet in the back of the head. Read:
                  RAHULEPING EESTI JA VENEMAA VAHEL
                  PEACE TREATY BETWEEN RUSSIA AND ESTONIA
                  2 February 1920 year
                  Yuriev (Tartu)
                  Russia, on the one hand, and Estonia, on the other, driven by a firm desire to end the war between them, decided to enter into peace negotiations and, as soon as possible, conclude a lasting, honorable and just peace, and for this purpose they appointed their representatives:
                  Council of People's Commissars of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic - a member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of Soviets of Workers, Peasants Krasnoarmeyskih and Cossack Deputies Adolph Joffe and the People's Commissariat of the Board members of the State Control Isidore Gukovsky and the government of the Democratic Republic of - Member of the Constituent Assembly Ivan Poska, members of the Constituent Meetings of Anthony Ivanovich Piip, Member of the Constituent Assembly of Mayt Aleksandrovich Pyuman, Member of the Constituent Assembly of Julius Yuryevich Selyam and General Staff Major General Ivan Genrikhovich Sots.

                  The designated representatives, having arrived in Yuryev, upon mutual presentation of their powers, recognized as drawn up in proper form and in full order, agreed as follows:

                  Article 1. From the day this peace treaty enters into force, the state of war between the contracting parties shall cease.

                  Article 2. Based on the right of all peoples to free self-determination, proclaimed by the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, up to complete separation from the state of which they are a part, Russia recognizes unconditionally the independence and independence of the State of Estonia and voluntarily and forever renounces any sovereign rights that belonged to Russia in relation to the Estonian people and the land by virtue of the existing state legal order, as well as on the basis of international treaties, which in the sense indicated here lose power for future times. From the former belonging to Russia for the Estonian people and the land no obligations arise in relation to Russia.
                  Article 3. 1. The state border between Russia and Estonia passes: from the Gulf of Narva, one verst south of the House of Fishermen on the village of Ropsha, then along the river Mertvitskaya and the Rosson River to the village of Ilkino, from the village of Ilkino one verst west of the village of Keikino , in a half-mile west of the village of Izvoz on the village of Kobylyaki, the mouth of the Shchuchka river, the village of Krivaya Luka, half-moon. Pechurki, the confluence of the three sources of the Vtroy river, the southern outskirts of the village of Kurichek with its lands, a straight line to the middle of Lake Peipsi, in the middle of Lake Peipsi, one verst east of Porka Island (Pirisar), then in the middle of the straits to Sallo Island; from the middle of the strait off Sallo Island to the middle of the strait between the Talab Islands and Kamenka Island, west of the village of Poddubye (on the southern shore of Lake Pskov), a railway booth near the village of Gryadishche, west of the village of Shakhintsy, east of the village of Novaya, lake. Poganovo, between the village of Babin and Vymorski, a mile and a half verst south of the forest house. (which is north of Glybochin), the village of Sprechtichi and the village of Kudepi.
                  Section 12. Regardless of the agreements established by Section 11:
                  1. Russia gives Estonia 15 million rubles in goldof which 8 million per month, and the remaining 7 million in the 2-month period from the date of ratification of the peace treaty. http: //www.stena.ee/blog/oldnarva/tartusk
                  ij-mirnyj-dogovor-kak-est-kak-prodavali-rossiyu
                  1. Caretaker
                    Caretaker 5 December 2016 20: 38
                    0
                    Quote: ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
                    ... The state border between Russia and Estonia passes: from the Gulf of Narva ...

                    So I am about the same. Ours could not drive away the Judenic-Estonian invaders beyond this line, they took it later. Although to whom I am reporting this, it looks like you have not updated the geographical map since 1920. Take a look at the modern, it will be interesting.
                    1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
                      ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 6 December 2016 10: 03
                      0
                      Quote: Caretaker
                      Ours could not drive away the Judenic-Estonian invaders beyond this milestone

                      Who prevented YOURS from defeating the invaders (the Northwest Army was already routed by then), Ulyanov and Bronstein? So the Communists signed an agreement with the invaders, and gave the Russian land, and even paid money! Unfortunately, your mistake is that you take the Bolsheviks for patriots. And this is not so:Lev Davidovich Bronstein in his "Bulletin of the Opposition" openly made statements such as: "But the independence of the united Ukraine means the separation of Soviet Ukraine from the USSR - the" friends "of the Kremlin exclaim in chorus. - What is so terrible here? - we will object, for our part. The sacred awe of state borders is alien to us. We do not stand on the position of "one and indivisible" "
                      1. Caretaker
                        Caretaker 6 December 2016 19: 27
                        0
                        Quote: ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
                        Who prevented YOURS from defeating the invaders (the North-West Army was already defeated by that time),

                        So the Northwest Puppet Army interfered.
                        They kept the territory in front of the Estonian border. Estonians disbanded them, but were allowed to enter the left bank of Narva only after the conclusion of the St. George Treaty.
                        Check the dates, re-read the article and the documents presented as evidence.
      2. Gardamir
        Gardamir 4 December 2016 13: 02
        +2
        Communists signed
        the communists, the communists ... And who forced the non-communists Putin and Medvedev in peacetime to give the sea to the Norwegians, the island to the Chinese, and now they are talking about consensus with the Japanese.
        1. captain
          captain 4 December 2016 14: 11
          +2
          Quote: Gardamir
          Communists signed
          the communists, the communists ... And who forced the non-communists Putin and Medvedev in peacetime to give the sea to the Norwegians, the island to the Chinese, and now they are talking about consensus with the Japanese.

          I don’t know which island you are writing about, but the Damansky was presented by Secretary General Brezhnev. And about Medvedev's dad and grandfather, based on his biography, Medvedev’s grandfather was one of the secretaries of the city party committee, dad is a professor, and taught "scientific communism". So Lenin's business was by no means lost, Comrade Medvedev very successfully disposed of the Russian land in his rule, although less than grandfather Lenin gave, but he had a hand.
        2. Hapfri
          Hapfri 4 December 2016 23: 03
          0
          And who forced non-communists Putin and Medvedev in peacetime to give the sea to the Norwegians, an island to the Chinese

          The border runs along the river channel and the channel changed ....
          The Communists did not bother to sign agreements with these countries on favorable terms after the war.
      3. Ham
        Ham 4 December 2016 14: 49
        +2
        ... and then returning to the whole Baltic ... but this is of course trivia
  6. Caretaker
    Caretaker 4 December 2016 11: 41
    +3
    Eternal glory to the Heroes of the defenders of Petrograd who fell in the battles for freedom and independence of our country 1919.
    http://www.lenww2.ru/index.php/region00/area28?id
    = 1876

    1. captain
      captain 4 December 2016 14: 13
      +3
      The victorious party erected the monument, not the people for their money, as an example, people erected monuments on the Borodino field for the money raised.
      1. Caretaker
        Caretaker 4 December 2016 15: 57
        +5
        .. The winner put the monument ..

        Right! On their land, people's power erected a monument.
        Nearby, the victorious side erected two more monuments to the Soviet soldiers who died during the defense of Leningrad in 1941-1944.

        In 1941 the Germans who had previously formed the puppet north-west army, the Estonians, the white-backed children, returned again. They were again defeated. There will be bits in the future!
  7. Gardamir
    Gardamir 4 December 2016 12: 58
    +4
    Minus article. Just because until recently there was the power of the people, and before 1917 and after 1991 the power of the masters
    1. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
      ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 4 December 2016 15: 24
      0
      Quote: Gardamir
      Just because until recently there was the power of the people

      and we saw portraits of this people !!! Composition of the Politburo of the RCP (b) - VKP (b) - CPSU
      http://histerl.ru/lectures/sostav_politbiro.htm
    2. Hapfri
      Hapfri 4 December 2016 23: 00
      +2
      Just because until recently there was the power of the people,

      This irreplaceable coden of bureaucrats-partocrats was the power of the people? The people had no influence on her.
      1. Gardamir
        Gardamir 5 December 2016 09: 21
        0
        the people had no influence on her.
        Wait a lot of influence?
  8. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 4 December 2016 15: 29
    0
    Partiality here is completely natural and normal, just as normal and natural is love for one’s homeland, and not a tendency to examine with bewilderment of the castrate the bare facts of her history. Deep and fair thought. I’m disappearing, but did you discuss it with the Great Historian of the present (if anything, he has Soviet crusts, Ph.D.), Shpakovsky V.?
    Well, and then everything: "crumpled tops." You are either about awards or opinions about higher matters.
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH
    ALEXEY VLADIMIROVICH 4 December 2016 18: 22
    +1
    Quote: Ham
    yeah ... declare the Socialist Revolutionaries Antonov and Mironov as communists in the spirit of stupid anti-Soviet ...
    I look at you in political movements do not really understand? but you decide to judge serious things;)

    It seems that the socialist revolutionaries did more for the 1917 revolution than the Georgian bandit Dzhugashvili or the wealthy landowner Bronstein. Suffice it to recall the Socialist Revolutionary Kerensky. However, later the Bolsheviks and the wacky
  11. leleek
    leleek 7 December 2016 11: 29
    0
    Latvians made the film "Guardians of Riga" based on those events