Military Review

Will the Type NNUMX and the LRASM RCCM relieve the British Navy of the No.26 problem - the lack of interchangeability? (part of 1)


In early November 2016, BAE Systems' CEO Anne Healy announced the launch and initial assembly of the Type 26 lead frigate at the Scotstown shipyard in Scotland Glasgow. The event is scheduled for the summer-autumn 2017 of the year. According to representatives of the Navy and the development company, the promising Global Warship should gradually replace the aging 23 Type, and, as the name implies, the new frigate project should be designed for broad participation in major combat operations in ocean theaters of operations, thousands of miles off the coast of Great Britain. The main purpose of the Type 26 GCS frigates, as well as their ancestors, the 23 Type, will be the reliable anti-submarine defenses of the naval strike groups of Daring-class air defense destroyers, as well as the AUG of the promising aircraft carriers Queen Elizabeth and Prince of Wales ". But besides effective PLO, these frigates will also have the ability to deliver a powerful anti-ship strike.

To this end, the Type 26 will be equipped with a universal built-in launcher Mk 41 for 24 launchers, with which the American low-visibility anti-ship long-range missiles AGM-158C LRASM ("stained" versions of the AGM-158B JASSM-ER), as well as anti-ship BGM-109B / E "Tomahawk" version. Range LRASM ("Long Range Anti-Ship Missile"), in the standard version of the "equipment" (penetrating warhead warhead weighing 454 kg or 1000 pounds) and the power plant, is 980 km. If the British Type 26 GCS frigates will launch these anti-ship missiles from the North Sea (off the eastern coast of Denmark), then the reach will fully cover the entire southern and central parts of the Baltic Sea, which are the main operating areas for surface ships and submarines of our Baltic fleet. If you significantly reduce the weight of the warhead of the missile (from 454 to 170-250 kg), it will be possible to increase the range from 980 to 1400 - 1700 km, which will lead to the emergence of a strategic anti-ship missile capable of reaching military targets from the North Sea in the Leningrad area.

In addition, such AGM-158C Block X LRASM variants can be used by the British fleet and to support their military contingent armed with MLRS MLRS in Estonia, as well as attacking air defense and PTB targets in Belarus (it is well known that LRASM possesses similar JASSM -ER parameters, and can hit ground targets). Plans to increase the range of LRASM anti-ship missiles became known from the English resource, with reference to unnamed advisers to the British Navy, who claim that donating a mass of missile equipment in favor of a longer range is a reasonable solution, because even a smaller mass of well-optimized warheads will allow for the destruction of a rather large surface ship of the corvette or frigate class. Moreover, the rocket can be equipped with a lightweight microwave electromagnetic warhead, which is capable of disabling shipborne radar and network centric communications equipment at a distance of several kilometers.

Anti-ship BGM-109B / E "Tomahawk" have a smaller range (up to 550 km) and a similar 454-kilogram warhead. The speed of the broken tomahawk can reach 1200 km / h (around 1M). For several tens of kilometers, the rocket rises to 100 m to confirm the coordinates of the target with the help of ARGSN, and on the approach, the height of the trajectory decreases to 2-5 m to reduce the risk of interception by the enemy’s air defense missile systems. In 2 km from the target, the rocket makes a slide with an anti-yen maneuver and rushes to the surface target.

AGM-158C LRASM and BGM-109B / E "Tomahawk" anti-ship missiles will significantly increase the flexibility of the CUG, in which Type 26 frigates will be present. But let's not forget that these missiles, even despite the ultralow radar signature of the first, are subsonic, and intercept them with the help of modern self-defense systems like Dagger / Tor-M, Kortik-M or more long-range Stiel- 1 "and" Redoubt "will not be difficult, because the reaction time and the minimum values ​​of the EPR goals for these systems are reduced and the minimum indicators, as they sometimes say," to the size of a bird. " What is worth noting yet is the number of RKs placed on the Mk 41. It is reported that the manufacturer of the system Sea Ceptor - MBDA, in conjunction with the American "Lockheed Martin", will unify part of the guiding cells of the UHFU Mk 41 with the CAMM (S) SAM. And the fact in which the ratio is divided 24-cell PU, - is still unknown. Based on tactical considerations, the LRASM and / or Tomahawks will be relegated from 8 to 12 cells, the remaining 9 or 13 cells will be upgraded to CAMM (S). But do not rush to flatter yourself about the small number of anti-aircraft interceptor missiles on Type 26 frigates, since the Mk 41 will be unified with CAMM missiles using the same technology as the RIM-162 ESSM missiles. What does this mean?

RIM-162 ESSM anti-aircraft missiles ("Eloved Sea Sparrow Missile"), designed to repel "star raids" of anti-ship and anti-radar missiles of the enemy, as well as enemy tactical aviation, can be used not only from inclined launchers of type Mk 29, but also from standard UVPU Mk 41. For this, Lockheed Martin specialists have seriously modified Mk 14. TPK cells. The internal channel width of the transport and launch container (launch cell) Mk 14 can reach 540 - 560 mm (width of the base of the hull 635 mm), and the diameter of the body of the RIM-162 ESSM missile launcher is 254 mm, therefore, specialists were able to install 4 more guides for these missiles in the standard channel of the cell, which increased the combat ammunition exactly 4 times carrier ship ESSM. The dimensions of the CAMM (S) family missiles are even smaller. There are two versions of these missiles - the standard CAMM (S) weighing 100 kg and a range of 25-30 km (developed by the British division of MBDA), as well as the long-range modification CAMM-ER (S) weighing 160 kg and a range of 45 km of the Italian division of MBDA.

The British version of the CAMM (S) has a shell diameter 160 mm, so that one TPK Mk 14 can accommodate 9 missiles of this type. It is over such a configuration of the Mk 41 that a joint group of engineers from Lockheed Martin and MBDA is now beating. And now we count. One 24-cellular UVLM the Mk 41 has 21 working cell-TPK (3 traditionally busy loading unit for recharging while in the sea), 12 cells occupied RCC LRASM or "Tomahawk" and more 9 cell - surface-to-air missile CAMM (S) in launching “packages” on 9 guides, we have a total of 81 interceptor missile of the “Sea Ceptor” complex, which is quite a good deal for the long-running self-defense of a large shipboard attack group. These are the capabilities of the Type 26 frigates attached to the universal TLU Mk 41.

Anti-submarine abilities of the promising "Global Frigates" "Type 26 GCS" are also not limited to the use of the MTLS anti-submarine tactical complex with the Stingray short-range torpedo. All weather for PLO here makes all the same Mk 41 VLS. With this launcher, ASROC anti-RUM-139 VLA anti-submarine guided missiles are unified. The range of this PLUR reaches 28 km, which is 3,5 times more than the British Stingray torpedoes. But the unification of the launcher alone is not a sufficient measure for the use of RUM-139 VLA from the onboard Type 26 frigates, since this PLUR is “sharpened” under the management of sonar AN / SQQ-89 hydrosystem stations integrated into the IGIS hydroacoustic station missile cruisers URO "Tikonderoga" and destroyers URO "Arley Burke". Initially, reprogramming will be required for a new CUI of a British frigate.

For the simultaneous equipping of the MK 41 frigates of the UHFU “GCS” frigates with three types of missile armament of the entire 21 cell of the Mk 14 cell is clearly not enough: the ship will get problems with the rapid depletion of ammunition. For example, if 8 TPK will be reserved for LRASM, and 8 - for PLUR RUM-139 VLA, then the total 5 units will remain for the CAMM (S) SAM, and that is all - 45 missiles. If, however, missiles with an extended CAMM-ER (S) range will be used, which cannot be fitted over the 14 in the Mk 7 constructively, then the ammunition for the near missile defense system will not exceed the 35 missiles, which is extremely insufficient.


To eliminate the flaw, the Global Combat Ship program, which began in 1998, envisages the development of three modifications of the Type 26: the ASW anti-submarine frigate (GP) "General Purpose"), as well as the anti-aircraft / anti-missile defense frigate "AAW" ("Anti-Aircraft Warfare"). Each of the modifications will be equipped with a certain list of weapons. So, for example, onboard the ASW version will be abundant with anti-submarine and anti-ship weapons, for the CAMM (S) anti-aircraft missiles, on the contrary, the minimum number of TLCs Mk 14 will be set aside. Also, this version of the frigate will receive all the active-passive sonar systems necessary for the anti-submarine defense, including the Type 2087 GAS and a flexible, long towed antenna capable of bearing targets tens or even hundreds of kilometers from the naval strike force. In the ASW helicopter hangar a multi-purpose / anti-submarine helicopter of the Merlin HM Mk.1 type can be located.

The rotary-wing machine is capable of carrying useful / combat load up to 3100 kg, 30 infantry, 4's Mk.46 torpedoes or Stingray, Garpun / Exocset radar, or a modular radar station for viewing the sea surface mounted on specialized suspension above the open ramp of the cargo hold in a hemispherical radiotransparent fairing. “Merlin” can deploy dozens of radio-hydro-acoustic buoys in the 350 - 400 km radius from the frigate for the operational organization of the antisubmarine defense of large areas of the oceans and seas.

The frigates "Type 26" of general purpose (or "General Purpose") are multipurpose warships and will carry in the MUP 41 the UVPU similar to anti-submarine "ASW" ratios of rocket-torpedo weapons, but with a large number of anti-aircraft guided missiles for the Sea Ceptor complex . From the auxiliary information and combat units of this modification, it is possible to mention underwater and surface unmanned reconnaissance vehicles, high-speed surface boats for quick and secretive transfer of marines to the most intense areas of the theater of military operations, where the adversary's use of the popular concept of “restricting and prohibiting access and maneuver” takes place "A2 / AD". In such conditions, the approach of the “Type 26” to the coast controlled by the enemy is fraught with a massive strike with anti-ship missiles or other airborne missiles, which even the Sea Ceptor air defense system cannot cope with. And only unmanned small-size reconnaissance-fighting boats of the MAST type, and amphibious semi-inflatable boats will be able to approach the coast of a potential enemy in order to carry out sabotage and reconnaissance operations, or to find out the coordinates of well-disguised military installations. Hydroacoustic and radar tools for modifying frigates Type 23 General Purpose are similar to those installed on the other two versions.

The anti-aircraft variant “AAW” is designed to build a powerful anti-missile “umbrella” warrant for a ship / carrier strike group. In this version, everything is aimed at the implementation of the best anti-aircraft qualities. Virtually all Mk 14 cells will carry CAMM (S) anti-missiles, the number of which can reach 189. But in addition to these self-defense missiles, the Mk 41 British frigates will be able to accommodate long-range anti-missiles like RIM-161A / B (SM-3), capable of intercepting medium-range ballistic missiles at altitudes up to 245 km, as well as extra-long-range missiles for over-range interception missiles -174 ERAM (SM-6), capable of targeting to intercept the target at a distance of 240 and more kilometers. These missiles can be put into service with “AAW” frigates, but their effective use in anti-missile missions can be achieved only with the use of third-party target designation devices, including the American Arley Burk-class anti-aircraft missile system with airborne anti-aircraft missile systems AN / SPY-1D , other Aegis ships, or airborne aircraft of the type E-3D "Sentry" of the British Air Force.


The low effectiveness of the use of American Idjis interceptor missiles in the combat information and control system of the Type 26 GCS frigates of any modification is due to the relatively low energy capabilities of the Artisan 3D radar system planned for installation of the general ship radar. This radar complex has an instrumental range of the order of 200 km according to the typical “strategic bomber” type objective at an altitude of 10 km. The 0,01 m2 (low-profile CR) EPR order is detected at a distance of 20 km, which is 4 times smaller than the Sampson MRLS, and our tactical fighter-bomber Su-34 “Artisan” can be detected only from 65-70 km, when the latter, undoubtedly, already has time to release the X-6AD supersonic anti-ship missiles on the British XUG 31. In this situation, "Type 26" will be completely defenseless, even with an arsenal of the most sophisticated interceptors of the Standard-3 / 6 family.

In order to achieve decent missile capabilities, the Global Combat Ships frigates in the AAW version must receive the SMART-L radar integrated into the electronic air defense system, which has a standard tool range of 470 km and an extended 800 km radar. The passive phased antenna array of this station is represented by 16 receiving-transmitting modules operating in the AESA mode (67% aperture) and 8 receiving elements that only receive the signal (33% aperture), which is unique for passive HEADLIGHTS. The company “Thales Nederland” regularly improves its product, which allows each time to achieve more and more indicators for the detection and tracking of small-sized ballistic targets on the aisle. Therefore, the high anti-missile qualities of the “Type 26” with the Artisan 3D SARS simply do not dare to argue the language, its only plus is the capacity for linking the 900 routes of aerial targets.

Having assessed all possible ways of updating the surface component of the frigates of the British Navy, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of innovations, let us return to the Daring-class destroyers, which also have a solid modernization potential.

Here the situation is not as unambiguous as, for example, with Duc class frigates, since the 45 Type has a built-in vertical launcher of the universal type Sylver A50, which already today is capable of deploying MICA-VL missiles designed to repel massive strike with modern CRP But besides the A50 modification, there is also a more versatile A70 version, the length of the TPK cells of this UVP is 7 m, and therefore its internal configuration can be adapted to any types of American and West European attack and defensive missile weapons. Launcher A70 designed to equip the tactical cruise missiles, long-range "SCALP", strategic krylatymiraketami "Tomahawk" and SIC-version BGM-109B / E, ASM AGM-158C LRASM, surface-to-air missile interceptors and interceptor missiles RIM-161 / 174, as well as anti-submarine guided missiles of the type RUM-139 VLA of the ASROC complex.

Moreover, British Ministry of Defense sources have repeatedly published information that the British Navy Office and Admiralty have long shown interest in SCALP Naval missiles, which differ from the standard modification in 4 times the increased flight range (from 250 to 1000 km), and this says only that London had finally decided to change the rules of the “game” in the maritime theater of operations, changing the defensive concept to a shock one. And this, in turn, also says that in the future, all Daring-class squadrons that are in service with the fleet will be fitted with shock capabilities - the ships will receive the Sylver A70, and not the standard 48 transport and launch containers, and in the enlarged one - on the 72 TPK.

The combat capabilities of “Dering” will increase approximately by an order of magnitude. Not only will rocket ammunition increase by exactly 50%, the project's 6 destroyers will be able to attack enemy submarines at a distance of up to 30 km thanks to the use of ASROC, as well as to become a full-fledged structural element within the American EuroMAN program. First time in stories The modern navy of Great Britain, the ships of the "destroyer" class will practically eliminate the need for support from the frigates in terms of reliable protection against enemy submarines. For the first time in 45 years of operation, the functionality of the British destroyers 7 will reach the level of American destroyers of the Arley Burk and our TARK Peter the Great.


Summing up our today's review, at first glance it may seem that the changes in the naval doctrine carried out by the command of the British Navy and the Ministry of Defense, which today lead to a profound modernization of the armament complexes and the airborne avionics of surface ships, have almost completely eliminated all the shortcomings and gaps in the interchangeability issues classes of ships "frigate" and "destroyer". But not everything is so smooth here.

First, the ship composition of Duke-class frigates (Type 23) and Type 26 GCS will be able to enhance anti-missile potential only in terms of defense against certain types of supersonic high-precision missile weapons (PKR, PRLR, small-sized guided bombs, etc.), which will be achieved through the installation of a promising KZRK medium "Sea Ceptor". With regard to the protection of a ship order from high-speed ballistic and airballistic air attack weapons with ultra-low EPR, C Septor and CAMM (S) / ER (S) SAM will face a lot of technological problems associated not only with the characteristics of the antimissiles, but with the radar parameters detection stations and target designation.

Modern highly maneuverable warheads or airballistic missiles adapted to perform a wide range of tasks, including anti-ship, have an ESR within 0,01 m 2. An overview of the Artisan 3D radar, which detected them all from 20-25 km, will send a target indication to the frigate SUA in about 3-5 seconds, another 4-6 seconds will go to take a target to support the “Sea Ceptor” radar of the “Ceptor” radar and target CAMM missiles (S). Moving at a speed from 1000 to 1500 m / s, the ballistic target for these 10 seconds will fly another 10-15 km, being in 10-15 km from the defending frigates of the “AAW” type KUG. From this point on, the launch of CAMM (S) interceptor missiles will begin at a minimum interval of about 1 s. If a flying swarm of 4-flywheel rockets consists of more than 10 rockets, the Sea Ceptor of one frigate will not even technically be able to intercept all attacking elements of precision weapons and the CCG may suffer serious losses. But the attacking missiles can be 15, and 20, and even more.

Secondly, such reputable western resources as indicate that Artisan 3D can accompany targets that reach 3M, so that there are serious doubts about the effective countermeasures of the enemy's 4-ss and hypersonic missiles. Nor can the Standard-3 / 6 missiles deployed in the MU 41 frigates of the British Type 26 frigates be able to prove themselves unless there is a third-party target designation from the 45 Type destroyers or airborne radar systems. In short, these frigates cannot be considered self-contained air defense missile defense ships of the 21st century, and look decent only in anti-submarine or search and rescue operations. In terms of frigates in the Royal Navy of Great Britain, no interchangeability was achieved.

Among the 6 destroyers, the Daring class URO, on the contrary, will be achieved complete self-sufficiency in conducting military operations in the maritime or oceanic theaters of operations. “Type 45” will no longer need anti-submarine support from Duc and Type 26 GCS frigates. In the course of technological transformations of the surface component of the British fleet, only partial interchangeability is realized, which will become possible only at the expense of Daring-class destroyers. And the anti-ship and impact qualities of both NK classes cannot be considered high, as they were at the beginning of the XXI century, since the subsonic SC “SCALP Naval” and LRASM still remain extremely vulnerable to modern super-production shipboard air defense systems.

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  1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
    Andrei from Chelyabinsk 1 December 2016 16: 56
    I don't understand :))) What Tomahawks? They have been gone for a long time - the Americans cut the B / E into other modifications. Where did 9 SAMM missiles come from in one silo? I understand that they have a diameter of 160 mm, but this is for a rocket, and will they be loaded into the mines in a container, and will it have a larger diameter? And what is the range of these missiles? 25 km? Why then did they write about them that they cover up to 500 km2? This is a 12,5 km range. But it explains the presence of a "blind" radar - all the same there is nowhere to finish shooting, so why be upset before death ...
    In general, all this is strange
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 3 December 2016 12: 55
      "What Tomahawks? They've been gone for a long time" ////

      I mean, RCC Tomahawks? Ordinary continue to release. They were simplified: the case is made of plastic, the seeker is simpler, without IR, only by GPS. The cost has become less than a million apiece.
      1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
        Andrei from Chelyabinsk 3 December 2016 16: 10
        Quote: voyaka uh
        I mean, RCC Tomahawks?

        Yes, RCC Tomahawks about which is written in the article
  2. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 1 December 2016 18: 28
    Visually - handsome. Like a foreign car on the background of "Zhiguli". I won't say these words - I'm not a sailor ...
  3. Berkut24
    Berkut24 12 December 2016 20: 20
    "... the promising" Global Warship "should gradually replace the outdated" Type 23 "

    Something reminds ... The global destroyer Zumwalt broke down faster than the estimated time. Trump today promised to castrate the global F-35 program immediately after his inauguration.
    The Anglo-Saxon mania for something "super" and "global" for unrealistic money in the field of weapons is simply manic in nature.
  4. DeFalco
    DeFalco 28 September 2020 07: 30
    "And the anti-ship and striking qualities of both NK classes cannot be considered high, as for the beginning of the XNUMXst century, since the SCALP Naval and LRASM subsonic missile launchers are still extremely vulnerable to modern super-efficient shipborne air defense systems."
    Does the stealth of these missiles compensate for their subsonic speed? What air defense systems are they vulnerable to?
  5. The comment was deleted.
  6. DeFalco
    DeFalco 22 August 2021 13: 16
    "The British version of the CAMM (S) has a hull diameter of 160 mm, thanks to which one Mk 14 TPK can accommodate 9 missiles of this type. It is over this configuration of the Mk 41 that the joint group of engineers from Lockheed Martin and MBDA is currently fighting."

    First, what else is the Mk 14 TPK? You wanted to say - Mk 41, or what? Secondly, information about nine CAMM missiles in one cell? So far, 41 CAMM missiles can be loaded into one Mk 4 cell. The same as the ESSM. 9 CAMM missiles in ONE Mk 41 cell ?! The first time I've heard.