Military Review

Living history of the fleet, the legendary "Commune"

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Living history of the fleet, the legendary "Commune"



The issues of emergency and rescue work in the warships of warships and submarines were given great importance by Soviet military scientists. In the middle of the 30-ies of XX century, a theory was developed, and then by the end of the decade, devices were invented to rescue the crews of sunken surface ships and submarines

But few people know that the sailors of the Russian, then still royal fleet.

After the failure of the Russian - Japanese military company 1905, humiliated Russia tried to create a groundwork for a future retaliatory strike against the naval forces of the Mikado. The preparations went in all directions, the still bleeding wounds from the losses suffered by the Russian fleet due to the attacks of the Japanese warships were too fresh. Then, in the depths of the tsarist naval department, this project, the creation of a ship saver ship, was born.



The naval general headquarters seized upon this idea, which found its realization in the project of the engineers of the Putilov factory (1911 year), although there were still some good works submitted to the competition organized by naval sailors. The rescue ship “Volkhov” was laid in November 1912 in St. Petersburg at the Putilov plant, launched in November 1913, and in June 1915 entered the state of the Baltic Fleet, being in the class of transports. Noteworthy is the fact that during the launch of this catamaran ship, Princess Romanova in 1915 broke the champagne on the hull of this vessel.

It should also be noted that in the manufacture of body parts, unique in its ductility and toughness steel was used, the working formula for the production of which has sunk into oblivion. The current conditions of the hull of this ship, assembled in shipyards from Putilov steel, began long before the February Revolution, and now remain combat-ready - the iron structures of much later manufacture, which are installed on the rescuer, are deteriorating. After passing the sea test in July 1914, the St. Andrew's flag was raised on the ship, which meant that the ship was in the battle formation of the submarine division of the Baltic Fleet, where it was used as a swimming base. He was named Volkhov. According to its characteristics, the ship with a displacement of 3100 tons was 96 meters long, 18,57 meters wide, with an 8,40 board height of meters, and the draft was up to 3,65 meters. The hull is of the “catamaran” type, 4 of the main guinea had the power of lifting up to 1000 tons.



The first time the rescue ship was involved in combat crews in the summer of 1917, when in Åland skerries, the submarine AG-15 was raised, which sank in training exercises with an open hatch. The first combat lift of the sunk boat "Unicorn" was held on 24 September 1917, the rescue ship from the depth of the 13,5 meter.

"Volkhov" took part in the revolution and civil war, they say that the deck of this warship was washed in the blood of the royal naval officers who were put to death on board this catamaran. In its daily combat work, the ship continued to serve the ships of the RKKF, only the name was given to another, corresponding to the “Commune”. Already with the updated name, the rescuer took part in extinguishing the fire on the Snake submarine, organized the raising of the Kobchik ship and the boat 4 Krasnoarmeets, which sank under difficult weather conditions.

From the autumn of 1924, after the crew on the rescue ship was increased to 110 people, and before the start of the Finnish company, the ship was engaged in daily combat work, assisting surface and underwater vessels that had accidents and disasters. The results of their labor military everyday life include the rise of the British submarine L-55. The submarine was raised from a depth of more than 60 meters in a stepped manner. In the future, there were emergency rescue operations, such as raising a sunken sea boat border guard and tugboat CP-7, providing testing of new submarines and carrying out repair work on the ships of the Baltic Fleet. Closer to the beginning of the Finnish war, the Kommuna raised from the bottom sunken submarines Bolshevik, M-90, a launch-torpedo boat and a fighter that had fallen into the water.



Since the beginning of World War II, the Kommuna relocated to Kronstadt, and since March 1942, the 32 divers from the rescue ship have been serving the Life Road on Ladoga, lifting sunken cargoes, cars and military equipment. In total, during the war years, a lifeguard raised more than 100 sunken objects of the Navy and 300 objects from the national economy. All members of the crew of the ship - worker were awarded various government awards, all received the medal "For the Defense of Leningrad".

After the end of hostilities, the ship was engaged in repair and restoration work, only in 1954, a veteran of the Navy was able to embark on a “kapitalku”, during which the Dutch diesel units were supplied instead of the old German ones, which honestly worked.
1967 year was marked by the transfer of the rescue ship to the Black Sea Fleet, where the rescuer got its way, rounding the whole of Europe.

At the Sevastopol Marine Plant, the vessel was re-equipped into a carrier ship for studying the ocean depths, while at the same time it was given the functions of an emergency rescue vessel for lifting submarines and in 1973, the conversion was completed.

The Kommuna could have been equipped with ISAs (small rescue vehicles) that worked at depths from 500 meters, with the possibility of rescuing crews from 16 to 20 people.

The rescuer was equipped with over-standard equipment, which included two deep-sea search apparatuses of the Search-2 type operating at depths of more than 2 kilometers. In 1979, the rescuer was put up for the next repair at the Sevmorzavod, and in 1984, the Commune was removed from the USSR Navy as a warship for subsequent transfer to the USSR Academy of Sciences. But scientists refused to take the ship to the balance, and it was left to live out its age in the composition of the USSR Navy.
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  1. and1975
    and1975 24 January 2012 08: 20 New
    0
    the author and not ashamed of other people's articles aaaa? wink
    1. Smirnov Vadim
      24 January 2012 08: 37 New
      0
      Address - name the link where earlier this article was placed, if it is ..!
      It is unlikely that you will be able to do this, since this article was not previously posted. There are articles about this vessel, but these are other articles!
  2. and1975
    and1975 24 January 2012 08: 44 New
    0
    In principle, the information is similar everywhere. I saw similar publications on various sites where it is indicated about this ship, but I can’t say for sure how much they supplement with different information. smile
    1. Smirnov Vadim
      24 January 2012 08: 46 New
      0
      We must first think and check, and then argue that the article ... Naya!
  3. Civil
    Civil 24 January 2012 09: 03 New
    +6
    if only they didn’t turn in for metal, an excellent candidate for a naval museum
    1. 755962
      755962 24 January 2012 13: 04 New
      +5
      I join. And I completely agree. A unique vessel. No matter how it was like in that saying "What we have ..... pah-pah-pah
    2. altman
      altman 24 January 2012 20: 26 New
      +3
      it will serve the navy as much again! The day before yesterday there was a report about him! in excellent condition, they knew how to build Russian shipbuilders! smile
  4. Strabo
    Strabo 24 January 2012 12: 54 New
    +4
    They knew, knew how, understood and wanted to do something for the glory of the fleet. I would like this tradition to remain, and it’s sad that a century later they could not save Kursk’s crew.
    1. does it
      does it 29 January 2012 00: 02 New
      0
      (and it’s sad that a century later they couldn’t save Kursk’s crew.); if in the early nineties two rescue submarines * dive * were not sent for scrap, it’s possible they saved someone, because they not only could lie on the ground next to the sunken object, but and unload the reactor at a depth with the help of instruments to find out which compartments are flooded and which are not and if the survivors and take measures to save them and much more.
  5. Kars
    Kars 24 January 2012 15: 43 New
    0
    After the First World War, and then the civil and flooding of the fleet in Novorossiysk, there was a lot of work for such ships and Epron.
  6. Sevastopol
    Sevastopol 24 January 2012 19: 13 New
    +3
    our oldest ship, 97 years in service! I can’t even believe that he was still walking with the king!
  7. fedor
    fedor 24 January 2012 22: 50 New
    0
    The commune (Volkhov) was built in 1913 on the basis of the designs of the German "Volcano" and the Spanish "Kanguro" from the usual, for that time, ship steel on rivets, like all ships of that time, and the hull is well preserved because this ship has more For fifty years, there were no demagnetizing windings and the consumers were supplied exclusively with direct current. This ship lifted over 60 submarines and surface ships from the bottom of the Baltic Sea. The vessel deserved to become a museum of the history of the Navy and the emergency rescue service of the Navy.
  8. Drcoks
    Drcoks 24 January 2012 23: 03 New
    0
    Hmm, is this unicorn not a British sub? which our destroyers drowned three times and then lifted it? Or am I confusing something again?
    1. altman
      altman 25 January 2012 18: 18 New
      0
      no, the unicorn is a Bars-type submarine, and they raised the English L-55
  9. Yura
    Yura 25 January 2012 19: 40 New
    0
    After the failure of the Russian - Japanese military company in 1905, humiliated Russia ............ Author Sergey Lebedev. Why humiliated, even in Soviet times, they would have simply written Tsarist Russia. When I read such things, I’m just a beast of Chuvash, and it seems that a good article is not perceived. It is necessary to write more accurately.
    1. Kibb
      Kibb 27 January 2012 13: 58 New
      0
      Yes, because, and what else to call this defeat - only shame and humiliation